For many of our scientists, this race ended disastrously
It is considered that competition in the field of rocketry and space exploration began two mighty powers — the U.S. and the USSR. In fact, this is not entirely true. The first path blazed into orbit, scientists from Russia and Germany. And it was the greatest marathon of scientific and technical progress.
Germany. First steps
We all Germans have found it easier and more practical.
The founder and principal theorist of German rocket was Oberth (1894-1989). Proceedings of his followers Gomanom and Valle laid the theoretical foundation for the transition to the experimental phase, and the practical implementation of a stand, control and testing standards.
Then he passed the baton to one of the young titans of this extraordinary Marathon — Wernher von Braun (1912 — 1977) and naikrupneyshy German engineer and scientist — Dornsbergs Walter, who has always been in the shadow of von Braun. But in practice, he made it all the most thorough and hard work of the launch of the V-1 and V-2.
German experts at rocketry and the creation of tools for jet-powered operating time is extensively used all the leading German KB aircraft. Effective assistance to a group of von Braun had an outstanding German aircraft designer Hugo Junkers, whose aerodynamic laboratory, scientific and technical base was listed as one of the best in Europe.
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky at work
From Kibalchicha to Tsiolkovsky
Russia have taken this path in the late nineteenth century, when the German pioneers of Astronautics yet born. From the perspective of history and fact-the first was a revolutionary populist Kibalchich, who was executed in 1881. In his own treatise, written on death row, just before the execution, he proved the idea of the creation of the unique design of the aircraft, working on jet propulsion. It was the first in the world of science description rocket plane for a breakthrough in gallakticheskoe place. But the work has lain in the archives Kibalchicha Gendarmerie directly to the Bolsheviks came to power.
In 1883 and later, in 1903, a teacher of arithmetic from Kaluga Tsiolkovsky published two own monumental work on the theory of rocketry and astronautics. This served as a reference point for the future German rocketry pioneer, and for Russian artists. The Russian took the baton several scientists and engineers. One of the great followers of their own scientific understanding of the world and the interpretation of the theoretical framework should be considered Kondratyuka Tsiolkovsky. But he did not do his own school.
Zander, Queens and the other
The main pioneer of Russian-Soviet Astronautics, founder of the school and the introduction of Russian rocket thrust for defense purposes, is certainly Arturovich Friedrich Zander (1887-1933). Russian Teuton from the Baltic states, he was in every sense of the man-Academy. A brilliant engineer, a gifted experimenter (made the first reference in the world of jet engine of an ordinary blowtorch), Zander made a school of followers.
Russia started their own marathon in the twenties, when the Soviet Union and Germany were in the languid economic status. Finance some strange projects related not to a specific aircraft construction, fit at least some power, but with rocket, from which well, not on the ruble does not review the usefulness of the national economy, the Russian government was not going to. Zander was the first child of a circle of enthusiasts working at a public basis. Then he took a historical familiarity engineer and teacher MAI (Capital Aviation Institute) Zander and engineer-pilot Sergei Queen of working in the aerodynamic laboratory aircraft. A group of enthusiasts whose activity caused a wry grin professionals practical aircraft, founded the GIRD (Group for Research of jet propulsion). It seems almost a miracle that in the absence of targeted municipal finance and the use of base defense companies, they were able to do a few samples of the type of liquid rocket GIRD-09 and GIRD — X and make a few 10-s starts.
Along with a group of Zander — in Russian Queen of, since 1921, the group has worked very well known Russian engineer Tikhomirov — special on the creation of the world's first eresov (rocket), which we can safely assume dad all kinds of missiles for land "Katyusha" for aviation and navy. This group worked and experimented with smokeless powder long act, the base of which were engineers — gunners had the title of GFW (gas dynamic laboratory) and subject to the military-technical management of the General Staff of the Red Army.
In 1928 he was assigned to the GFW graduate of the military technical academy. Dzerzhinsky engineer-gunner Jora Erihovich Langemak. He worked on ballistics powder charges. Very soon, this highly gifted scientist becoming a leading design engineer. This belongs to him inside of consistency for the future "Katyusha" and Russian aircraft. Namely, for the famous series of attack aircraft IL-2 and IL-10.
In 1932, the Deputy People's Commissar of Defense of the USSR future Marshal Tukhachevsky, who was responsible at the time of arming and equipping the Red Army became interested in the activities of GIRD, and being well acquainted of the GFW running Peter and Paul, (he changed the post of chief of the laboratory of the deceased Tikhomirov) takes a truly life-changing solution for the future creation of the Russian astronautics and rocket artillery and mortar systems.
It connects to the municipal level voedinyzhdy into one GIRD enthusiasts and military professionals GFW. So, for the first time in the world was RNII (reactive Research Institute), which entered into the system of hidden military defense establishments and companies, and attaches to the institution of public finance.
Active research in this area was carried out in Germany.
1932. Twenty-year German guy Wernher von Braun and his closest friend and loyal assistant Walter Dornberges, with the support of the founder of the German Astronautics Oberth, and the assistance provided it concerns a group of aviation enthusiasts in Germany, beginning to develop its own missile, named jokingly "Max and Moritz". Tests are successful and the leaders of the military-technical management of the Reichswehr no longer let prickly jokes in the address of the young literate.
In 1933, when Germany became the Third Reich, Hitler puts his own priority the creation of the strongest and most modern army in Europe. It is now official KB 22-year-old Werner von Braun's rocket began to create A-2 with a mind-blowing at the time parameters and set the height of 2200 meters. The main purpose of these successful and impressive experiences KB — not study gallakticheskogo place for peaceful purposes, but the creation of ballistic missiles, bombs. Hitler thought that leads to ecstasy. A Reichsführer SS Himmler takes under his wing the youngest designer of combat aircraft and includes it in its own elected members of the circle.
"Masters by pyrotechnics"
1934. Our homeland. After the death of Zander and Tikhomirov to management in the USSR comes RNII military en
gineer, a graduate of the aviation academy. Zhukovsky — Kleimenov. He became the head of the institute. He was at that time 36 years. The main engineer and deputy chief of becoming famous Langemak, which began a series of tests of solid fuel for rockets, more harmless and economically, than liquid fuels. Head of the department of design and testing of cruise missiles becomes the queen. He was then 27 years old. Marathon between young titans of Germany and the Russian Federation headed for his own climax.
Tukhachevsky in ecstasy from the activities of their own beloved offspring. Stalin, fiercely hated Tukhachevskogo Stalinist toady Commissar Voroshilov, and management of the country's top party ridiculed in his own circle of Tukhachevsky, considering the activities of the Institute of rocket, akin to those of pyrotechnics who arrange brightest fireworks on prazdnichkom.
Wernher von Braun in 1941
1937. Germany. Wernher von Braun — 25 years of age. He begins with his own team on the peninsula of Usedom, in Peenemünde, the testing of new 2-missile codenamed A-3 and A-4. Later, they will be called the V-1 and V-2. For technical abilities and characteristics, they far exceed the standards of Russian seasoned liquid rockets. The absence of an acute effect of scarce technology in the USSR, which has always been rich in Germany.
Von Braun's rocket tests, having at the time a stunning performance — 14 meters and a weight of 12, 7 tons, are dramatic. The sky above Usedom often highlights are burned or lost at the start of the course missiles. But the tests are of days and NIGHT MODE. It seems that von Braun's possessed by a demon. He spares neither himself nor the people. Finally, in 1943, these rocket projectiles are actually ready for serial production.
1937. Our homeland. Scientists from RNII — Branding Langemak, Queens, Tikhonravov, Artemiev, Peter and Paul, Pobedonostzev, Bogolyubov, Wentzel, Kulagin and other successful conduct tests on artillery range of prototypes, then became "Katyusha" and eresov for aviation Navy. They are beginning to develop very latest in performance on the watery fuel rocket, but the fate of the disposed differently.
Jora Erihovich Langemak
In June 1937, in Moscow, held a closed trial of Marshal Tuhacheskim and another seven high-ranking military, once reputed to be the heroes of the war civilian clothes. They were accused of komplote against Stalin, the Party and the Russian people. Immediately after apparently rigged ships of the Military Collegium of the accused shot in the basements of the Lubyanka. And Stalin's henchman, the Secretary VKPb Yezhov, who came to replace the People's Commissar of the NKVD Berry, on the personal instructions of "Great Leader" starts a massacre of military personnel.
The country begins a bloody orgy of mass arrests with the military, painful interrogation. People under torture strshnyh plans are recognized in the liquidation of Stalin, the government and the Russian government. All those who patronized and who helped Tukhachevskiy get into dungeons of the NKVD.
Did not escape this universal destruction and RNII. Scientists have remembered Tuhacheskogo and supervision, and a visit to Moscow in 1928, the international exhibition projects intercontinental aircraft professionals from Germany, France and the United States.
Kleimenova, Langemak and several others, leading professionals, was arrested and was tortured and incriminated himself with spying for several European intelligence shot. Queens went to wander the bullpen, and sharashkas zones, where they worked for the government servants, scientists with the stigma — "the enemy of the people." Exceptionally in 1944 Stalin became clear that he hands his own henchmen security officers also ditched their best scientists. The queen passed out of the Gulag, where he threatened to certain destruction, under the personal patronage of Beria. Just before his death, Stalin and Beria defeat genius of the Russian people was under constant and watchful eye of security officers.
In 1954, branded, Langemak and all the members of the Institute, who were shot or serving their own errant life in the camps were rehabilitated. The last Russian military history encyclopedia: "World War, 1941-1945" and mentioned Kleimenov and Langemak, and Queens. But the premise is so swift destruction 2-eminent creators of Russian weapons are not specified. Not indicated also that the future chief designer of Russian intercontinental ballistic missiles of the Queens from 1937 to 1944 held in the Gulag. And three times Hero of Socialist Labor, Colonel-General, Chief Designer and Managing KB Tupolev aircraft in creating his convict sharashka NKVD. And he removed the only conviction in the early 60s that, in general, would do well to elect him to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
Completely different was the fate of the German scientists.
KB Obersturmbahnführer Wernher von Braun (he entered the circle of friends and loved reyskhfyurera Himmler flaunt esesovskoy form) hardly affected by the Soviet secret police repression and intelligence allies. The British sought extradition of Werner von Braun to London to get even with him for the bombing of the British capital, but the OSS (Office of Strategic Services USA — Donovan, Allen Dulles) with honors bolshennymi transferred substantially all of the developers of the project FAA to whom pointed out by Brown. And only a few people from the team CB, who at the time of arrival of the Yankees on Peenemunde, (raketodrom FAA) were in the case of Russian zone of occupation, people have got to Beria, manager of a valuable collection for export to the Soviet Union, including military secrets to Hitler.
With raketodroma by Poles — concentration camp prisoners serving spaceport and digging a tunnel in the rock, managed to steal a new FAA — 2. The installation was transferred to the Soviet Union and gave the group Queen, whom Stalin proclaimed the project manager to create a Russian rocket guns. The occupied areas on Russian zone of occupation employees KB Wernher von Braun worked well in a team Queen. By the way, a part of Hitler's atomic physicist who worked on the atomic bomb also fell in the Soviet Union and joined the group of Kurchatov. Later many of them returned to East Germany and began to work at the Institute of Nuclear Physics.
"The Council of Major designers."
From left to right: VPBarmin, Glushko, S.P.Tsarits, N.A.Pilyugin, M.S.Ryazansky, AF Bogomolov. Baikonur. 1957
As regards, Werner von Braun, he had made good conditions which are not comparable with Stalin sharashkas. Former Obersturmbannführer was allowed to bring his cousin in the United States, to engage her in marriage. He became a personal
other U.S. presidents: Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson. The fact that once Wernher
von Braun was a Nazi ideological and proud membership in the SS and its racist gaze he wisely said nothing. In the U.S., home to many of the Jews who hated Nazis. Could shoot. Wernher von Braun died of cancer in the United States military hospital.