We see that the features of the fundamental forces that bind particles already contain the sources of the order and the principles which, in particular, lead to consciousness.
Academician VA Matveev, director of the Institute for Nuclear Research.
Our body is made up of twenty-seven of the chemical elements, of which only one hydrogen formed during the birth of the universe. The remaining twenty-six born in the interior of massive stars that have evolved and died the next billion years. How ash extinct stars incarnate in us and in the world around us?
Playing against all
Imagine that every week you buy a lottery ticket, and, time and again, winning the top prize.
Is not it, this seems completely impossible? But in fact, what you are reading these lines, it is strange and surprising no less. The fact is that everything seems so familiar and taken for granted, is the result of a completely improbable, if not almost unnatural set of circumstances. Something like a Hollywood blockbuster, where, in complete contradiction to the logic and common sense, the hero alone wins one after the other armies of baddies.
— On the occasion of a family mourning you are given an extraordinary vacation.
— Who died?
— Milky Way.
Kurt Vonnegut. Slaughterhouse Five.
No matter how fantastic the dialogue did not appear, the existence of the world, including nashy galaxy thing is not self-evident. With the development of knowledge, it is clear that in order that the universe became what we know it needs extremely thin, fine-tuning of a set of physical laws, parameters and initial conditions. In the words of the Australian physicist and astrobiologist Paul Davies: "It was like someone picked up with the utmost precision of Nature to create the universe."
Could this happen "by itself", by chance?
Faith in the accident got us "inherited" from the XIX century. Then, scientists believed that the universe is eternal and infinite. Therefore, there is room to any curiosity and the most incredible coincidence, and in some of its parts can spontaneously appear intelligent life.
According to modern cosmology, our universe was born, contrary to all known laws of physics from a tiny clot the size of a watermelon. Served as the beginning of all the Big Bang, who left no stone unturned in the eternal and unchanging universe. From it was only a belief in chance, dozhivshaya safely to the present. That faith is based on facts?
The "father" of the term "Big Bang" astrophysicist AF Hoyle said this clearly — is not based, "Lay on the ground a large aircraft parts and wait the storm. The probability of occurrence of a natural living cell is the same as the probability that a hurricane will leave a plane ready to take off. "
The fact that our universe is like airliners — the results are accurate "build" perfectly matched components. "Just a calculated" balance of power determines how it is distributed substance, and even small deviations can be fatal.
For example, the cosmological constant (a constant), which determines the ratio of the forces of attraction and repulsion must be accurately balanced to ensure the continued expansion of the universe. This balance has shifted slightly to one side, the universe would not have individual stars, and in another — galaxies. The chances that such a delicate balance could be established by chance, ridiculously small: at least 1 in 10 in the fifty-third degree.
To the universe was "hospitable" to life, we need something completely unbelievable, "the only true" values of the constants and forces should be carried out simultaneously. It's like a safe door is closed to the multitude of digital locks can only open it by typing at the same time in each of the locks right combination of numbers.
The list of "incredible coincidences" in Earth's epic this is far from complete. The very location of the solar system was extremely successful, as far from the galactic center are no heavy elements to form an "Earth-" of the planet, and the closer — the conditions are extremely unfriendly. The size and distance of the Sun-Earth-Moon matched perfectly. Earth rotates on an almost circular orbit at a distance of 150 million km from the Sun, so it's there is a moderate temperature, at which most of the water is in liquid form.
Our unusually large satellite Moon makes an indispensable contribution to the development of life. Power Lunar gravity stabilizes the axis of rotation of the planet and it saves the life of a favorable climate for the change of seasons and rain penetrating to the arid regions. In addition, the lunar gravity causes the tides, which supply the driving force of ocean currents. They regulate climate, swirling enormous amount of heat and, in addition, stirred the waters of the ocean nutrients coming from land.
In addition to these unusual properties on the planet, there is not found anywhere in the vast expanses of the cosmos: the life and highly developed civilization. What made the earth so unique?
"In the absence of biota, that is life on earth, the earth would have only two stable forms of existence: one" Mars or moonlike ", another -" veneropodobnaya. "
Academician NN Moses.
The fact that the ruling in the universe the laws of physics and chemistry as bypass planet side. Under these laws, the temperature at the earth's surface should be about 300 ° C, pressure — 60 atm., The main gas in our atmosphere nitrogen must oxidize and dissolve in the ocean water, and oxygen is not able to appear in the required amounts.
However, it is hampered by the biosphere. It there are hundreds of millions of years and is constantly "pushing" the planet to develop laws in defiance of inanimate nature. Therefore, despite the many changes in the "external" factors (such as a significant increase in solar activity), the temperature of the earth's surface and oceans, the salt content in their waters, and the composition of the atmosphere remain within narrow limits, suitable for further development of life. Actually, the same thing happens in everyday life — our body temperature (37?) And composition remain constant blizzard rages around whether or sun beats down, and we eat a rice or horsemeat.
To maintain such an "illegal" state on the planet, a system of global cycles of matter and energy in its complexity resembles the process in a highly developed body. Cycles include air, water, and cover many kilometers within the Earth. Living matter of the biosphere plays a crucial role: it is "Wings" or balancing speed cycles of circulation of water, oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Without the development of the life cycles of action would be unthinkable. Thanks to the carbon cycle in the Earth's atmosphere, the proportion of carbon dioxide decreased from the original 98% to 0.03% today, and it relies on this "abnormal" level (compared to the "normal" 95% on Mars and Venus 96.5%). The oceans play in the role of a buffer: carbon in them is almost 60 times greater than in the atmosphere, they can absorb (or release) huge amounts of carbon and quickly remove the surplus sludge, which is then "stored" in the solid shell of our planet. With the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, his place was taken by nitrogen, an essential component of the protein, and the oxygen required for a highly life.
For the "start" of the carbon cycle, need a mechanism that can send a large part of the carbon in underground "storage" and extract it from there as needed. But luck is just following us.
Size, internal structure and composition of the planet is unusually well suited to perform its role in the development of life. At the core of the Earth's core is located, the inner hard portion of which is of great density, the outer part is in the molten liquid state. Currents that occur there, create a magnetic field that protects life on the planet. Core surrounded by a mantle, whose hot viscous mass is slowly stirred. Allow the size of the Earth's mantle to "flow" and "exact amount", not too big and not too small amount of radioactive elements supplying the energy required to keep the mantle of "the small fire." On this slow-moving mass of "floating" the Earth's crust, consisting of "patchwork" of different shapes and sizes, which have progress, climbing or diving. In this case the deposited excess carbon safely "stored" in the solid shell of our planet. For example, from the rocks, which include the "bound" in the ocean carbon dioxide built Alps.
But the creation of favorable conditions does not guarantee the development of life. Our Earth — a tiny speck in the vast cosmos, ruled by extremely unfriendly, incompatible with life force. But then luck has not left our planet, providing its "cap" multi-layer protection.
The solar wind and magnetic field of the sun from the earth reject harmful cosmic rays that could destroy all life. Earth's magnetic field provides additional protection from cosmic and solar particles and radiation (including UV). Were it not for the Earth's own magnetic field, the solar wind would deprive it of water cover, as it happened, apparently, on Mars.
Luck of the Earth does not end there. It involves protecting other planets in the Solar System. For example, Jupiter's gravity has removed the most dangerous large bodies from the asteroid belt. Again, good luck: Arise Jupiter before, Earth would receive less carbon, and if later, or had significantly lower weight, then there would be a large asteroid that could hinder the development of life on Earth.
Saturn and Jupiter shield the inner solar system and the excessive bombing galactic comets. However, this protection does not become too "dull"; cometary bombardment provide a flow of cosmic matter and energy to the surface of the Earth in the "right" time and in the "right" place, keeping the circuits in the world. In addition, the substance of comets formed of a number of deposits of minerals, without which the development of civilization.
"Beasts of the Earth are the creation of a complex cosmic process, part of the necessary laws harmonious cosmic mechanism in which, as we know, there are no accidents."
According to the rules of statistics, probability unconnected events are multiplied. Therefore, the drop rate for the first eagle coin toss -?, In the second -?, And the third -??. Normal chance to win a decent amount of the lottery — one millionth. Now imagine that we win every time. Hardly anyone "buy" our version of random luck. Suspicion falls on the presence of a latent factor, something or someone that stands behind such a "super — good luck."
Combination rebounds accidents through the development of life on our planet, leaves no room for choice. Either this is a miracle, or the cosmos, including the earth and everything in it a living, is a single interconnected system that develops in one direction.
However, in order to civilization on Earth has evolved, we need absolutely incredible "coincidence"
Category: Scientists, experts, science