In West Africa, there are people, who for centuries attracted the attention of scientists. This Fulani herdsmen. Where did the people on the continent with a light complexion, why are so many "civilized" where they learned knowledge, no one can say …
Indeed, the Fulani in Africa seem to be aliens. Scientists speculate that the whole way of life, all of its cultural values Fulani carried through contact with highly developed civilizations, but with what it is not clear so far …
Aristocratic appearance, proud bearing, become noble gesture in expression of feelings, a high level of spirituality that people create thousands of fairy tales, legends, epics, proverbs and sayings — everything in their life is not like the neighbors. Fulani language — Fula — considered the most promising language among all the national languages of Africa.
Fulani, in fact, African trendsetters, they created the famous Phrygian cap, hat, bell, peaked straw hat — hats shepherds. Is famous throughout Africa and women's hairstyle with a "rooster comb" of the finest braids, stretched on a special frame made of bamboo sticks.
As a confirmation of the theory of contact with highly Fulani peoples can be considered and their mysterious holy book, which is called the Book of the legends of the pharaohs and the Book of the Egyptian magicians. Perhaps the existence of this book tells about the visit of the "Proto-Fulani" in the Mediterranean and Middle East region, where they met with the tradition of the holy books? In general, more and more scientists agree that in ancient times, in the north-east Africa lived homogeneous population, which scientists call the "Mediterranean race of the contact."
A few centuries, scientists can not agree on the origin of the Fulani. The intrigue in this puzzle involved in the external difference from the Fulani neighbors Negroid: Fulani tall, with a reddish complexion and delicate features. Extraordinarily beautiful women are attracted to men figurines from the highest echelons of power virtually all African countries. Fulani are called descendants of the Roma, the sons of Roman legionaries lost in the Sahara, one of the tribes of Israel, and the famous linguist Meinhof generally considered Fulani Hamit, who came from Asia.
Legends of the time talking about the origin of the Islamization of Fulani from the Arabs, who, in order to pay the local pagans to Islam and marry their women. The famous French scientist Maurice Delafos thought they were descendants of foods referred to in the Bible. They, along with the boom-sosami invaded Egypt and settled in Cyrenaica. In the IV BC. e. their composition joined Jews expelled from Egypt, Ptolemy I Soter. Part of this ethnic group traveled to Morocco, and the other — in the present limits of Mauritania, where in the III century, founded the nation Ghana. It is in this African state, and the first time we meet with the Fulani.
It took three centuries Fulani to gain a dominant position among the local people and create their own state in these territories: Denianke — in the Fouta-Toro and Diallube — near the town of Masina.
Establishment of the State
Fulani were able to create such a powerful state that only one mention of their empire forced to tremble neighbors! Even the Europeans have the time to spare them. What was the impetus for this unprecedented civilizational leap? First, it is a genetic predisposition: Fulani, most likely, in ancient times was one of the highly developed societies, and second — their privileged economic status associated with animal husbandry.
The role of cattle in the lives of the people speak eloquently of their saying: "Cattle are superior to anything he was even more important than his father and mother," "When the cattle die, die, and Fulani."
Fulani with awe belong to their herds, they really know how to treat animals, breed them and take care of. Scott — a major achievement and the foundation of the existence of Fulani. In exchange for the products of Fulani cattle farming products are obtained from the neighboring peoples. In exceptional cases, you need the money, Fulani cattle are for sale, but sold as a rule, sick and old animals.
An enormous role in the life of the African people played Islam. He became a powerful catalyst in speeding up the social, political and economic processes in the life of Fulani. Apparently, it was the people need to have some guidance in life, and Islam is a very good job with this task: The Quran teaches us how to behave in all circumstances. Fulani, by the way, an Arabian traveler called "the true children of God," they are like no other nation that adopted this religion are different great rigor in the performance of rituals. Islam contributed to the political and ideological unification of the people. Thanks to him, Fulani in a historically short period of time achieved tremendous results.
The burden of revolutions
XVIII century has been very important in the life of the people, it was a period of prosperity. As a result of the revolution in 1725 in the Fouta Djallon was created: she gave a feudal and military state, consisting of the provinces under the control of the Imam-Fulani. Later in the Fouta Toro was created like state, which again was guided by the Fulani. At the beginning of the XIX century already in Masina Sheikh Amadou Barry created in Macina Fulani kingdom, which, thanks to careful management lasted the whole XIX century.
In 1776, all countries in the mountainous region of Fouta-Jalloh on, Futa Toro and the valley of the Senegal River were merged into one Imamate. At its head stood the leader of one of the Fulani tribe of Abd al-Qadir. The country was divided into provinces, known as E-Side. At the head of each of them were Fulani. There was a supreme council that oversaw all the governors in the provinces. The social structure was patriarchal-feudal character. As vassals of the rulers foot-dzhallonskogo states found many of the "kingdom" of the peoples of Gulf of Guinea.
Socially-foot dzhallonskoe society consisted of two main groups: the ruling of the Fulani and serfs, semi-feudal of the indigenous people of these territories.
In a state of dependence, and were members of the artisan castes: tanners, weavers, dyers, potters, blacksmiths, griots (musicians, singers, storytellers). Credit for the creation of a huge caliphate with its capital in Sokoto, a powerful empire fulbskoy belongs fulbskomu Muslim preacher Osman.
During the existence of the empire throughout has been cleaned up. After the death of Osman Empire began to rule his son Muhammad Bello. With him on the basis of the former independent city-states were created emirates.
Each of the emirs had before fighting squads, charged taxes from the population and was required to be with his troops at the first request of the Sultan. At the end of XIX century Sokoto was captured by Britain and became part of the British colony of Nigeria.
So, as a result of the internecine wars of conquest and the Europeans lost a powerful empire created by the Fulani. Now it is in these areas of the former powerful states have the highest concentration of this nation.
French colonial policy even later suspended the development of written language Fulani — Fula, as well as other local languages. But Fulani, unlike other nations, are very reluctant to come in contact with the French, so the French officials even had to learn the Fula somehow to communicate with the local population.