Russian kochi

These timber ships is shaped like a walnut shell. When large blocks of ice tried to catch them in their own trap and kill the ice in his arms, they "jumped" to the surface. Coast dwellers learned to build them in the XIII century — especially for navigation in the northern seas. The birthplace of the vessels — a snow-white sea coast. And called them kochami.

Those who live by the sea

First, the past millennium on the white sea by a Russian settlers. They lured secured fishery: on land — fur and bird of the sea — sea fish, animal and "fish tooth" — was appreciated highly ivory. First came the north of ancient Novgorod. Different it was the people: and the envoys of the boyars and other rich people, and free ushkuyniki, and "spirited people" who had fled from serfdom and the Mongol yoke. They are usually settled not on the deserted shores, and in the settlements of the indigenous inhabitants — Karelian and Sami somewhere mingled with them, and in some places separated by saving and crowd out locals. Evenly settlers and formed their encampments. Settled on the continued habitation fishing population became known as Pomerania, which means "living by the sea", and the entire coastal area — Pomorie. "The sea — our field" — says proverb.

Life on the banks of "the Frozen Sea" in the criteria of the terrible climate made Pomors strong and hard-working. In Pomerania vital spirit of liberty, freedom of thought and friendship. In these parts was particularly strong "peace" — government: many have adopted the Pomeranian town of stateliness and Novgorod veche its democratic order. Relations with the West coast-dwellers have existed since ancient times. The proximity of the Russian North to the Scandinavian lands, contact with Europeans, the knowledge of European foundations, all this supported the democratic tradition.

In the XII century Pomerania became the center of Russian shipbuilding — it promotes the development of sea and river fisheries. There were built the most advanced for the time trial started for ice navigation. These were the ships of various types: marine boat and simple, ranshiny, Shnyak, sailboat. Development of sea and river fisheries of the coast-dwellers sought the creation of stable lifting and vessels that are adapted to local situations. Thus was born the idea of a new fishing vessel — koch. According to the views of historians, kochi appeared in the XIII century.

Secrets Pomeranian shipbuilding

Koch (in various dialects — koch, kochmora, Kochmarev) — is a vessel adapted for swimming on broken ice, and for the portage. Scientists believe that the title of the vessel came from the word "Kotz" — ice covering, ice coat. Was the title of the second shell plating protects the lining of the main ice damage, it was made of sturdy oak or hardwood planks in variable waterline. Another feature was the koch body that resembles a nut shell. This design protects the ship from being destroyed in a collision with large blocks of ice. When Koch was stuck in the ice, it does not compress, but merely brought to the surface, and a ship to drift along with the ice.

The vessel had two anchors for four and a half pounds each, from time to time and met-pound anchor. Pomors used the anchor and portage: if the ship was in the ice fields and could not go sailing or rowing, sailors went down on the ice, was inserted into the anchor leg carved hole, and then choose the anchor rope and held out the ship. Similarly, they could drag the boat across the icy bridge.

The stormy Barents Sea coast dwellers floated on the sea kochah acceptable, and that the ice was not adhered to. By "Mangazeysky the move" appropriate Koch was adapted to shallow water, and Volokovaya way. Source: "Model Builder" 1973, № 10
Lod master had in the construction drawings and relied on experience and intuition.

Outlined the contours of the master of the vessel with a stick in the sand. Construction began with the koch bottom: it is most suffer from contact with the ice, because it did particularly strong. Kiel huge koch had a length of about 21.6 meters and consisted of several parts. From damage due to either portage-grounding this design protected keel. If it is destroyed, a new strengthened — repair time is insignificant. This invention Pomors then borrowed zabugornye the wizard it has been used throughout history in wood shipbuilding.

Articulation boards the ship's side had its own peculiarity: in joints are covered with strips attached to the sides of the small staples — the usual method for the North Russian shipbuilding sealing bead. That is one hundred percent "uskobit" Koch, took several thousand iron staples. The slots planking tarred hemp. On top of the basic shell was attached "coat" (Kotz) — ice covering, planks are nailed "vglad."

Set the vessel were "kokoro" — so called in the north of frames. It was a unique ship koch detail that is unparalleled in the Old nor, in any Western European shipbuilding XVI-XVIII centuries — "koryanik." This Coroots detail, which was placed on the cheekbone and the ship was intended to form the knee board and giving it additional rigidity.

Rovnenkaya deck was also the product's design koch — surging storm surge flowed freely over the side. And on the European side of the deck ships came to an end stage. Koch width reaches up to 6.4 meters. A small ratio of the width and length — one to three or the four — made the lurching ship that was eliminated due to the increased area rudder.

Koch feed waterline was about sharpening of 60 °. Above the waterline, coarse sharpening round off. This design is the first time there is concrete at coast-dwellers. Feed was made almost vertical, nose — very tilted. Most sediment koch was 1.5-1.75 meters. Shallow draft and oblique stem koch indicate suitability for swimming in shallow water, broken ice and a die.

The case was divided into compartments by transverse bulkheads. In the forward compartment were laid oven, placed there for the cockpit crew. In the rear compartment was cabin of a master, and the middle part of the vessel is allocated for the hold for the cargo; hatch of the hold locked tight.

Regardless of the criterion swimming nekordinalno varied design and size kochey. For sea okoloberegovyh, river and land Volokovaya build capacity Kochi 500-1600 pounds (small kochi), and for sea and river routes that did not require the passage of dry portages — up to 2,500 pounds (huge kochi). By the beginning of the XVII century large Koch was the main vessel in the Siberian sea and river swimming.

"On his own faith"

Experience seafaring skills passed in Pomerania from generation to generation. Pomors walking "on his own faith" — on his handwritten lotsiyam. They knew how much sailing experience is passed in the polar seas, and carefully outlines the unsafe places likely approaches to the shelters from the waves and winds, anchoring po
ints. Provided data on the timing and strength of the tides, disposition and speed of ocean currents. First sailing has written on birch bark, they economized and pass on the heritage. The sons and grandsons and replenish refined write their own fathers and grandfathers, "And after we born near the sea to fish go, how about for a trail for him not to leave." This is how the prince's "Book of seafaring."

In sailing directions marks the place where staged markings — huge wood "ovetnye" crosses and houris — the pyramids of stones. In the White Sea and Murmansk on the side on my dearest (Bimbo Earth) and on Grumant (Spitsbergen) sailors saw those signs, it is not clear by whom and when delivered, and set your own. "Ovetnye" put a cross not only as identification marks, also in memory of fallen comrades, fortune and tragedy. To the north-west of Kemi was a place called "cross frequent" — eleven crosses along the shore. They differed with bas-reliefs, incised copper icons, decorative elements — special signs identifiable terrain. Crosses help accurately find the course: cross-bar of the cross has always been focused "on the night of Letnik" — from north to south.

Kormschik sailing directions on the ship kept in the headrest, and houses — for "shrine". On the first page was a prayer of certain sailing directions: sailors know how hard path to go. In particular Pomeranian mixed faith and humility of freedom, mysticism and practicality, reason and faith, while sailing sailors felt a living connection with God. "While the visible signs on the Beach, Pomorie reads a special part of the book, and when dissolved away and saves up a storm about to break the vessel, born near the sea opens the first page and appealed for help to Nicholas."

St. Nicholas Pomeranian sailors had as their patron. His so-called — Nikola Sea God. Pomors honored him as a "suppressor and comforter storms and disasters", "driver prosaic waters of the sea." In the religious view of coast-dwellers ship was likened to a temple, and the role of the Almighty spoke specifically of St. Nicholas.

Pomors treated with the deepest humility and "Father-Sea", which is revered as a deity. In Northern Russian maritime culture sea was the supreme Judge — "sea trial" coast dwellers took the Tribunal of God. They never read "drowned", "lost at sea" — only "sea took": "The sea takes no return. The sea will — do not ask. Sea with — a desolate position. The sea is our conviction does not like. Otzoveshsya unfavorable — rassvirepeet. " "The righteous tribunal Sea" vertices on the ship, which is not the case called "ship" — a place where, in the judgment day is a duel between good and evil. Pomors voedinyzhdy combined into a single place sea and the monastery: "Who in the sea did not happen, he did not pray to God."

St. Nicholas Pomeranian sailors had as their patron. His so-called — Nikola Sea God. Pomors honored him as a "suppressor and comforter storms and disasters", "driver prosaic waters of the sea." In the religious view of coast-dwellers ship was likened to a temple, and the role of the Almighty spoke specifically of St. Nicholas.

"Nomadic" path

Pomors walking on fishing not only in white and the Barents Sea. Nordic explorers had many secrets of the passage ways in the Kara Sea, the Norwegian and Greenland Seas. At the end of the XV century pomors walked to the northern shores of Scandinavia. In practice, the Pomeranian navigation path was called "Progress in the German end." He passed along the eastern coast of the sea and the snow-white northern shore of the Kola Peninsula Fishermen dragged across the peninsula. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the area of fishing and trading activities became even more broad. Trappers and explorers reached by polar areas of Western Siberia to the mouth of the Yenisei River, strolled to the newest land on the coastal islands of Spitsbergen and the Barents and Kara Seas. Oh, so called major sea routes of the XVI century, "Mangazeya sea passage", "Novaya Zemlya move", "Yenisei stroke", "stroke Grumanlansky."

"Mangazeya naval move" — the path to the north of Western Siberia, Mangazeya — a city on the Taz River, a reference point in the development of the Siberian arctic lands of the XVII century. He passed along the coast of the Barents Sea through the Strait of Ugra ball into the Kara Sea to the west coast of the Yamal Peninsula, where the ships dragged dragged through. "Yenisei move" led from Pomerania in the mouth of the Yenisei River, and "Novaya Zemlya move" — The latest in the northern areas of the Earth.

"Grumanlansky move" — is the path of pure white beach along the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula in the Bear Peninsula and beyond — to the Svalbard archipelago, where the Russian coast-dwellers were rich fishing activities. Way to Spitsbergen was considered a relatively easy: the criteria of free swimming — eight or nine days, whereas before Mangazeya — more than 6 weeks with overcoming the 2-skid.

"The loss of the treasury"

Europeans intensively engaged in merchant shipping: Mangazeya at that time was the commercial center of Siberia. In Moscow, began to fear that Western explorers will float to the Ob, bypassing the "ship's resting place" in Arkhangelsk, brings more revenue to the state. Also feared that the Russian negotiators' uchnut to trade with the Germans in the Ugra utayas Bowl on Kolguyev on Kanin Nos, and the sovereign's treasury duties will hysteria. "

Boat with people Willem Barents runs along the Russian ship. Engraving. 1598

"We went to the Russian ship, thinking that have already been snow-white sea, and how Russian explained to us that we have gained the Cape Kandines, they gave us a lot of favors by selling us food, ham, flour, oil and honey. It makes us very reinforced, and coupled with the fact we were happy that we selected the correct path that we must follow, once we really grieve that our comrades are separated from us and are in the sea "(Gerrit de Veer." Marine diary or truthful Description 3-remarkable and unprecedented voyages ever … ").

In 1619 the Marine Mangazeya move was banned by government decree and open another path to Mangazeya — river. Pomors wrote petitions: "… from Mangazeya in Russia and from Russia to Mangazeya go great sea as ever to advance without crafts not to be …" But from Moscow came to "strong order" that neposlushlivym "… be evil and death kill death row houses razoriti to the ground … "In the Strait of Ugra Bowl, on the Yamal Peninsula Matveeva and portage was exhibited protection, designed to watch the execution of the decree, as" … about checking on the German people, that did in Siberia, to Mangazeya German people by water and dry roads do not look out for a run … "In 1672, the city was abolished by decree Mangazeya Alexis.

Most of all coast dwellers were interacting with Norwegians in Norway, the Russian sailors were walking from the XIV century. The result is closely communicating 2-Russian peoples of the middle and Norwegian industrialists, traders and fishermen got i
ts own language — "russenorsk." There were about 400 words, of which about half were of Norwegian origin, slightly less than half — of the Russian and the other taken from the Swedish, Lappish, British, and German languages. "Russenorskom" exclusively used in navigation and fishing, because it exposed the concept of limited naval and commercial areas. It is curious that the Russian speaking on "russenorske" were convinced that they say in Norwegian, and Norwegians — on the contrary.

Vessel for polar expeditions

It would be a mistake to think that Koch, which emerged as a fishing vessel, was used only industrialists and traders. Koch, embodied within himself all the many years of experience in the Pomeranian seafarers, was born to majestic expeditions.

Specifically on nights Dezhnev Fedot Popov and did the swim from the Kolyma River around the Chukchi Peninsula in the Anadyr River in 1648. June 20, Nizhnekolymskiy jail out to sea kochey 6. Seventh joined the expedition without permission — it was a group of Cossacks under the Gerasimos Ankudinova. Two koch crashed during a storm on the ice before reaching the Bering Strait. Two more koch disappeared in an unknown direction. But the three remaining koch under the command Dezhneva, Popova and Ankudinova rounded September 20 the easternmost tip of Asia. Dezhnyov referred to her huge stone Nose, and then outlined his whereabouts and geographical features of the place. At the moment, this cape is named Dezhneva. Koch Ankudinova broke off Cape, Ankudinov with the team moved to the ship Popov. Skirting the eastern extremity of Asia, the Court Dezhneva and Popov out into the Pacific Ocean. In the Strait between Asia and America, explorers continued their journey on the 2-kochah. These were the first Europeans to sail in the northern part of the Pacific Ocean.

Recent court expedition separated storm. Dezhnev his teammates managed to escape death: their koch drifted to the south-west and south-sparing thrown at the mouth of the Anadyr River. Koch Popova storm blew toward the Kamchatka. Until now, their fate is unclear.

Blow to Pomorsky shipbuilding

Kamchatka first Russian came specifically to kochah. In the summer of 1662, Ivan Tripe repeated Dezhneva-Popov path through the strait. He came out of Yakutsk in June, and in August already headed for the Pacific Ocean. Intriguing, sailors walrus hunting near the mouth of the Anadyr River, but the walrus rookeries they found and went further south. So they have gained the east coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula, where two Russian koch for the first time anchored at the mouth of the Kamchatka River.

In the era of Peter suffered a bitter blow to Pomorsky shipbuilding. Construction of a large port at the mouth of the Northern Dvina and the creation of the merchant fleet on European Swatch has led to the fact that small-scale shipbuilding in Pomorie has lost all meaning in the eyes of the government. Peter I claimed the construction of more modern vessels. December 28, 1715 Peter I sent Arkhangelsk vice-governor decree, which stated: "On receipt of this decree, declare all the industrialists, who walk on the sea for the fisheries on their own lodyah kochah and that they were doing instead of those vessels offshore courts Galiota, gukary, katy, flutes, who from what they want, and for that (until they mend their new marine vessels) giving them no time on the old walk only two years. " In 1719 pomors written complaint to the king that "navigable river they are told to build a boat." Peter allowed to throw the available court — sailboat, Soimy, kochi, but to build new rebuked and threatened reference to hard labor. Special act was prohibited from Arkhangelsk to send cargo on board the "previous works." In general, then this decree had been made, as well as many other decrees of Peter: the classic ship design Pomeranian much more in line with the conditions of the coastal navigation and navigation in ice. Despite the ban, outside Arkhangelsk shipbuilders tried to stuff the courts, "the former things" fishing cooperative. And later in Pomerania Court refuses to build new drawings because no prescribed design or size is not consistent with the terms of the Pomeranian navigation.

In the 30 years of the XVIII century authority koch was again recognized officially. Was organized by the Siberian (Lofty North) expedition, thought by Peter I. Its main aim was to describe the coast from Arkhangelsk to the mouth of the Ob. And here again needed Koch: The government was forced to use it as a more reliable ship swimming in these criteria. In July 1734, Kochi was built and commanded by lieutenants Muraveva S. and M. Pavlova out of the snow-white sea to the shores of Yamal.

After the reforms of Peter the center of shipbuilding in Pomerania was Kem. There lasted construction "staromanernyh 'courts established for industrial and transportation voyages in the northern waters. In the XIX century from the White Sea to St. Petersburg, strolling around Scandinavia not only on the new courts, and the courts on the "previous works." In 1835, Ivan Pashin from Arkhangelsk made such a voyage on the nomadic, going from Coke. The emergence of the St. Petersburg raid Belomorian koch surprised the inhabitants of the capital.

"Fram" Nansen — Pomeranian Koch?

Commendable song "staromanernomu" Cociu sang Fridtjof Nansen. Prominent polar explorer in the construction of their own "Fram" came to a similar structure of the vessel! Plan for its Arctic expedition was original and bold: to tie up a large block of ice, "vmerznut the ice" and drift along with them. Nansen his hopes that it will take over the polar ship to the North Pole, and then endure in the North Atlantic.

To realize this plan required a very special ship. Normal ship would inevitably crushed ice. Resist the pressure of the ice — that want shipbuilders from the coming of the ship. Nansen clear idea for yourself what it should be, and it thoroughly outlined. You read the description and understand what is being described specifically Koch.

"The most important principle in such a ship — is building it in such a way that it can withstand the pressure of the ice. The ship must have as sloping sides, so that it presses on the ice did not get a foothold and could not crush him … and squeezed it to the Top … For the same purpose vessel must be small in size, because in-1's, with a little easier to maneuver the ship in the ice, in-2, during the compression of the ice it easier squeezed up, well, it is easier to give a small vessel suitable strength of … The ship of the shape and the size can not, of course, be comfortable and sustainable maritime navigation, but it is not particularly important goals in ice water … However, before we get into the area of the ice have to go a decent way to the open sea, but that will not be the same boat so bad, that it was quite impossible to move forward. "

"We have also sought to reduce the length of the hull, so that it was easier to maneuver between the ice fields, longer length does, in addition, a great danger in compression. But in order for such a small ship, different, apart from anything else, it is very convex sides, had the necessary capacity, it should be wide, width "Fram" was about one-third of its length. "

"Outside frames are protected triple plating … Third, external, so called "ice skin" … as the first two, went straight to the keel … This sheathing fastened with nails and "ruffs&q
uot;, not through other plating, so that ice could tear off all the "ice-lining" and though the hull would not stand against this huge loss. "

Trans-drift "Fram" brilliantly confirmed the calculations Nancy spent nearly three years in the ice-blocked, "Fram" returned to Norway. This ship, named "one of the most mind-blowing ship in the world", then made two more delightful voyage: in the years 1898-1902 on the "Fram" expedition of the Canadian Arctic archipelago, and in the years 1910-1912 Amundsen made it swimming in Antarctica . In 1935, the "Fram" set on the banks of the Oslo Accords. At the moment, this historic ship museum is outstanding polar expedition. But once he is famous monument and kocham — wood ships which went on the ice of the Arctic seas.

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