Sino-Soviet border (the Soviet-Chinese) in 1969 because of the conflict of the island on the Ussuri River, in which the 2 and 15 March 1969 there were battles between the Soviet and Chinese troops.
Lady? Nsky (Chinese exercise. ???, pinyin: Zhenbaodao Zhenbao Dao — word for word. precious island) — a small Chinese island area of 0.74 km? on the Ussuri River on the border with Russia, 230 km south of Khabarovsk and 35 km west of Luchegorsk. Prior to 1991 — the subject of China's territorial claims to the Soviet Union.
In the battle for Damanskii 58 Soviet soldiers were killed, 94 were seriously injured. For his heroism, four soldiers were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, Colonel D. Leonov and Lieutenant J. Strel'nikov (posthumously), Senior Lieutenant V. Bubenin and Junior Sergeant J. Babanskii. .
The memorial complex dedicated to the defenders of the island Damanskii (Dalnerechensk, Primorsky Krai)
After the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 there was a provision stating that the boundaries between States should, as a rule (but not necessarily) be held by the middle of the main channel of the river. But it provides an exception like the one of the borders of the coast, such as border developed historically — by agreement or if one side of the second colonized the coast before it began to colonize other.
In addition, international treaties and agreements do not apply retroactively. Nevertheless, in the late 1950s, when China, seeking to increase its international influence, came into conflict with Taiwan (1958) and participated in a border war with India (1962), the Chinese used the new provisions of the limits as a reason for the revision of the Soviet -Chinese border.
The Soviet leadership was ready to go for it in 1964, had been consulted on the border, but was inconclusive.
Due to ideological differences during the Cultural Revolution in China and after the Prague Spring of 1968, when the government of China declared that the Soviet Union embarked on the "socialist imperialism" relations are especially acute.
Damanskii Island, which was part of Pozharsky district of Primorye, is on the Chinese side of the main channel of the Ussuri River.
During floods the island is completely hidden under the water, and no economic value is not.
Since the early 1960s, the situation in the area of the island escalated. According to the statements of the Soviet side, a group of civilians and military personnel began to systematically violate the border regime and go on Soviet territory from border guards to turn out every time without the use of weapons.
At first, the territory of the USSR on the orders of the Chinese authorities and villagers went there deliberately engaged in economic activities: mowing and grazing, stating that they are in the Chinese territory.
The number of such provocation has increased dramatically: in 1960 there were 100, in 1962 — 5000. Then became the target of attacks by Red Guards border patrols.
The bill was similar events for thousands, each of which use up to a few hundred people.
January 4, 1969 on the island of Kirkinskii (Tsilitsindao) Chinese provocation was carried out with the participation of 500 people.
According to the Chinese version of events, Soviet border guards themselves staged provocations and beat PRC citizens to engage in economic activities where they have always done.
During the incident Kirkinskii they applied APC to displace civilians and crushed four of them, and February 7, 1969 made several automatic single shots in the direction of the Chinese frontier.
However, many times, it was noted that none of these clashes, whose fault would they occur, could result in a serious armed conflict without the approval of the authorities. The assertion that the events around the island Damanskii March 2 and 15 were the result of a carefully planned action by China is now the most widely distributed, including directly or indirectly recognized by many Chinese historians.
For example, Lee Danhui writes that in the years 1968-1969 the Soviet response to the provocation of the directive limited the CPC Central Committee, a January 25, 1969 was allowed to plan the "military response" from the island of the three Sino-Soviet forces mouth. On February 19, it agreed to the General Staff and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the PRC.
The events of March 1-2, and the next week
On the night of 1 to 2 March 1969 about 300 Chinese troops in winter camouflage, armed with AK and SKS rifles, crossed to the Sino-Soviet and lay down on the higher western shore of the island.
The group went unnoticed until 10:40, when the 2nd outpost "Lower Mikhajlovka" 57th Iman border detachment received the report from the observation post that Damanskii moves in the direction of an armed group of up to 30 people. In place of the 32 events had left the Soviet border guards, including the head of the outpost Lieutenant Ivan Strel'nikov on GAZ-69 and GAZ-63 and BTR-60PB one. At 11:10 they arrived at the southern tip of the island. The border guards under the command of Strelnikova divided into two groups. The first group under the command of Strelnikova went to a group of Chinese soldiers who were standing on the ice of the south-west of the island.
The second group, under the command of Sergeant Vladimir Rabovicha was to cover a group of Strelnikova from the southern coast of the island. Strel'nikov protested the violation of the border and demanded that the Chinese military to leave the territory of the USSR. One of the Chinese soldiers raised his hand up, that was the signal to open fire on the Chinese side groups Strelnikova and Rabovicha. The beginning of the armed provocation on the film managed to capture a military photojournalist Private Nikolai Petrov. Strel'nikov and followed him guards were killed at once, as in the fast-moving battle died department of border guards under the command of Sergeant Rabovicha. Command of the surviving guards took over the sergeant Yuri Babanskii.
After receiving a report of a shooting on the island, the chief of a neighboring, 1st Gate "Kulebyakiny hill" Lieutenant Vitaly Bubenin left on the BTR-60PB and GAZ-20-69 fighters to help. In the battle Bubenin was wounded and sent to the rear APC Chinese, skirting the northern tip of the ice island, but soon APC was hit and Bubenin decided to go out with his men to the Soviet coast. Reaching the APC killed Strelnikova and reseeding it, the group moved along Bubenin Chinese positions and destroyed their command post. They began to retreat.
In the battle on March 2 killed 31 Soviet border guard and 14 were injured. The loss of the Chinese side (according to the Commission of the KGB) were 247 people killed
About 12:00 to Sino-Soviet helicopter arrived with the command of Iman frontier and its chief, Colonel D. Leonov and reinforcements from nearby outposts. On the Sino-Soviet border guards came out reinforced outfits, and the rear was deployed 135th Motor Rifle Division of the Soviet Army with artillery and multiple rocket launchers settings BM-21 "Grad". On the Chinese side was preparing for military action of the 24th Infantry Regiment numbering 5,000.
March 3 in Beijing held a demonstration near the Soviet Embassy. March 4 in Chinese newspapers, "People's Daily" and "Tsefansiungpao" (????) Came editorial "Down with the new kings!" Places the blame for the incident on Soviet troops, which, according to the author, "move-revisionist clique of renegades, boldly invaded the island in the river Chzhenbaodao Usulitszyan in Heilongjiang province of the country, opened rifle and cannon border guards to fire on the People's Liberation Army of China, killing and wounding many of them. " In the Soviet newspaper "Pravda" on the same day an article "The Shame of provocateurs!" According to the author, "the Chinese armed detachment crossed the Soviet state border and headed to the island of Sino-Soviet. According to Soviet border guards guarding the area, the Chinese side was suddenly opened fire. There are dead and wounded. "March 7 is already Embassy in Moscow was subjected to picketing. The protesters also pelted the building with bubbles of ink.
Events March 14-15
March 14 at 15:00 we received an order to remove the unit from the border of the island. Immediately after the withdrawal of Soviet border guards began to occupy the island of Chinese soldiers. In response, eight armored personnel carriers under the command of the Chief of motomanevrennoy 57th frontier Colonel EI Yanshina in order of battle moved toward the Sino-Soviet, the Chinese retreated to his bank.
At 20:00 on March 14 border guards were ordered to occupy the island. That same night there Yanshina entrenched group of 60 people for 4 APC. The morning of March 15, after leading from both sides broadcast over loudspeakers at 10:00 from 30 to 60 barrels of Chinese artillery and mortars began firing Soviet positions, and three companies of Chinese infantry went on the offensive. A fight broke out.
From 400 to 500 Chinese soldiers took up positions in the southern part of the island and prepared to go to the rear of the Yanshin. Two armored personnel carriers were hit by his group, the link is spoiled. Four T-62 under the command of D. Leonov attacked the Chinese at the southern tip of the island, but the tank was hit Leonova (various versions, shot from a grenade launcher RPG-2 or anti-tank mine exploded on), and the Leonov was killed by a sniper shot to the Chinese while trying to leave a burning car.
Aggravated the situation that Leonov did not know the island and as a result, Soviet tanks too close to the Chinese positions. However, the cost of losses not allowed the Chinese to enter the island.
Two hours later, having spent ammunition, Soviet border guards were eventually forced to withdraw from the island. It became clear that entered into battle strength is not enough and the Chinese border troops are far superior in number. At 17:00 in a critical situation, in violation of the instructions of the Politburo not to enter into conflict, Soviet troops on the orders of the commander of the Far Eastern Military District Oleg Losik fire was opened from the secret at the time multiple launch rocket systems (MLRS) "Grad".
The shells destroyed most of the material resources of Chinese groups and the military, including reinforcement, mortars, shells pile. At 17:10 the attack went motorized infantry of the 2nd infantry battalion 199th infantry regiment, and border guards under the command of Lieutenant Colonel and Colonel Smirnov Konstantinova to finally crush the resistance of the Chinese troops. The Chinese began to withdraw from the occupied positions. Approximately 19.00 "come to life" several firing points were made after three new attacks, but they were repulsed.
Soviet troops withdrew again to your bank, and the Chinese side has not taken more large-scale hostilities in this section of the state border.
Total in clashes Soviet losses were killed or died of wounds 58 people (including 4 officers), wounded 94 people (including 9 officers).
Irreversible loss of the Chinese side are still classified information and are variously estimated from 100-150 to 800 or even 3,000. The county is located Baoqing Memorial Cemetery, where the remains of 68 Chinese soldiers killed 2 and 15 March 1969. Information from the Chinese defector, suggests that there are other graves.
For his heroism five soldiers were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, Colonel D. Leonov (posthumous) Lieutenant I. Strel'nikov (posthumous), Sergeant W. Smith Jr. (posthumously), Senior Lieutenant V. Bubenin, Junior Sergeant J. Babanskii.
Many guards and soldiers of the Soviet Army awarded state awards: 3 — Orders of Lenin, 10 — Orders of the Red Banner, 31 — Order of the Red Star, 10 — Order of Glory III level, 63 — with medals "For Courage", 31 — with medals "For Military Merit" .
The settlement and the consequences
Padded T-62 Soviet soldiers could not return because of the constant Chinese attacks. The attempt to destroy it with mortars did not succeed, and the tank fell through the ice. Subsequently, the Chinese were able to pull it to your bank and now it stands at the Beijing Military Museum.
After the ice melted out of the Soviet border guards on the Sino-Soviet was difficult and attempts to prevent its capture by the Chinese had a sniper and machine gun fire. September 10, 1969 was ordered to cease fire, apparently, to create a favorable background of negotiations, which began the next day at the Beijing airport.
Immediately Damanskii Kirkinskii and took the Chinese armed forces.
September 11 in Beijing, Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers Alexei Kosygin, who was returning from the funeral of Ho Chi Minh, and the Premier of the State Council of China, Zhou Enlai agreed to a cease hostile actions, and that the troops remain in the position. In fact, it meant the transfer Damanskii China.
October 20, 1969 have been re-negotiation of heads of government of the USSR and China, failed to reach agreement on the need to review the Soviet-Chinese border. Then there was another series of talks in Beijing and Moscow. May 19, 1991 an agreement was signed between the Soviet Union and China on the Soviet-Chinese border, according to which the island Damanskii went to China de jure. The new owners of the island filled channel, and it became part of the mainland.
On behalf of the frontier DV Leonova in Primorye opened memorial in memory of the events of March 1969