Many years have passed since the time when Berlin was raised over the Reichstag Red Banner of Victory. Many young people today have very little idea of what was to us and to the world that war. In particular, what plans of domination over the peoples of the Third Reich leaders hatched and the first people to whom the land should be getting rid of the Nazi enslavement.
In our modern textbooks on the history of these subjects, as would be a shame as it sounds, is not prominently.
The German Global EMPIRE
June 19, 1941. Only three day or before the German attack on the Russian alliance. Chief of Staff of the Supreme Command of the Chief of General Jodl send ground troops, air force and navy — Brauchitsch, Goering and Raeder — a draft directive number 32, "Preparing for the post-implementation plan" Barbarossa ", in other words after the defeat of the Russian Union. Development of the draft of the directive has been completed in the Fuehrer's Headquarters and signed by Jodl June 11, 1941.
After considering its commanders in chief of the armed forces is entirely approved June 30, 1941.
Hitler and his generals were as follows for the development of the Nazi expansion after defeating the Russian Union? Then began the directive number 32 as follows: "A. After the defeat of the armed forces of Russia, Germany and Italy will dominate militarily throughout the European continent … any danger from the land for a European country will no longer exist. For its protection and for future offensive operations considerably less useful ground troops than we needed today. The main effort in military production may be focused on providing naval and air forces. " So Makar, the center of mass of the war was transferred to the struggle against Great Britain and the United States. For this purpose, as stated in the diary entries of the High Command of the June 4, 1941, provided for "the establishment of the Euro-West African bulwark against the Anglo-American coalition."
It was planned from the end of August 1941 to begin withdrawal of troops from the Russian countryside, created to perform regular tasks of conquest — so great was the confidence in the Nazi command frisky victory in the East. Ground forces expected to reduce from 209 to 175 divisions, but to increment the power of the Air Force and the Navy. The primary strategic puzzles Wehrmacht had become an operation to seize North Africa, Gibraltar, of the Near and Middle East, Malta, Cyprus and the Suez Canal. From November 1941 to September 1942 was planned to take possession of all the Caucasus and Transcaucasia, and start from there advance to Baghdad and to important sources of Middle Eastern oil. July 3, 1941 Chief of Army Staff Halder made in your diary the following entry: "Preparing coming towards the watershed of the Nile and the Euphrates on the part of Cyrenaica, and through Anatolia and, perhaps, from the Caucasus to Iran … Operation through Anatolia against Syria , in combination with an auxiliary operation of the Caucasus, will start right after the deployment of forces in Bulgaria, which once used to be political pressure on Turkey to achieve a pass from her troops. " Directive number 32 prescribed in the case of Turkey's refusal to let the German troops break its resistance force gun. How far were the aggressive plans of Nazi Germany, shows the development of Hitler's orders on February 17, 1942 operation against the English colonial empire gems — India forces 17 German divisions.
All these operations were aimed at the creation of suitable strategic positions for the war against Great Britain and the United States. Initially planned at first to deal with Britain. "… After the trip to the East, — stated in the directive number 32, — full scale shall be resumed by naval and air forces' siege of England" … Preparing landing in Britain to serve a dual purpose: to forge the British forces in the metropolis, also cause the incipient and complete destruction of the UK. "
After that had to follow the step ends with the establishment of world domination of Nazi Germany — the war against the United States. It is interesting to note that Hitler's own "The second book," written in 1928 and published in Germany only in 1961, wrote about the inevitability of the struggle between the United States and Europe, which will have to lead the Germans. He raved about the "turn the United States into the German world empire."
July 25, 1941, a little more than a month after the start of "Operation Barbarossa", Hitler had a meeting with the commander of the Navy Raeder said that after the end of the campaign in the East he was "going to make a vigorous offense against the United States." In the autumn of 1941 it was planned to start bombing of American cities eastern United States. For this exercise was planned Azores and supporting Fri on the west coast of Africa, Iceland and even in Brazil.
Finite to Nazi control during the second world war can be judged by the subsequent expression of Himmler, relating to the October 1943: "By the end of the war, when our country finally exhausted or will be eliminated, and the United Kingdom and the United States will not tolerate the war, for We will arise task creation of a world empire … In this war, we will, that all that is in the past years, since 1938, was annexed to Germany once the empire remained in our possession. War is being waged in the name of, that was based the German global empire. This is the meaning of the war, however long it lasted — 5, or maybe 6 or even seven years. "
What did the Nazis intends to do with Russian and other peoples of the Russian Union after his own victory? On the territory of the "four municipalities" — Baltic States, Russia, the Ukraine and the Caucasus planned to throw 56 divisions. Rate "Chief troops in the East" was planned to place in Moscow. Russian territory subject to occupation right up to the Urals. Industry of the Urals had to be destroyed as a result of a "large motorized expedition" forces of eight armored and motorized divisions 4. Place between the Volga and the Ural Mountains dot the concentration camps.
"RUSSIAN TO DIE"
The extent and content of the planned Nazi control actions on "development of the Eastern Space" shows "General Plan East" — perhaps the most savage plan of the twentieth century, persecuted the complete genocide of the Russian people. Development began in his office, along with East Himmler Rosenberg Ministry in 1940, even before drafting the directive number 32, and continued the attack on the Russian alliance. The main purpose of the plan was formulated as follows: "It is not only the defeat of the country to the city center in Moscow. Achieving this historic goal never would have meant a complete solution prepyadstviya. The matter is likely that, to defeat a Russian people, divide them. Only if this problem is to be treated by us with a bio, especially racial-biological point of view, and if in accordance with this policy will be carried out in the eastern German regions, it will be possible to remove the threat posed by the Russian people for us … For us, the Germans, fundamentally weaken the Russian people to such an extent that he was no longer able to prevent us establish German domination in Europe. "
;the power of the Russian people" was conceived to fulfill a whole complex of measures. This includes the largest reduction of the Russian population by planting poverty, declining birth rate, elimination of medical services and the supply of drugs, and the destruction of the intelligentsia through liquidation of Education, and the relocation of the Urals, the Caucasus, Africa, and even in South America more than 50 million of Russian European part of Russia, and remained there until 14 million to reincarnate in an unskilled worker force in the service of the colonialists.
But the main thing is to permanently undermine the centralized state system of the Russian people, which held the power of. In the "Master Plan for the East" this was said: "The whole area of the Russian Federation should be divided into a number of countries with their own governments … It is necessary to predict the separation of areas inhabited by Russian, different political districts with its elements of management to ensure that each of their separate national development … so that they do not in any way guided by the Moscow … There is no doubt that such administrative fragmentation of the Russian countryside and the systematic isolation of certain areas would be a means of combating the increasing of the Russian people … It should destroy the carrier state of political ideas. "
Increased attention was paid to mental destruction of the gene pool of the Russian civilization. Hitler was: to undermine the power of the people, rather kill him "bearers", in other words, the carriers of spirituality, knowledge and creativity in the field of politics, economics, science and technology, culture and art, historical memory. Envisaged to achieve this, namely this: "Do not be given to the local population more than the highest education. If we make this mistake, we are in the future we generate resistance against us. Because, according to the views of the Fuhrer, is quite enough to teach the local population, including the so-called Ukrainian, only to read and write. "
Long-term goal of the Nazi "Ostpolitik" Hitler described as settling the occupied territories of the Union of Russian, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, about 100 million members of the German race. To do this, it was planned to move a large part of the population of these States to Siberia, and "liberated" lands to settle in the coming 10 years, 20 million Germans. The remaining population was subject to Germanization. All these countries had to divide the map of Europe. Hitler's plans for management to anticipate the "final solution of the Jewish question", ie the complete destruction of the Jews.
June 22, 1941 the command of the Wehrmacht launched "Operation Barbarossa" — Russian Union of contrition. From her of success depended on the future development of the global expansion of Nazi Germany and the embodiment of Nazi plans make come true. But for Hitler and his generals that unhappy date was the starting point of the death of the Nazi Third Reich. In the puzzle of this article does not set a detailed analysis of the events on the Soviet-German front. Focus only on the core, turning away the armed struggle, which decides the fate of nations.
Initial period of the war was formed for Russian Union is very unfavorable. Country had to stand alone against the tremendous pressure of the Nazi war machine that has acquired a lot of experience doing the other day fighting in Europe. Hitler's command succeeded in the initial period of the war cause severe damage to the first strategic echelon of Russian defense. Until February 1942, German prisoner got about 3.5 million Russian soldiers and officers. From June to September, the Wehrmacht managed to move on a short distance to Moscow and Leningrad, to capture a large part of Ukraine. But that ended frisky military successes of Nazi troops. They stumbled to the increasing resistance of the Red Army, recovering from the first defeats. Already on August 11th Chief of Army Staff, Colonel-General Halder wrote in his diary: "The overall situation indicates more evident and clear that the Russian giant … has been underestimated us. This statement can be extended to all business and organizational side, on the means of communication and … especially on a purely Russian military capabilities. "
Since September 1941 the capture of Moscow in the course of the operation, which received the title of "Typhoon", has become central to the strategy of Hitler's government. In fact, the case, the metropolitan area should venture was the fate of the war, and particularly if it will end the Wehrmacht here "blitzkrieg", smashing the main forces of the Red Army to capture the Soviet capital and avoid a protracted war of attrition that was for the destruction of Hitler's command alike. In the second half of September, Army Group "Center" under the command of Field Marshal von Kluge, who conducted the operation "Typhoon", has been significantly enhanced by the forces transferred from the other parts of the Soviet-German front. It was 42% of the manpower, 75% of tanks, 45% of guns and mortars, more than 30% of the total number of aircraft forces that existed in the Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front. Such a concentration of military power in a limited space did not know military history. The German troops were superior in number and Russian weapons 1.5-2.5 times.
September 30 began one of the greatest battles the second world war. At first fortune accompanied the German High Command. He managed to break through the Russian front in 3 places and round up to 7 October in Viaz'ma four Russian army troops. But their heroic resistance to more than a week befall force 28 German divisions. This allowed the Russian commanders to organize the defense on Mozhaisk. As he tried to seize control of the Wehrmacht to go to Moscow, he was unable to reach it. By late October, it had to end, and coming to a two-week break. Forces group of German troops in the capital area were at the finals. And here to throw more troops from other parts of the front does not have the ability. Division of Army Group "South" were bound languid battles around Kharkov, Crimea and near Rostov, and the coming of the Army Group "North" bogged down at the Tikhvin area. And yet Russian command formed in the rear of the Russian forces defending Moscow, 10 new armies.
On November 15-16, the German troops resumed coming forces of more than 50 divisions. They managed to move to the north of Moscow Yakhromy, and to the south — to Kashira. But their upcoming promotion ran into an invincible defense and was suspended. In the height of the fighting Quartermaster General Wagner reported Halder: "Our troops recently complete depletion of the real and human power." A Russian troops, supplemented freshest strategic reserves, ran over to the offensive on Dec. 5. It ended in the winter of 1941-1942, the crushing defeat of the German troops near Moscow, supplemented by blows of the Red Army near Rostov and Tikhvin. All the political, strategic and economic calculations of the Nazi commanders fell. Yet in the middle of October 1941, Hitler admitted at a meeting at the headquarters, "June 22, we opened the door and did not know what it is for."
The defeat of Moscow was a great shock to Germany. Military-political significance of this action is first in that "lightning war" — the base framework plan "Barbaross
a" — a complete failure. A long war Hitler's command did not promise any chance of success. Politically, the defeat of the Wehrmacht outside Moscow dispelled the myth of its invincibility and completely cemented the foundation of an anti-German coalition, has caused great harm to the morale of the fascist bloc countries, has had a sobering effect on the pro-Hitler groups in neutral countries and gave a powerful impetus for the deployment of a broad anti-fascist struggle of the people. For the Russian people, 1941 was the year of the most terrible trials. He made the greatest historic feat — their heroism, patriotism, hard work and struggle erected near Moscow barrier to Nazi aggression.
In the coming 1942 the chances of success in the war against the Russian Union for the Nazi command is much diminished. Now it has not been able to keep coming across the front. A reddish hopes to defeat the army in one strategic direction in general was not. About the confusion that appeared in the General Staff of the Army after the defeat at Moscow, shows chief of operations, General Heusinger, "Halder has long pondered the idea, is not better for us to just go to the East to the defense, as the new coming was above our strength. But in-1's, this one could not give a hint to Hitler, in-2, what would it give? If we have provided a respite Russian and watched the growing threat from America, we would give the initiative to the enemy and will never be able to recover it. So we had no choice but to try again, despite all the doubts. "
April 5, 1942, Hitler signed a plan developed by the General Staff of the summer-autumn campaign Wehrmacht (Operation "Blau"). He again put an impossible task — "finally kill the remaining still in the possession of the Soviets force" to seize the important Russian military and economic centers of the method of carrying out a wide Coming on the southern flank of the front towards the Caucasus and Stalingrad and then the merits of the strategic objectives in the south to seize Leningrad, that such makarom cut off the Russian Alliance in the northern and southern flank of supply outside.
As for the war, the Nazi command again miscalculated in assessing the strength of the Red Army, the military capabilities of the Union of Russian industry. A huge number of Russian defense enterprises were saved from capture by the enemy and evacuate to the east. Is not surprisingly, that, despite the loss of important industrial regions in the original Russian Union during the war, in 1942, the creation of weapons for the Russian troops was much increased in comparison with the second half of 1941 (tanks — 2.3 times, artillery — 1.8, mortars — at 3, machine guns and anti-tank guns — 6 times). By May 1942 Russian troops fighting ability, opposing forces has been significantly enhanced. Among them, there were about 5.3 million people, about 5,000 tanks, 40,700 artillery pieces and mortars, 2,500 aircraft. By this time, the German High Command of the Red Army put up against 5.3 million, 3230 tanks and assault guns, and 3,395 aircraft, 56,940 guns and mortars. 100 German divisions were to advance at the front of 600 kilometers from Kursk to Taganrog. Russian commanders developed for spring and summer 1942 strategic defense plan with holding personal offensive operations near Leningrad, in Demyansk at Smolensk and Kursk Lgovskii-directions in the area of Kharkov and Crimea.
June 28 the German High Command launched Operation "Blau" — Application of strategic blow to the head of the Russian Army from the area east of Kursk in the direction of Don and Kharkov region in the direction of Rostov. Started a new exciting battle second world war. The troops of Army Group "B" at first managed to achieve certain success — to get to the Caucasus and the Volga. But this is her offensive outburst has dried up. The main strategic goal set by Hitler for 1942 year, was not achieved. Russian troops completely retained their fighting ability. Capture the oil wealth of the Caucasus, the invasion of Iran, Iraq, Turkey's involvement in the war, to establish contact with the armed forces of the Land of the Rising Sun — all this was a chimera. And on the southern flank of the German troops of the Soviet-German front was approaching unusual military unavoidable tragedy at Stalingrad. This was a disappointing strategic balance in 1942 for Hitler and his strategists. Halder was removed from the post of Chief of the General Staff, and in his place was appointed Colonel-General Zeitzler, as if it could assist in the upcoming German victories on the Eastern Front. Finish the summer-autumn campaign, Hitler decided to take Stalingrad, to be presented to the central achievement of 1942. In the diary of his adjutant general Engel has post record October 2: "Zeitzler also Jodl raise the question, not whether to postpone the taking of Stalingrad in the second place, that rescue forces, refer to the street battles that require great sacrifices. Fuhrer sharply objected and emphasizes that taking Stalingrad is very necessary not only for operational, and on mental judgments to influence world opinion and the mood of the allies. "
In the winter of 1942/43 Reddish army won the Battle of Stalingrad in the latest brilliant victory — has been smashed 300000th group of German troops. Battle on the Volga, as rightly said Joachim Wieder — past officer of the 6th Army, advancing on Stalingrad, "was a kind of dress rehearsal for the full political, ideological and moral collapse of Nazism." He called Stalingrad catastrophe Wehrmacht "Golgotha German Army", which "has eclipsed all of the military disaster of the past." After Stalingrad Nazi Germany lost the strategic initiative in the second world war. Trying to possess it again in the battle of Kursk in July 1943 ended in spectacular failure. Since then reddish army was able to go to the strategic offensive across the Soviet-German front.
Victory at Stalingrad and Kursk dramatically worsened the military-political and international situation of fascist Germany. They called the deepest crisis of fascist coalition. And the Western allies have allowed them to deploy active actions in North Africa. In May 1943, the armed struggle there ended with the defeat German-Italian group Rommel. Hitler's command faced the prospect of Italy from the war. And in France is threatened landing of Allied troops.
Since 1943, the army launched a reddish non-stop coming in all strategic sectors of the Soviet-German front. It ended with the capture of Berlin. "Hike to the East" led to the crash state of Germany.
Void was the end of the Third Reich Hitler and his clique. Oh, so Hitler's adjutant Otto Guensche described the Nazi past Minutka rates: "We are again greeted Hitler, after which he went to Eva Braun in his room and closed the door. Goebbels, Axmann, Gevel, Kempka and I stood in the hallway, waiting. It took about 10 minutes, which seemed like an eternity. The silence was broken shot. After a few seconds Goebbels opened the door and we walked into the room. Fuhrer shot for himself in the mouth and, in addition, seen through a vial of poison. The skull was turned upside down and looked terrible. Eva Braun did not use his gun. She took poison. We obvernuli Hitler head with a blanket. Goebbels, Axmann and Kempka carried corpses up the stairs to the park … Then I watered with Kempka body with gasoline and threw them out of the entrance to the bunker burning rag. Simultaneously the two bodies took possession of the flame. "
Hitler and his Wehrmacht came on Soviet soil with the blade, the blade, and they died. Majestically looks feat of the Russian people and the Russian fighter. In a cruel duel with four-year war machine contenders for world domination, they have survived and defeated the enemy, rescued from slavery to the m
otherland. On the altar of victory, they brought only the highest human loss, much great than all who participated in the second World War, European countries taken together. The Nazis were not able to put the Russian people on their knees, despite the fact that he used against the huge economic potential, not only in Germany, and all European countries, captured in the years 1938-1941.
A huge role in the victory belongs to the Russian Supreme Command and General Staff, our illustrious commanders and generals.
In all this we must not forget that the High Command headed Stalin — is indisputable fact of history that no one can challenge it. Even taking into account the fact that Stalin's activities as head of the country caused great harm to the people and the reputation of socialism.
The world would expect a tragedy if defeated Germany if she has performed the "General Plan East" if the war continued for many more years, if not decades, and moved to the South American and African continents, to the Middle East, India. Specifically Russian people and their armed forces put an end to the Nazi expansion and Hitler's plans for world domination.