Around the world, set up laboratories, where at low temperatures stored tissue samples from animals and plants
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Nibiru Apophis. WHAT ELSE?
Apocalyptic mood today is in the air. Tourists from all over the world aspire to get on December 21 settlement Tortuguero (Tabasco, Mexico), where he found an ancient Mayan calendar with the date of the apocalypse. Buy tickets — want to see for the last day of the earth.
The scientists from NASA prepared to launch into space telescope, which will try to find the planet Nibiru. According to ancient legends of the Sumerians, with a certain periodicity this celestial "murderer" flies around the earth and carries all sorts of trouble. Thus, some researchers believe that it was the culprit of the gravitational force of the Great Flood and the disappearance of Atlantis. Her next visit as also scheduled for December this year.
In 2029 it is expected to approach Earth asteroid Apophis. Razminetsya he is with us or not — is not known. But today astrophysics with the military preparing plans to capture and explosion of a celestial body.
But even if we will carry on space threats in the world — not less trouble. Biologists year already hit the bell is coming sixth mass extinction of all life on the planet. For a variety of reasons — from the asteroid before the massive volcanic eruptions — five times in the history of the planet killed up to 80 percent of all living organisms. But then it was the nature of fault. Now — the man, his active and destructive activities. The UN estimates that over the next 20 years, the number of animals, birds and plants will be reduced by a third.
Yes, and the man is not eternal. Once, during an interview with RAMS, Professor Vladimir Shabalin have assured:
— On Earth, there are currently about a half million living species — is only 1% of those that have ever existed. That is 99% of the species have gone from an evolutionary stage. And the man is dissolved in an endless cycle of life.
Now imagine that all the prophecies have come true. What, then, will remain on the planet?
It turned out that in the 1980s, scientists are preparing for the worst. And, once Noah prepared an ark. Frozen. Around the world are, and have been constructed somewhere cryobanks where at low temperatures stored tissue samples from animals and plants.
— We seized frozen tissue bodies of many species that are threatened with extinction on the planet — told reporters director of the Biomolecular Research, University of Oxford Alan Cooper. — Thus, we hope to maintain their DNA in the hope in the future through cloning "revive" these creatures.
The project scientists called "Frozen Ark» (Frozen Ark) in memory of the biblical "Noah's Ark". DNA of endangered species are in the British Institute of Genetics, University of Nottingham. Among them — sokorrsky pigeon Arabic oryx and yellow seahorse. Furthermore, additional collections are based on the Center for Reproduction of endangered species in San Diego (USA) and at the Center for storage genes of animals in Melbourne (Australia).
Experts of the American Museum of Natural History in New York, collected one million tissue specimens. Among them — the skin fragments whale, crocodile skins, samples of blood and semen of foxes most valuable sires. By the way, according to the RAAS, only in gene banks Russia kept Bole hundred million doses of semen of bulls. Keep samples in special containers that are cooled with liquid nitrogen at -196 degrees.
— Cold preservative interested people for centuries — explained Sc.D., professor at the Institute of Cytology RAS George kick. — In the beginning of the century in Russia used the low temperature — minus 50-60 degrees. Before World War I there was a breakthrough in science — were liquefied gases. But as kriokonservanta chosen nitrogen as it is fire-and explosion-proof.
According to scientists, the temperature of liquid nitrogen were practically excluded mutations in the DNA molecules, so the genetic material can be stored without violations for tens and hundreds of years, but with protection from radioactivity and cosmic rays — up to three thousand years.
But can they be revived? Scientists do not doubt. Japanese experts from the Center for Evolutionary Biology, Riken Yokohama Institute 16 years ago, some frozen mice. In the autumn of 2008 they took the frozen tissue samples of cells for cloning. Kernel live mouse oocytes were replaced with the nucleus of cells once frozen specimens. Embryos from these eggs were podsazheny the uterus of surrogate mothers. The result came to light two healthy mouse. Careful examination showed that the development of the "resurrection" does not show any abnormalities. One of the pups, barely reaching the appropriate age, happily became a father.
In addition, throughout the world since the 1950s, frozen semen of breeding bulls cells are thawed and used to fertilize cows.
Apples in the snow
Other "arks" store seeds. UN has 1,400 seed banks in different countries. In the U.S., for example, have a repository to 464,000 species of seeds. The largest banks are in China, Japan, India, South Korea, Germany and Canada. In total there is hidden about 7 million specimens.
But the main international cellar was dug five years ago near the North Pole — or rather, the Norwegian town Longierbyun in Svalbard (see website "KP"). There, at a depth of 120 meters are hidden two million seeds, collected from around the world. Over time, their number will double. How to assure the experts, it can be held 1000. The repository maintains a constant temperature of -18 ° C. To protect from moisture seeds packed in four bags, sealed under high temperature. The low temperature and limited access of oxygen to slow aging of seeds.
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— In the most reliable in the world, the store will forever preserve the gene pool of the flora of the Earth — even in the case of universal catastrophe because of falling asteroid or nuclear war — promised during the opening of the "cellar" Nobel Peace Prize winner Wangari Maathai, placing first capsule with seeds to Cryobank.
"Fridge" is to eat less in Russia. In Cryobank Institute of Plant Physiology RAS stored seeds of several species of tropical orchids. From the Botanical Garden RAS frozen 230 species of wild plants, including rare bells, Adonis. The gene pool of peas, beans, buckwheat suspended until better times in the Yakut Institute of Permafrost.
But again the question: can revive them? On this question, scientists once again give an affirmative answer.
— Experiments on the germination of seeds of legumes indicate that these seeds sprout, and produce offspring — says researcher Yakut "ark" Alex Shein.
And in February of this year, biologists from the Institute of Physical and Biological Problems of Soil Science thawed plant seeds — campion narrow-leaved, which had been in the permafrost on the banks of the Kolyma River 30,000 years. And they have grown out of the bush. Completely healthy.
By the way, preserving for posterity the genome of one species of living creatures costs as little as $ 500 — a penny compared to the collider and the Mars rovers.
In general, the "Noah's Ark" is ready. The main thing now — to save Noah, who have opened these carefully walled treasure and raised their inhabitants. So now scientists are studying the human body to freeze in the U.S. — in the fund "Alcor" in Arizona and the Cryonics Institute in Detroit. Established a bank "KrioRus" in Russia. Its director, Igor biophysicist Artyukhov told me in conversation:
— A total of more than 200 today, frozen bodies, but most importantly — to wait for the right technology defrost them to come back to life the healthy. Here we are waiting for a miracle from nanomedicine: running into the body micro-robots could completely restore the cells of the body and the brain.
We hope that researchers will learn how to unfreeze "Judgment Day." And that in fact, and a huge number of human sperm banks in vain.
Category: Scientists, experts, science