Our homeland and III anti-French coalition

Russia and III anti-French coalition

Third base anti-French coalition was signed on 11 (23) April 1805 Russian-English union contract. He was signed in St. Petersburg, the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Prince Alexander Czartoryski and HH Novosil'tsev (he traveled to the UK with a proposal Union) and the British ambassador Lord Gower.

Britain is our home and decided to make a coalition that will put an army of half a million. Our homeland has committed to put an army of 115 thousand, and then brought to 180 the number of thousand other troops had put Austria, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, and other likely allies. The British have pledged to support the alliance its fleet and money (paid for the war). For example, London has agreed to give 1 million 250 thousand pounds a year for every 100 thousand fighter. In addition, London has pledged to extend its commitments to Austria, Sweden, Denmark, Prussia, and if they are also in the year to go to war against France. According to the agreement, the Allies were going to seek the release of Hanover, the Netherlands regained its independence (it was supposed to back off and Belgium) and Switzerland (grow at the expense of Geneva and Savoy); restoration of the kingdom of Sardinia, complete clearance from the French and Italian were given guarantees of independence of the kingdom of Naples, Austria should Salzburg was to receive and im Breisgau in southern Germany and the land north of the river Po and the Adda in Italy. Article hidden both majestic powers pledged to contribute to the restoration of the throne of France's Bourbon, and the Netherlands — Ouran dynasty.

Then the coalition included several states — Austria, Sweden, Portugal and the kingdom of Naples. This alliance was very unstable, because between the allies had large differences. It was believed that victory over France would automatically resolve them. These tensions eventually led to the collapse of the Third Coalition.

Thus, St. Petersburg and Vienna have already started arguing during the development of the plan of operations. Austrian gofkrigsrat — court council of war Austrian Empire — first going to solve the problem of Austria — to strengthen the position of the South-Western Germany and Northern Italy. As a result, the military forces of Austria were defeated, most of them under the command of a leader capable of Austrian Archduke Charles of Austria was oriented to Italy. Although the coordination of actions with the Russian armies, it was decided that the main theater of operations will be in Central Europe.

The outbreak of hostilities caused a change of position of Prussia, who was going to remain neutral. Napoleon slowly transfer troops to the aid of Bavaria led them through belonging to Prussia areas, it has caused anger in Berlin. November 3, 1805 Our homeland and Prussia signed a contract on joint action against France.

But this diplomatic success could not rectify the situation at the front. Napoleon at this time the army was preparing for an amphibious landing in the UK in the north of France, and having received information about the actions of the coalition forces, rapid march did throw to the south and in the shortest possible time headed for Bavaria. Napoleon led troops to Bavaria earlier than 72000th Austrian army under the command of Baron Karl Mack von Leyberiha. So the Austrians in their own conceit did not expect the arrival of Russian troops: Austria came to the aid of two armies — led by Theodore Buxhowden (30 thousand people) and Misha Kutuzov (50 thousand people).

The Austrian army on September 25-26 defeat by the French army at the river Iller and began to retreat. By October 16 Napoleon surrounded the army of Baron Karl von Leyberiha Mack at Ulm, 20 October capitulated — 30 thousand people were taken prisoner, about 20 thousand people were able to escape, another 12 thousand were killed and wounded.

Russian troops remained with the superior French army alone. In addition, the independence of Kutuzov was limited to the instructions of Alexander's plans for Austria, in whose hands was to supply the Russian army. As a result, the strategic initiative to intercept Napoleon, he wasted no time and came, intending to repeat the maneuver environment with the Russian army. At that time, Russian forces were on the Inn River in Braunau.

The commander of the Russian Army General Mikhail Kutuzov decided to retreat from Braunau to Lambahu and Linz and go further to the east in order to unite with the army F. Buxhowden and Austrian forces of Archduke Charles and John. The withdrawal of Russian troops main force covered the 7 th rearguard under General Pyotr Bagration, he gained in this campaign a huge success. Between the rear part of the Bagration and the main forces was a separate detachment of Lieutenant General MA Miloradovicha, which was intended to strengthen the rearguard. When Napoleon came Oct. 29 in Braunau, Russian was not there. The march went down in history of world art of war as an excellent model of strategic maneuver — Kutuzov's army in October-November 1805 made a retrograde march maneuver length of 425 km from Braunau to Olmutz. With all of this Russian rearguard led successful fights — 19 (31) October 1805 at Merzbaha nearby town of Linz, the Russian troops for 5 hours successfully repulsed the attacks of the French Marshal Murat's cavalry. Then the fights were at the river Enns (October 22), the monastery of St. Florian (October 23) at Amstetten (October 24), the monastery of Melk (October 26), at St. Pölten (27th). Bagration and Miloradovich not allowed to kill himself, holding pressure of superior enemy forces.

Kutuzov professionally withdrawal of troops from the blow, but the Austrian command gave the order to protect the reinforcement in Krems and defend Vienna, this order was confirmed by Alexander. Kutuzov believed that this idea is disastrous, because the 8 th Corps Martha has moved to the left-saving value of the Danube, to cut off the Russian army, and on the right bank of pursuing housing Murat. He continued to own the maneuver. The Russian army ran across the Danube. October 30 (November 11) at the Battle of Krems army Kutuzov one hundred percent body killed Martha (the French lost five thousand men killed and wounded and captured 1.6).

1 (13) November Austrians Vienna surrendered without resistance, the case of Murat joined the Danube. Russian army again threatened environment. Kutuzov, saving the army, ordered the 6-7 thousand detachment of Bagration suspend the body of Murat (30 to 55 thousand people). The Russian rearguard joined the battle in 42 kilometers north-west of Vienna and north Shengrabena. Murat decided that this is the main army, and made a truce. Napoleon learned of this, immediately gave the order to storm, realizing that the Russian tricked Murat. The whole day 4 (16) of November there was a fight, a detachment of Bagration was surrounded but managed to break through the French ring. After a day or two remnants of his unit together with the main forces in Pogorlits. Kutuzov skipped a terrible plot in Znaim and arrived at Brunn, and then to Olmutz, which was the second Russian army and the remaining Austrian forces.

So Makar, Kutuzov tore Napoleon's plans to surround and kill the Russian army. Collected from Olmutz Austro-Russian forces, though not by much, but superior to the French army. In addition, from Northern Italy to the rear was part of the French army of Charles. It is necessary to consider the fact that soon had to go to war with 200 thousan
d army of Prussia, Berlin allied signed the convention but wasting time negotiating with representatives of the Russian and English.

Kutuzov offered to gain time to gather all the forces of the Allies. Maybe even move to Bohemia, further stretching the French Army communication by restricting the ability of the enemy command for throwing reinforcements. And only then start a decisive battle and defeat his army. But the Austrian headquarters called for the immediate battle. Alexander supported the Austrians, putting the execution of allied duty on the first place. November 20 (December 2) 1805 came the famous battle of Austerlitz ("Battle of the Three Emperors"). Here, the advice was not heeded Kutuzov — he suggested not to start difficult maneuvers (Austrian headquarters wanted to cut off the French army from Vienna) and do not go on the attack without knowing the placement of the enemy. On this sad day Kutuzov led one of the columns, which occupied Pratsenskie height in the center position of Russian-French army (it was 86 thousand people, and the French — 73 thousand). Alexander came to Kutuzov and gave the order to storm, leaving the heights. Russian troops were, the French immediately went on the attack and captured the heights in the hands of Napoleon was the main position, the center of Russian-Austrian army was broken. After that battle was lost — Napoleon defeated the left wing Buxhowden, then knocked on the right Bagration. Russia fiercely resisted, but were obliged to retreat. The kings and Franz Alexander fled from the battlefield before the end of the bout, Kutuzov was wounded and barely escaped capture. Russian-Austrian army lost up to 27 thousand people killed, wounded and captured, and a huge part of the 21 th — Russian.

Russia and III anti-French coalition

Ulm-olmyutsky march-maneuver the Russian army on October 25 — November 22, 1805.

The results

— Alexander put all the responsibility for the defeat on Kutuzov, he was exiled in the "honorable exile" — the military governor of Kiev

— Efforts to engage in a war Prussia were in vain. December 15 was signed in Vienna Franco-Prussian contract, it Paris and Berlin today guaranteed tenure each other and future territorial acquisitions. In Russia, only found out about the contract in February 1806.

— Austria left the coalition and December 26, 1805 signed a peace treaty with France in Pressburg, becoming its ally. The Austrians feared that Prussia having mobilized 200 thousand to join the French army and put under his control the whole of Germany. In Italy, the Austrians lost to Napoleon as King of Italy, Venice area, Istria (excluding Trieste) and Dalmatia, and recognized all of early French seizures. Bavaria Austrians lost Tyrol, right bank of Ina, Burgau and Lindau, and Passau and Eichstätt taken away from the Electorate of Salzburg. Austrian possessions in Swabia gave the principality of Württemberg. Constance Baden was also the land of the Duchy of Breisgau. The governor Franz II was obliged to recognize the monarchs of Bavaria and Wurtemberg titles rulers. All this has led to the fact that in 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved. In addition, Paris Vienna paid an indemnity in the amount of 40 million florins.

— Our homeland is not officially withdrawn from the war, but the coalition fell apart. Thus, the continental part of the kingdom of Naples, including Naples itself, was invaded by Napoleon. On this terrain French government formed a satellite state. Petersburg began to try to make a new anti-French alliance. A course of confrontation with France continued.

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