These words relate entirely to the many battles of the First World War. For some reason the modern Russian government, which so concerned about the patriotic education, chose not to see the 95th anniversary of the start of her day or
This tragic date at the municipal level, trying to ignore 95 years ago, August 1, 1914, Germany declared war on Russia. Then we call this war and the second Russian and stateliness, the Bolsheviks stuck to it yarlychek imperialist, and referred to the German people. Later became known as World War I, and after the beginning of the newest added the serial number — the first global. Specifically, it was a prelude to the twentieth century, without which, perhaps, there would be no February 1917, we expand the army and the government, nor the Bolsheviks and the October Revolution, no civilian fratricidal war.
In 1915, the world looked on with admiration Osovets defense, the small Russian fortress of 23.5 km from the then East Prussia. The main objective of the fortress was, as he wrote part in defense Osovets S. Hmelkov, "to block enemy melee and most convenient way to Bialystok … force the enemy to lose time or to conduct a long-term siege, or to find detours." Bialystok — transport hub, the taking of which paved the way to Vilna (Vilnius), Grodno, Minsk and Brest. So for the Germans through Osovets lay the shortest route to Russia. Bypass the fortress was impossible: it was placed on the banks of the River Beavers, controlling the whole district, in the districts — swamps. "In this area, there are practically no roads, strong little villages, individual households are communicated among themselves on rivers, canals and narrow paths — so depicts the terrain edition of People's Commissariat of Defense of the USSR as early as 1939. — The enemy will not find here no roads, no houses, no closures, no positions for artillery. "
First head Germans launched in September 1914: throw the guns from Königsberg great caliber, they bombed the fort 6 days. A Osovets siege began in January 1915 and lasted 190 days.
Germans used against the fortress of all the new services. Delivered famous "Big Bertha" — siege weapons caliber 420-mm, 800-pound shells which breaks through the two-meter slab of iron and concrete. Funnel from that explosion was 5 feet deep and fifteen across.
The Germans calculated that forced surrender of the fortress with a garrison of a thousand people pretty 2-these guns, and 24 hours a methodical bombardment 360 shells every four Minutka — volley. Under Osovets brought four "Big Bertha" and 64 other massive siege guns, with 17 batteries.
Strshny's firing was first siege. "The enemy opened fire on February 25 at the fortress, drove him on 27 and 28 February to the hurricane, and so continued to destroy the fortress until March 3" — recalled S. Hmelkov. According to his calculations, this week the horrific fire on the fortress was released only 200-250 thousand languid shells. And all for the siege — up to 400 thousand. "The brick buildings collapsed, wood burned, feeble given large concrete spalling in the vaults and walls; wire connection was interrupted highway spoiled craters, trenches and shafts for all the improvements, such as: canopies, machine gun nests, light bunkers, were erased from the face of the earth" . The fortress hovering clouds of smoke and dust. Coupled with artillery fortress German airplanes bombed.
"Was terrible view of the fortress, the fortress was all wrapped up with smoke, through which in one and then in another place long escaped the fiery tongues of the explosion of shells, pillars of earth, water and whole trees were flying upward, and the earth trembled, and it seemed that nothing could withstand such a hurricane of fire. Recollection was such that no one will come out of this whole storm of fire and iron "- so wrote zabugornye correspondents.
Command, believing that asks impracticable asked the defenders to withstand at least 48 hours. The fortress was still half a year. And our artillery during the terrible bombing even managed to knock out two "Big Bertha", poorly disguised enemy. Along the way, undermined and ammunition.
August 6, 1915 to become the first black Osovets defenders of days: for the destruction of the garrison of Germans used poison gas. Gas attack they prepared carefully, patiently waiting for the right wind. Launched 30 gas cells, several thousand bottles. August 6 at 4 am on the Russian positions drip green mist consistency of chlorine with bromine, which reached them for 5-10 minutes. Gas wave of 12-15 meters in height and width of 8 km leaked to a depth of 20 km. Masks from the defenders of the fortress was not.
"All living outdoors in the bridgehead of the fortress was poisoned to death — recalled party defense. — All greens in a fortress in the area near the path of movement of gases has been destroyed, the leaves on the trees turned yellow, curled up and fell off, the grass turned black and fell to the ground, flower petals circled. All copper objects in the bridgehead of the fortress — of guns and ammunition, sinks, tubs and so on — were covered with a thick layer of greenish chlorine monoxide, food items stored without hermetic sealing — meat, butter, lard, vegetable, were poisoned and unusable for human consumption. " "Poluotravlennye trudged back — that's another creator — and thirsty, bending over to water, but here on the low ground gases were delayed, and secondary poisoning led to the death."
German artillery re-opened a massive fire, right behind the barrage and the gas cloud to storm the Russian front lines have moved 14 battalions of Landwehr — more than 7 thousand foot soldiers. At the forefront after the gas attack remained alive almost more than hundreds of defenders. Doomed fort seemed to have been in German hands. But when the German chain approached the trenches of the dark-green mist of chlorine in their collapsed … counter-attacking Russian infantry. The sight was horrifying: the men walked into the bayonet of persons swathed in rags, shaking with strshnogo cough, practically spitting out pieces of light on the bloody shirt. These were the remains of the 13th Company 226th Infantry Regiment Zemlyanskii, a little more than 60 people. But they plunged the enemy in such a nightmare that German infantrymen, not accepting the fight, rushed back, trampling each other and hung on their own barbed wire. And by him covered with clouds of chlorine Russian batteries became smash, seemed to have the lost artillery. Several 10-s half-dead Russian soldiers sent to flight three German infantry regiment! Nothing like the world did not understand the art of war. This fight will go down in history as the "attack dead."
Osovets Russian troops are still left, but later on the orders of the command, when the defense lost its meaning. The evacuation of the fortress — is also an example of heroism. So as to take out all of the fortress had nights, days of Grodno highway was impassable: it constantly bombarded German airplanes. But the enemy has no cartridge or projectile, or even cans of canned food. Each gun pulled on straps 30-50 gunners or militias. On the night of August 24, 1915 Russian sappers blew all that remained of the German fire, and only a few days later, the Germans dared to take the ruins.
So waged war "score" Russian soldiers defending "rotten tsarist government" until the revolution did not spread out sluggish and exhausted army. Specifically, they kept a terrible blow the German war machine, while maintaining the possibility of the existence of the country. And not just their own. "If France had not been erased from the face of Europe, this first we need Russia", — said the latest Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces, Marshal Foch.
In what was then the Russian Federation defenders Osovets names were known to almost everyone. Here on whose exploits bring patriotism, is not it? But Russian authorities to know about the defense, were only Osovets army engineers, and even then only in a utilitarian and technical perspective. The name of the commandant of the fortress was erased from history: not enough that Nicholas Brzhozovsky — "royal" general, so more later waged war in the ranks of white. After the second world history Osovets defense and completely transferred to the category of prohibited: A very unflattering comparisons were imposed on the events of 1941.
And now in our school textbooks World devoted a few lines on the bookshelves of worthy publications — without exception. The exhibition of the Municipal Museum of History of the war of 1914-1918 in general there is nothing in the Municipal Central Museum of Contemporary History of Russia (the last Revolution Museum) — Exposure to polzalchika three overhead, overcoat, Sticky bomb launcher, mining tool, captured four guns and a pair of captured rifles. A bit more interesting, the exhibition "And broke the world on fire …": authentic card fronts, pictures fighter, officers and nurses. But this short-term exposure, also, surprisingly, in the framework of the "65th anniversary of the victory of the Russian people into a sublime Russian war."
Another exhibition — "The Great War" at the Museum of the Armed Forces. You leave her with the feeling that this war or was not at all, or it is not clear where it was fought, how, why and by whom. Lots of photos, little ammunition, rifles, machine guns, sabers, swords, daggers, guns … Not counting the piece units of premium tools, all impersonal: ordinary standard weapons, or of what is not saying, is not tied to a place or event, or the time and certain people. On display — woolen socks, knitted and donated by Empress patient Tsarskoye Selo infirmary staff-captain A.V.Syroboyarskomu. And no word on who the Syroboyarsky! Just digging in the emigre literature, you can find out what Alexander Syroboyarsky commanded the 15th Armored Division and was wounded three times in battle, in Tsarskoye Selo infirmary came in 1916 after yet another injury. Not without reason, as historians mean, this officer has carried through life feeling to one of the stately princesses. In the hospital ward accomplished his meeting with the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna and her older daughters, Olga and Tatiana. And august lady to the hospital did not come on a sightseeing trip: with illumine 1914, they have worked here every day the sisters of mercy. In the museum display anything about it — just a pair of socks …
Crown Prince checker. A stuffed horse. Overcoat General Schwartz, managing defense Ivangorod. Photo Rennenkampf. Ashtray commander of the destroyer "Siberian shooter", the captain of the 2nd rank ZHoru Ottovich Gadd. Dirk Vice-Admiral Ludwig Berngardovich Kerber. Sabre Admiral Viren. And nothing about what these people are nice, the same Robert Viren Nikolaevich — the hero of Russian-Japanese war. He commanded the Kronstadt base brutalized and killed matrosney March 1, 1917 th …
How annoying would it sounds, this museum — not historical, but political: the flesh of a sad memorial Political Department of the Red Head, and then Russian army. Political workers, until now occupying the highest offices of the Ministry of Defense, the truth about this war to anything. Therefore, the last glavpurovskoe division into two different RF: 1st global — Is, they say, war Kolchak, Denikin, Yudenich Kornilov, Viren, Cerberus, von Essen and other "Gaddi". The war of "white"!
But it was not only the "white" fought at the front, and "red". Volunteers went to war, attributing to himself the years, the future Russian marshals Rokossovsky and Malinowski. Both have earned in battles noble soldier George Cross. Marshal Blucher, Budennyi, Egorov, Tukhachevsky Zhukov, Timoshenko, Vasilevsky, Shaposhnikov, Konev, Tolbuhin Eremenko, too, were in the war. As the army commanders and Cork Uborevich generals Karbyshev, Kirponos, Pavlov, Katchalov, Lukin, Apanasenko Ponedelin … As Chapaev earned in World three crosses, and crosses Budennyi awarded 3rd and 4th degrees.
Meanwhile, most of the Red Army in the number of participants in the World after the revolution has rapidly decreased. The bulk of the veterans of the number of officers cleaned out by the end of 1920, and later thousands of former officers were killed during a special operation KGB 1929-1931 "Spring". Came on to replace them, in the best case, the former noncommissioned, sergeant major and fighters. And those then "smoothed". The defeat of the carriers of invaluable experience in the war with the Germans — the officer corps of the Russian army — in the course of "Operation Spring" backfire June 22, 1941 th: reddish concrete crushing German army veterans. In a German division in 1941 was more than hundreds of officers with experience in the campaign of 1914-1918., 20 times more than in Russian! And this difference is not only quantitative: Russian veterans of World came out of combatant and non-commissioned officers, all German — of the officers.
14 th and 41 th
Textbooks say rot royal regime, bestalantnyh royal generals, unprepared for war, which was quite popular, as against the will of the men called to fight a war Tipo did not want to …
Now the facts: in 1914-1917 in the Russian army was designed almost 16 million people — of all classes, almost all the nationalities of the empire. Is not it a people's war? And these "forcibly recruited" waged war without commissars and political officers, security officers, without a special person, without penal battalion. Without detachments. George Cross marked about a half million people, 33 thousand were full of all holders of the George Cross 4 degrees. Medal "For courage" in November 1916 was issued on the front above a half million. In the then army crosses and medals just so no one hanged and for the protection of the rear storage is not allowed — only for certain military awards.
< img src="http://i60.fastpic.ru/big/2013/1029/db/ac995f54da60cdc4d289d96451ef67db.jpg" alt="Russian do not give up" title="Russian do not give up (the war, the castle, the world, the first Russian, army, German)" style="float:left;" />"Rotten tsarist government" has held true mobilization and without a hint of traffic chaos. "Unprepared for war" the Russian army under the leadership of "mediocre" royal generals not only fulfilled the timely deployment, but still she inflicted a series of massive strokes, through a series of successful offensive operations in hostile terrain.
The army of the Russian Empire for three years to keep the strike military machine 3 empires — the German, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman — on the big front from the Baltic to the Dark Sea. The royal generals and soldiers deep into the enemy homeland and did not let him. The generals had to retreat, but the army under their departed disciplined and orderly, only by order. Well civilian population tried to mock the opponent does not leave, the ability to evacuating.
"Anti-people royal regime" is not thought of punishing families who were captured, and the "oppressed peoples" in no hurry to cross over to the enemy entire armies. The prisoners were not recorded in the legions, so with a gun in his hand to wage war against their own country, just as a quarter of a century, it made hundreds of thousands of Red Army soldiers. And on the side of the Kaiser did not conduct a war one million Russian volunteers had Vlasovtsev. In 1914, no one, and in a terrible dream could not have dreamed, that the Cossacks fought in the German ranks.
Naturally, in the Russian army did not have enough rifles, machine guns, ammunition and cartridges, and technical Germans had an advantage there. The loss of the Russian army numbered 3.3 million, and the total loss of sunk Russia amounted to about 4.5 million people. In Lofty Russian lost 28 million people — this is the official statistics.
In war, the imperialist Russian army on its own did not leave the battlefield, carrying the wounded and delivering ground dead. Therefore, bone of our soldiers and officers of the First World in the fields of labor is not lying. About Russian is clear: the 65th year of her graduation, and the number in a human and not buried in the millions.
Who needs your truth?
But those killed in the First World War in our country monuments there — not one. Is it only a few crosses near the Church of All Saints in All Saints, which is the Eagle, erected by personal individuals. During the German about this church has been a tremendous cemetery where they buried the soldiers who died of wounds in hospitals. Russian authorities cemetery killed, like many others, when methodically began uprooting the memory of the war majestically. She was told to consider unfair, lost, shameful.
In addition, at the helm of the country in October 1917 became natural deserters and saboteurs, waging a subversive work on enemy agents. Comrades from the sealed car, advocated for the defeat of the fatherland, it was awkward to conduct military-patriotic education of the examples of the imperialist war, which they turned into a civilian. And in the 1920s, Germany has become affectionate friend and military and economic partner — what was annoying her a reminder of the past disorder?
However, some literature about the First World War was published, but utilitarian and mass consciousness. Another line — training application: not on the same materials campaigns of Hannibal and the First Cavalry was to teach students of military academies. And the first of the 1930 designated scientific enthusiasm for the war, there are large collections of documents, research. But the theme of their illustrative: offensive operations. Last collection of documents was released in 1941, more collections are not allowed. However, even in these publications had no name, no people — only the numbers of units and formations. Even after June 22, 1941, when the "great leader" has decided to turn to historical analogies, remembering the names of Alexander Nevsky, Suvorov and Kutuzov, he made no slip of the tongue of those who have been in the way of the Germans in 1914.
After the second World War, a strict ban was imposed not only on the study of the First World War, but in general for all memory of her. And in reference to the heroes of "imperialist" could go to camp as anti-Soviet propaganda and the glorification of the White Guards.
At the moment, the greatest array of documents related to the war — in the Russian military and municipal historical archive (RGVIA). According to Ira Olegovna Garkushi, director RGVIA, almost every third request to the archive for the First World War. Sometimes up to 2-thirds of the thousands of such requests — requests to find information about the participants of the First World War. "They write the relatives, the descendants of war veterans: some want to find out if their ancestor was awarded, another curious where and how he fought," — says Ira O.. Means the enthusiasm of people to the First World is available! At the same time increasing confirm archivists.
And at the municipal level? From communication with archivists clear that the 95-year anniversary of the outbreak of the First World War in big offices do not even remember. Preparing for the future 100th anniversary of the war at the municipal level is also not observed. Maybe by archivists to take the initiative? But who will publish, at whose expense? It is also a Hells work, requiring many years of careful work. For example, in the State Archive of the Republic of Belarus, the funds of which are
964,500 items, employs 150 people. Foundations of World RGVIA — 950,000 units — serves only three people. Belarus, of course, even more powerful and rich government than Russia …
"We are ready to publish collections of documents on military operations — they say in RGVIA — but to prepare them specifically required by military specialists." Only official historians in uniform do not care, as military history — the diocese office that grew from Glavpura. It's like before tenaciously holds the noose on the neck of military history and military-patriotic education, giving to the surface Stalinist legend. How to read once Glavpura chief, General Alexei Epishev "who need your truth if it prevents us from living?" It's true heirs of the German war also prevents live: their career is built on "Stalin's ten blows." Only on lzheistorii and fight against the "falsifiers" real patriots do not educate. And education is glavpurovski twice already brought down the country and the army — in 1941 and 1991.