According to the theory of James Lavkoka mankind will not be able to completely destroy the planet, as the planet ahead of us. She will continue to live, getting rid of much of the population by some very simple way, for example, with the pandemic of swine, bird or any other flu.
Lovelock sure that exists today is the overpopulation of Earth in time for the implementation of this apocalyptic scenario. If humanity — a virus, the immune system of the planet there is no other option but to try to destroy the virus.
If you review the list of current scientific hypotheses in order to determine to what theory blurred the line between the most tangible and divine, then, most likely, will head the list of the Gaia hypothesis.
Despite this, the increasing flow of evidence to support the idea of "living Earth" that had accumulated over the past 40 years and updated with new facts, gaining in popularity among scientists from different fields of science.
1. Gaia Theory
According to Greek mythology, Gaia: Mother Earth. Doolimpiyskoe ancient deity, plays an important role in the creation of the world as a whole. She was the keeper of ancient wisdom, and it was led by the dictates of fate and its laws. The Greeks believed that Gaia laid the most important functions for life, so called her Karpoforos — fruitful, and worshiped her for her inexhaustible fertility.
What is for the modern man is the essence of Gaia Hypothesis?
Named after the Greek goddess of the Earth, the Gaia hypothesis, and expressed a legitimate researcher James Lovelock 35 years ago, our planet is a living, breathing, self-being.
Then this hypothesis seemed so radical that the scientific community refused to take it seriously.
However, all data obtained by researchers as well fit into the theory of Lovelock that the scientific community gradually began to use the idea of gays in their studies, and the ecologists, it took one of the key positions.
Lovelock believes that the air, sea and land dynamically keep the biosphere, as well as feathers and nest — birds.
Not only life adapts to its physical environment, but also the physical environment carefully adapted to life. In the atmosphere of the planet would not have oxygen, if it were not for those who make the process of photosynthesis, and there would be no water, if there was no oxygen.
"Without life hydrogen goes into space, and the sea will disappear quickly," — says Lovelock. He believes that there is a complex multifaceted relationship between living beings, land, sea and air. That it keeps the planet in a stable condition, maintained at an optimum level, air temperature and salinity.
Actually, such an understanding of the relationship of life and the planet not entirely new. In the XVIII century scientist James Hutton, who is called the father of geology, said: "I see the Earth as a superorganism, and science, suitable for its study should be physiology."
But in the XIX century, the idea of the unity of Hutton all animate and inanimate was forgotten. As a result of biology and geology exist separately up to the present day.
Biologists often talk about the Earth and planets. Through the lens of a microscope they look at the cells, genes and molecules, and not to the planet as a whole. Geochemists think more extensive. They know that the exchange of carbon dioxide between plants and animals is the case, but they believe that the effect of life on the gas exchange of the planet is so small that it should be ignored.
However, not taking into account the relationship of the living and non-living, even with sophisticated computer models, scientists can not explain why such a low level of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere and why the content of oxygen in the air is constantly kept at 21 per cent? In this case, James Lovelock has suggested that one of the important mechanisms for maintaining the oxygen concentration in the atmosphere at a level of 21% is associated with the fact that the oxygen concentration below 15% of the ignition of wood is not possible, and above about 25%, ignition occurs too easily and wildfires simply destroy all the forests. Conifers and eucalyptus are flammable, so fires are included in their evolutionary strategy. Other species of trees and associated forest types are less susceptible to fire. Competition for space between different forest types can implement global feedback loop that regulates the concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere.
The idea that living organisms regulate the surface temperature and the chemical composition of its atmosphere, Lovelock came to when he was working on the instructions of the NASA experiments to detect life on Mars. Comparing the data on the atmospheres of Mars and Venus, which is dominated by carbon dioxide, with terrestrial parameters, he was surprised to radical differences.
The chemical composition of the planet is stable and consistent. Of course, changes happen, but very slowly. Such consistency requires the existence of active management. But the nature of this control system? And do not enter into it a determining part of living organisms?
"The whole system of life and its physical environment is automatically adjusted in a state comfortable for organisms" — a conclusion reached by Lovelock. The disappearance of the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere depends on the growth of organisms and, therefore, on climate. If the temperature is too low, carbon dioxide accumulates in the atmosphere and warm the planet, but when the temperature rises to over-highs, the carbon dioxide is absorbed by plants faster. This sets the optimum temperature.
So, let us take, for example, the air we breathe. Oxygen is an essential element for almost all living organisms, from bacteria and fish to the people. This gas is responsible for the safety of thousands of years of 21 per cent of the earth's atmosphere by certain living organisms (plants) that are constantly releasing it. Oxygen, being a highly reactive element, has the ability to connect to other gases and inorganic earth's atmosphere and the Earth's crust, disappearing completely in its liberated form.
Despite the instability of the situation, the atmosphere of the Earth relative constancy performs its function of protecting life. That was one of the observations described chemist James Lovelock, who spoke at a scientific conference in Princeton in 1969.
In contrast to the concept of taking nature as a game of chance, Lovelock postulated that, quite possibly, the Earth is in the form of a giant living organism, which organized all forms of matter — both organic and inorganic, — with a purpose: to create an environment to sustain life. Despite his past services — innovative use of sensitive instruments aboard Viking, explore Mars, Lovelock's idea of the Earth as a living organism subjected to harsh criticism from his colleagues.
Another one of the observations made by Lovelock — factual findings constant concentration of salt in sea water, which remains at an optimum level to maintain in her life. Science knows that the river water continuously carry mineral salts in the ocean, but when the sea water forms clouds on evaporation, they do not contain salt. If you follow the strict logic, it would be correct to assume that the concentration of salt in the ocean should increase over time. However, it does not.
The salt concentration is unchanged for centuries. According to proponents of the hypothesis of Gaia, this is due to the ability to store huge creatures inner balance — a phenomenon that corresponds to the scientific phenomenon of "homeostasis", a characteristic common for cellular organisms.
Some believe that the answer to the riddle of the mysterious phenomenon as can be found in the formation of the salt mines: over time, the water forms a bay, which was later cut off by land. The water inside evaporates and only the salt. This part of the land is covered with dust and mud, eventually turning into a rock, preventing the river, which potentially can be formed in the future, take the salt. Is it possible that this mechanism is arbitrarily regulate the concentration of salt so that the water remains suitable habitat for fish and other sea creatures? According to those who support this theory, this situation is not simply a consequence of chance, but rather a process that is governed by the most Gaia.
A more recent example supporting the theory of the existence of Gaia, was made by scientists from the University of Hong Kong, led by Chiu Liao. While exploring the coastline, the team noticed that the tides make the coastal bottom "breathe" when moisture and air followed each other at a water pressure at the bottom of the sea. The most obvious manifestation of this breath was observed when the bottom of the rising bubbles. It seems that the tides affect the rhythmic movement of the ocean floor, causing a phenomenon similar to the process of breathing, but with a slow rhythm, which, of course, due to the huge size of the Earth.
Facts proving life and breath of the Earth does not end there: Recent reports of scientists from the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, show that the content of carbon dioxide from 1955 to 1995 ranged from large to small in a certain rhythmic model. If this information to add evidence gathered from geographical stations can interpret this phenomenon as evidence of breathing of the Earth: as breaths.
However, the results of the same observations could see the ocean for the past ten years has been to "breathe" more, as if it was a simple man.
2. Disease "Gays"
In February 2003, James Lovelock published a book titled "Revenge of Gaia", which develops his theory, which describes Earth as literally a living organism capable of being ill and suffering. In anticipation of the release of the book he published an article summarizing the essence of the "Revenge of Gaia".
Humanity, in terms of Lovelock, is "nervous system" of the Earth, through which Gaia is aware of itself, knows the shape and place in the universe. But the "nervous system" Gaia brings her same untold hardships …
"Gaia has made me a planetary physician, and, as I take my profession seriously, I willy-nilly, to report bad news," — says Lovelock. — Centers for climate research in the world, is the equivalent of a diagnostic laboratory or hospital, report on the physical state of the Earth, and experts see that the planet is seriously ill, and very soon it will begin a fever that lasts for at least 100,000 years. And I must tell you, the members of the family of Earth, and the most intimate part of her that you and especially civilization are in grave danger. "
According to the Lovelock, the planet to keep yourself in a healthy state, and strong, like any animal, for more than three billion years of existence. However, we have started to pollute at the very time when, due to solar activity is the least should do. Fever is about to begin, and it is followed and the state, similar to coma. The planet has already been in this condition and recovered, but it took 100 thousand years. Mankind is responsible for this disease, and we will experience the full impact of this: even during this century the temperature at mid-latitudes will jump by an average of 8 degrees, and in the tropics — 5.
This means that most of the land in the tropics, covered at best low vegetation, or just turn into deserts, and therefore, in the climate of self-regulation is no more role to play will not. Thus, 40% of the Earth will be depleted and barren.
Aerosol pollution in the Northern Hemisphere that reduce the permeability of the atmosphere — and thus dampening the overall heating — may disappear within a few days, and it writes Lovelock, means that before the end of the century billions of people will die, and the survivors will be to live in the Arctic latitudes, where the climate remains tolerable.
"Not being able to understand that the Earth itself regulates its climate and the state, we dared to undertake it on their own, as if the responsibility lies with us. And thus now we condemn ourselves to the worst form of slavery. If we undertake to represent the stewards of the planet, then we should be responsible for ensuring that the atmosphere, ocean and land surface remain fit for life. And it soon will be impossible … "- Lovelock writes in an article comparing the effectiveness of potential human efforts regarding climate of self-regulation with respect to the dialysis machine and the living healthy kidneys, and noting that the time humanity has left quite a bit, while Lovelock himself admits that he imagines that can stop the main "supplier" CO2 into the atmosphere — the U.S. industry and the emerging economies of India and China.
"We should be the heart and mind of the Earth, not just a viral illness. So let's Take courage to think not only about the needs and human rights, but also about the damage we have inflicted on the world, and how we come to terms with Gaia. We must address to work, while we are still strong enough to do this, we have not yet miserable crowd fellows, broken fierce wild willy military dictators. important thing we must remember is that we are part of the Earth, and that it in fact is our home "- Lovelock concludes his article.
Gaia hypothesis opposes the dominant belief that the conditions necessary to sustain life for thousands of years, have been the result of random isolated processes, the agreement which led to the formation of such a delicate situation.
Although the belief that the Earth is a living being, now has more opponents than supporters, but this is changing, as there is increasing evidence to support its existence.
Category: Scientists, experts, science