Scientists have figured out a system of movement of aliens — it surprises
It turns out, all the mechanics of movement inherent in flying and aquatic animals, from moths and finishing with a whale, can be summed up in one "magic" number. Its value may shed light on the mystery of how birds fly extinct a long time ago, and to help develop new military aircraft.
System of movements of any living organism describes the so-called "number Struhala," reports New Scientist (translation of an article on the website Inopressa.ru). It is equal to the oscillation frequency, multiplied by their amplitude and divided by the speed. It is believed that in most cases, the maximum efficiency is achieved when the value of this number is in the range from 0.2 to 0.4.
Scientists have long known that fish tail movements make the most efficient manner. It was found that the values of the number of fish Struhala lie just in the specified range.
But the staff at Oxford University Graham Taylor, Robert Nadds and Adrian Thomas wondered whether these values are in the same range as in flying animals. To find out, they generalized data on the movement of the wings and the speed of movement by 42 species of bats, insects and birds. It turned out that almost all of these species by Struhala ranges 0.2-0.4.
"In nature, there is a clear rule: in order to move effectively, the number of Struhala should be like this — says Mr. Thomas. — It's amazing what you can get the same result for the moth that flies through the air, and for a whale that is swimming in the water, despite the huge difference in size. "
This rule is so universal that it can allow biologists to determine the speed with which moved extinct species of animals, just based on the structure of their bodies.
Scientists believe that this pattern holds for alien beings. "If on the other planets have water birds or flying organisms, we can assume that this rule applies to them too," — said the researchers.
In addition, the results may help the military develop a winged flying device, comparable in size to the insects that will make movements wings the most effective manner.
At the moment, the U.S. Army used the winged device the size of a bird that are equipped with a camera and allow you to enter the building to see. However, the military needed a much smaller device sizes, resembling insects, they will not attract too much attention.
A study by researchers from Oxford could be a step in the right direction. According to the results of their work, the robot spy with a wingspan of 15 cm and a range of motion of the wing, equal to 10 cm, will have to make wings 30 beats per second.
It is possible that the stumbling block in the way of creating such small devices can become their stability in the air. Therefore, the Air Force United States provided funds Thomas led the team of scientists that those photographed on film motion-fly hoverfly (Syrphidae) and find out the secret by which she keeps balance in flight.