The development of modern heaviest intercontinental ballistic missile silo-based leads one of the largest military-industrial associations, located in the suburbs.
In the history of this company were the most groundbreaking missile projects. You can not hesitate, languid ballistic missile — worthy replacement "Voevode" — it will create.
In Russian the years of receiving the technical project for a new product to the rocket staging it in the mine for combat duty required eight years. Subject to funding and a decent boost rocket might work in the mine will be like in the old days, too, in eight years. For all this, as emphasized by experts at NGOs such problems which emerged in the development of marine missile "Bulava", their can not be in principle.
At the time, Russian designers went around rivals on the world stage completely around. None of the new U.S. strategic missiles in its combat capabilities far even come close to the very first version of the heavy R-36.
It is necessary to make a number of technical refinements. Work on the world's most powerful ballistic missile under the symbol R-36, also known as 15PA14, began in 1969. In 1975, she got on board. Next was carried out a number of important upgrades. In the end, operational missiles were placed 3 items. By Code START in these complexes were used missiles — PC-20A, PC-20B, RS-20V. By Code NATO — SS-18 — Satan 6 modifications. Americans took into account even minor modernization improvements, we — the most significant. The name "Satan" across the ocean was given the very first Russian missile R-36 (SS-20A). They say she was intimidating name for a dark color, which was painted in the body.
The R-36 belonged to the third generation. It as R-36M, had only alphanumeric index. Only the R-36M2, was admitted to the Strategic Missile Forces in 1988, became known as the battle naming "Governor." She was carried by the fourth generation, although in practice it was a very profound modernization of the very first of the R-36.
Worked on the project all the Russian alliance, but the main burden fell to the Ukraine, first in the "Southern", located in Dnepropetrovsk. Chief designers were alternately Misha Yangel and behind Vladimir Utkin.
Creating a rocket was very difficult. Of the 43 test launches of the first series, only 36 were successful. First test start "Governors" in the spring of 1986 ended with a severe tragedy. Rocket exploded in a silo launcher, which was destroyed by a hundred percent. Fortunately, there were no victims of human. Ultimately, the same "Voivod"Has become the most reliable rocket in the world. Her life at the moment officially extended to 20 years, can be extended to 25 years. This is a unique case. After the rocket is constantly filled with pretty brutal watery components of fuel and oxidizer. New generation "Governors" on their traits must outshine their predecessors facing at the moment on alert. Rocket Set in almost invulnerable underground mines. You can only hit them with a direct hit enemy missiles with a nuclear warhead. A burst of a few hundred square meters of mine for "Governors" is not terrible. Rocket starts even in the criteria fiery dust storm, accompanied by a nuclear explosion. Not creepy her a hard X-ray radiation or neutron fluxes.
In fact, it does not matter what the goal is achievable on the planet, it can fly at a distance of 11,000 km to 16,000 km, depending on the weight of the warhead. Maximum weight of the head of the rockets in the fourth generation — 8730 kg. For comparison: the South American ICBM silo-based "Minuteman-3" fly to a distance of 13,000 km, but with battle part of the mass of 1150 kg. Even the most powerful U.S. ICBM — sea "Trident" the latest versions — throws warhead weighing 2.8 tons to 11,000 km. All performance characteristics are projected rocket strictly hidden. But it is clear that they will eclipse the ability of today's "governor".
For different types of modifications and "Satan" were made different warheads. The most powerful — 25 megatons. Currently on duty are only missiles with 10 warheads, each of which contains 0.75 Mt of nuclear explosives of TNT. In other words, the total charge is equal to 7.5 Mt, which is more than enough to cause the enemy irreparable losses in the attacked area.
The head unit, which are arranged in the warhead has a strong armor protection. In addition, he is a swarm of distractions goals, creating a missile defense radar on memory sverhmassirovannogo strike. According to experts at NATO, such criteria is unrealistic to highlight the true warhead. Invalid target has now all nuclear ballistic missiles. But only in "Voevode" managed to make a complete identity with the physical fields and bogus military parts.
In the times of the USSR Strategic Missile Forces were deployed 308 complexes "Satan" in the 5 missile divisions. At the moment, Russia protect launchers with 74 missiles "Voivod. "By the way, even after retirement languid rockets continue to serve — in the civilian world. De-alerting of the R-36M were the converted into a commercial carrier rocket" Dnepr ". Using it on gallakticheskie orbit displayed about forty foreign satellites for various purposes. In one case, worked without problems rocket, Having stood on duty 24 years old, almost a quarter century.
In 1991, KB "Pivdenmash" developed a preliminary design of the missile complex 5th generation P-36m3 "Icarus." Did not work out. Now languishing rockets really the fifth generation, and do not make another modification in. It will be enclosed the latest scientific and technological achievements. But you have to hurry. From 2014 to begin the inevitable write-off even if reliable, but all the same of old times, "Governor."