Special anti-tank grenades started the second world war were a languorous high-explosive shells and grenades were the heirs of the languid used to destroy obstacles in the First World War. The development and introduction of these grenades contributed experience fighting the Soviet-Finnish War. First practiced comparable light grenade, but its breakdown (to be exact — to breach) the effect of 10 millimeters was obviously missing. In 1940, the Red Army entered the RPG-40 hammer action. This grenade was created MI Puzyrev in GSKB-30 at the factory number 58 it. KE Voroshilov (This design bureau headed by N. Belyakov, the development of grenades was the head). RPG-40 had a thin-walled cylinder housing, and was able to pierce the armor 20 millimeter. In the handle located slow fuse instant offense having udarnikovy mechanism and safety pin. The axis of the body bore a visible through the front opening in the detonator inserted (on the model of RGD-33 — a fragmentation hand grenades). On the case of disposal annotation for use grenades. But soon grenade on the "armor-piercing" action did not satisfy the requirements of VET — after an explosion on the surface of the armor thickness is greater than 20 mm it would produce only a dent without causing the inside of the unsafe splits armor.
In 1941, the bubble on the basis of the grenades made RPG-41 having a 1400-gram explosive charge and inflated to 25 mm armor penetration. But diminished throw copious use of the RPG-41 is not promoted. High-explosive grenades encouraged to throw on the chassis, caterpillars, on the roof of the engine compartment or under the turret. In high-explosive anti-tank grenades fighter got the nickname "Tania". These grenades were also intended for the "destruction of the strong closures." Guerrillas had been extensively used during the sabotage and attacks on convoys.
In July 1941, the Military Council of the Northern Front, given the task of designing anti-tank hand grenades for the production of Leningrad enterprises. AN inventor Selyankin based RGD-33 with the participation of MG Dyakonova (her designer) made a high-explosive anti-tank grenade with increased to 1000 g explosive charge. This grenade was designated as the RPG-41. In 1941, at the Leningrad plants produced about 798 thousand of these grenades. High-explosive anti-tank grenades with an increased charge artisanal and industrial production was used in the defense of Sevastopol and Odessa, different versions of anti- pomegranate made in the workshops of guerrilla groups.
British anti-tank grenade «№ 73 AT» cylindrical body having a length of 240 mm and a diameter of 80 mm equipped with a slow fuse and a safety lever. Throw was 10-15 meters at weight — 1.9 kg. Housing grenade was painted in yellow-brown in color, had a reddish band. Grenade tossed only because of the asylum.
The effectiveness of such a large mass with grenades soon did not correspond to the main purpose. Through the use of the cumulative effect of the situation has changed radically. Studies of cumulative (from the Latin cumulatio — «concentration", "accumulation"), the effect of "hollow charge" were for a long time before that. This is due to the needs of builders and engineering troops. In Russia, these studies began military engineer MM Boreskov in 1865. Abroad, the effect is better known under the title of "the effect of Munro." In the USSR the study of practical implementation of these charges in the building had MJ Sukharevsky in the 20s. First, the war existed engineering shaped charges to destroy the armor and concrete caps. In 1941, the calculation basis of cumulative warhead developed by NII-6 (Master of Weapons Research Institute) engineer MJ Vasiliev. In October 1941, the NII-6 conducted tests of shaped charges. First, in 1942 developed the first Russian cumulative artillery shell. Research and development of cumulative combat troops engaged and abroad. Shaped-charge warhead carried an explosive charge, in front of which there is a forward facing spherical or conical recess (funnel). When blowing gases produced are focused in a narrow stream of powerful highest temperature. With all of this creates a pressure up to 10 GPa. Speed up to 15 km / s. Iron lined funnel ensures the correct formation of a cumulative jet which increases the flow of molten metal particles. "Breakdown" effect such charge is greater than the caliber projectiles and is not depending on the firing range and speed of a meeting with armor shells. In the USSR the first war in the Military Engineering Academy and Ostekhbyuro NKVD developed "broneprozhigayuschie" combat troops which are based thermite charge, accelerated powder gases. But they were poor because of work done. The works have been translated into virtually shaped-charge warhead, which we still have a long time were called "broneprozhigayuschimi", although their lethality provides not only the temperature of the shaped charge jet, and the pressure and speed. Neuvvyazkami severe during the creation of cumulative combat troops were maintaining accuracy in the production and creation of a sensitive and non-threatening at the same time fuse.
In 1943, with a small gap in service with the Soviet army appeared cumulative hand grenade RPG-43, and Germany — PWM-1 (L).
PWM-1 (L) consisted of wood and guttate handle housing. The body was located charge Alloy RDX and TNT. In the handle was a detonator, and at the end of the slow-fu
se, which were activated at different angles of contact. Cloth around the handle was laid stabilizer, which drop-4-spring plates. The stabilizer in the folded position delayed the cap to remove it had to take a special tab. Stabilizer, opening after the throw, tore the check-sensitive fuze. For hanging grenades on the belt on the head there ear. The hull was painted in gray-beige color. Length grenades — 530 mm (handle — 341 mm) diameter housing — 105 mm armor piercing — 150 mm, with an angle of 60 ° — up to 130 mm. Training grenade PWM-1 (L) Ub, the combat was different color (reddish) and 3 rows of holes on the chassis. In service with the German army cumulative hand grenades, according to Heydt, "pretty quickly were driven RPG" Panzerfaust "(antitank rocket grenade)."
RPG-43 has developed Designer of NP-20 Whites in the late 42 — early '43. In the April 16, 1943 grenade was given polygon, and April 22-28 — army. Soon it had adopted. In the summer of 1943 RPG-43 began to enter the army.
Grenade body has a tapered cover and a flat bottom. Under the hood is a fuse spring and pushing. In a removable handle accommodates slow fuse, safety-belt mechanism and stabilizer. Laid stabilizer covered cap. Before prominent needed to remove the handle and spring preload its rotation fuse. Handle newly joined, the safety pin from pulling the ring. After throwing a safety bar flies off the handle cap stabilizer crawled, pulling the stabilizer, with all this cocked fuse. The stabilizer ensures a small angle of impact and true flight grenades — go ahead warhead.
The emergence of German tanks Pz.VI «Tiger», Pz.V «Panther" and languid tank-destroyer "Elephant" in the battle of Kursk required an increase in armor-piercing grenades and 120 mm. Constructors NS Jitka, LB Joffe, MZ Polevikov at the Metropolitan Institute of State-6 NKBP developed a cumulative grenade RPG-6. This garnet discernible traits German PWM-1 (L). Troop tests were conducted in September 1943 and the end of October it was put into service. In the RPG-6 was a teardrop-shaped body with a charge (two drafts) and an additional detonator. The handle was slow fuse, blasting cap and belt stabilizer. Drummer fuse cut off the check. Feeds stabilizer (two rather short and two longish) were placed in the pen. To retain them there was a safety bar. Before conspicuously taken out safety pin. After throwing a safety bar flew away, stretched stabilizer, check drummer yanks — cocked fuse. So Makar, the system of protection of the grenade was in a three-stage (RPG-43 was a two-stage). In terms of technology the main feature grenade RPG-6 was the lack of threaded and turned parts, extensive use of rolling and forging. Because of this, managed to make a batch creation grenades before the end of the year. RPG-6 compared with the RPG-43, the appeal was safer and smarter in production. Metadata grenades on 15-20 meters, the soldier should take cover after the throw.
Only in the Soviet Union from 1942 to 1945 year was issued 20,882,800 anti-tank and anti-37924000 hand grenades (in 1942 — 9,232 thousand, in 1943 — 8,000 thousand, in 1944 — 2,830 thousand in 1945 — 820.8 million). You can behold the lowering of the number of hand grenades, anti-tank weapons in the infantry. Hand-held anti-tank grenades supplied landings, guerrilla and sabotage units — for example parachute bag DD-MM, could hold up to 70 pomegranate. RPG-6 and RPG-43 remained in service and at the end of the war, but first the 50s they were replaced by the RCU-3 with a stabilizing parashyutikom and three-stage protection.
The main problem of the use of hand-held antitank grenade was leisurely trip fuse — grenade that hit the target, could be undermined, bounced or rolled down with armor. In connection with this sample were made "pin" grenade Armor. For example, in 1940, the British used the so called "sticky bomb" — high-explosive grenade number 74 ST. A glass tube (ball) diameter 130 mm equips nitroglycerin. On the ball was put on a woolen bag, which was covered in a sticky mass. In a longish handle located remote detonator with a cotter pin (delay of 5 sec.). The total length of the grenades — 260 mm, weight — 1.3 kg. Since the ball was shot in front of a prominent hood made of sheet metal, I pull out the check. But the pineapple is not attached to a vertical and hydrated armor. Highest sensitivity of nitroglycerin did grenade number 74 more unsafe for the user, not the enemy.
Was created by the British as "soft" pineapple: her body served as a knitted bag tied with lace bottom, and top dressed with an iron lid. The fuse is screwed on the lid. The fuse was covered by a cap. Number 82 threw at close range and it does not "roll down" with the horizontal surface. Due to its corresponding shape also called "Gemen" ("ham"). It was believed that the destruction of the tank needs to get with 2 such "hams" on the roof of the engine compartment or the tower.
The German "pasted" grenade consisted of a body which was located in a shaped charge and a felt pad on the old days, Scratch fuse and blasting cap «№ 8". The primer and the fuse used were similar to manual fragmentation grenades. A felt pad impregnated with glue and covered the cap, which was filmed in front of a visible or concrete statement on the tank. Length grenades — 205 mm, width — 62 mm. This grenade was intended to deal with armored cars and light tanks.
More fascinating magnetic grenade was "N.N.3" (Heft Hohladung — «hand shaped charge") established to deal with all types of self-propelled guns and tanks. On the days of the conical body, which was located in a shaped charge (a mixture of RDX and TNT), were attached three magnets that are "fixed" grenade perpendicular to the surface as possible. Removable steel reinforcement protected from demagnetization and blocked the magnets to the introduction of grenades. Blasting cap — «№ 8A1." Standard Scratch fuse (slow 4.5 sec., Or 7 sec.) Was in the pen. Grenade was painted in green color. The length was a grenade — 300 mm and the diameter of its bottom was 160 mm. Grenade usually "planted" on the tank when it passed over the trench. Also allowed her throwing to a distance of 15 meters, while its "consolidation" after the throw was not clear. Themselves German Panzer troops in 1944-45 protect their cars
from the magnetic garnet by plastering "Zimmer" — 5-6 mm layer weakens the force of attraction of the magnet. The surface was made wavy. In addition, "Zimmer" defended by tanks and incendiary "sticky" grenades. Magnetic pineapple, in fact, is the development of engineering shaped charges with which, for example, in the '40 German paratroopers managed to capture Fort Eben-Emal. N.N.3 was not faster than a hand grenade and mine. In his own memoirs, Colonel-General Guderian "disc anti-tank mines, magnetic mines cumulative actions and cans filled with gasoline" refers to the "passive means" VET.
Portable magnetic mines, grenades and residents used the land of the rising sun on the islands of the Pacific. South American tank crews to protect your machine from a similar instrument used mounted on the stern and the sides of the bags of wood sticks (these packages in Europe served to protect from grenades "Panzerfaust").
Infantry belligerents used grenades and other types of mines. For example, the British have had high explosive grenade «№ 75" ("Hawkins Mk1") with a flat hull. Her length was 165 mm, width — 91 mm. Top of unit located trip bar, underneath a pair of fuses, chemical ampoules. With the destruction of ampoules flame created as a result of chemical reactions, which caused the explosion blasting cap. After that, additional breakdowns detonator from which to detonate an explosive warhead. "Hawkins' throws up under the wheel tracks of tanks or armored vehicles, was also used in the minefields. These grenades were placed on slides, which were attached to cords. So Makar, the release of "mobile" mine "pulls" a-move tank. Flat anti-tank mines attached to the beech poles, extensively and quite successfully used Japanese infantry-tank destroyers: our tanks came across this back in 1939 on the Halkin-Gol.
Source disk imaging:
The magazine "Arms and equipment" Simon Fedoseyev "Infantry against tanks"