On normal, it would seem, the question of how many times in the past century we had to cross a tool with the Germans, most, of course, will say: "Three." Yes, it was true: the two world wars and civilians in Spain. But found another place on earth, where Russian and Germans looked at each other through the sights of a rifle.
February revolution and the subsequent fratricidal strife led to the downfall of the classical Russian statehood and unprecedented finale of our citizens abroad. Specific Russian emigration has become a mecca of Paris. But not only on the banks of the Seine to find his second homeland once stately former subjects of the empire. Fate has scattered them all over the world, many left in search of happiness and the best bit of the ocean — in Latin America, where most of the exiles settled in Argentina, the land of which were mastered Russian colonists from the 70-ies of the XIX century.
Far shelter for immigrants
But there was on this continent, another country, in which Russian immigrants not only found a shelter, and without exaggeration played a decisive role in its history. It Paraguay. Founded in 1810, to the middle of the XIX century, he was a progressive government, well before the United States to get rid of slavery and to give equal rights to Indians with the descendants of white settlers — the Creoles.
Paraguay was booming economically, which caused displeasure neighbors: Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. They merged in the Triple Alliance, and within six years of war crushed the power of Paraguay, almost bringing it to the demographic catastrophe: the loss of the male population accounted for 80 percent.
It seemed that the country has not revived. But the war in civilian clothes Distant RF echoed in Paraguay, though small, but still a wave rushed to his sparsely covered with tropical forests and expanses of immigrants — White Guard officers first. Specifically, it was destined to change the fate of this small scale in Latin American countries.
The soul of the Russian military exile in Paraguay was Major General Ivan T. Belyaev — the person who undeservedly forgotten by in Russia, and until now revered for his second homeland. This is logical, since Paraguay has specifically Belyaev development before the idle land and victory in a bloody war with the adjacent Bolivia.
Once upon a time, in the years of his youth Distant future general found in the attic of his house map Asuna-one and almost fell in love with this country yet unknown to him. In the Cadet Corps, he learned Spanish and after the unexpected death of a young couple even wanted to go to Paraguay military instructor. But the typical Russian officer corps of duty outweighed the romantic fervor — Belyaev remained in Russia.
First World War, he met an artillery officer and fought valiantly: for saving battery and private management of the attack was awarded the Order of St. Zhora. Noteworthy that Belyaev after severe defeats Russian forces in 1915 proposed to make in the rear of the reserve battalion from each regiment in which regular officers and enlisted men who had a decent experience of service in the prewar period, brought to completion in the glorious tradition of the imperial army.
And if this far-sighted idea was taken up by the command, it is entirely possible that the catastrophic destruction of the army and a bloody fratricidal turmoil could have been prevented.
In 1917, Belyaeva produced in Gen.-Majors. In the eerie months after the February Revolution, when the terror began on the front fighter against the officers, Ivan T. defiantly refuses to remove the straps (for wearing them could just destroy, at previously subjected to torture and humiliation.) Since the beginning of the war he plainclothes Volunteer Army General AI Denikin managed supply.
But unshakable belief monarchist, Belyaev never hidden, and categorical rejection of requisitioning food from the local population gave rise to a strained case in chief.
Denikin, past Republican and conscientious officer, unselfish and even austere in life, he did not approve requisitions, but did not find within itself sufficient forces to fight them. As a result, when in January 1919, based on the Don and Volunteer armies were made Armed Forces of the South of, Belyaev accepted a position as inspector of artillery Volunteer Army, wanting to be closer to the front. After the liberation of Kharkov in the summer of the same year he took up the issue of the arms at the local locomotive plant.
The last page of snow-white movement in the south of the Russian Federation perfectly known — how it is tragic, and so glamorous. The enormous numerical advantage Bolshevik troops has left little of the Russian army of PN Wrangel (took command of Denikin's) chances of success. But the Baron had a rough evacuation of parts of its own civilian population and — in fact everyone — overseas.
In the middle was left Russia and Belyaev: in 1923 he moved to Buenos Aires. Perhaps he would have to share the fate of other immigrants — bordering on poverty, poverty and hard work to survive in the most menial work.
But thanks to Jesse Baroness de Leva, whose late husband was once a good friend's father Belyaeva, the general received a place of the teacher at the institute. His main dream was the creation of the Russian community, able to keep the Russian national, religious and cultural traditions.
However, in Argentina, it was not possible, because the local community of the pre-revolutionary cool reception to newcomers. And in 1924, he moved to Paraguay Belyaev, who became for him and many of his fellow second homeland, where Ivan T. finally able to realize his dream — to make a colony of "Russian hearth."
Driven by wide plans, Belyaev addressed thrown outside the RF countrymen, urging them to move to Paraguay. Responded priemuschestvenno military and engineers, just because the country.
Soon Belyaev and his colleagues study commissioned officers and unexplored lands inhabited by Indians who made up the Chaco region. Ivan T. completed topographic survey and established contact with the local tribes, language, life, religion and culture, which he specifically investigated. As a symbol of respect Indians gave the name Alebuk Belyaev (Strong Hand) and was elected head of the clan Tigers. Total Russian officers have made 13 scientific expeditions to the Chaco.
And most importantly — they deserve sympathy for the Redskins, which played an important role for Paraguay a few years later, when he was subjected to anger on the part of Bolivia.
The war between the states with 2 raging from 1932 to 1935 and was the most brutal in the XX century in Latin America.
The premise of confrontation became just the Chaco region, which accounts for 60 percent of the country of Paraguay. Why are these sparsely populated and rugged tropical undergrowth were a bone of contention between the two countries-name? At the final of the 20's there was an assumption, as in the Chaco are rich deposits of oil. Looking ahead, we note that this is not confirmed. In addition, the capture of Bolivia's Chaco open access to the Atlan
tic Ocean through the Paraguay River.
Recently the war, many were convinced of the victory of the Bolivians. La Paz provided a diplomatic support of the U.S., interested in controlling the transport of oil from the Chaco. Bolivia Paraguay exceed 3.5 times the population and the same amount — the size of the military budget. It also has a huge number of aircraft and was armed with tanks, missing the enemy.
But Bolivians beheld its key advantage over the Paraguayans in the other — at the head of their armies stood in the face of the German High Command General Hans Kundt, was assisted by 120 German officers. They complement mercenaries — priemuschestvenno Chileans same Germans, among which was recognizable and future manager of Nazi stormtroopers E. Roehm.
Behind him Kundt, like many of his fellow citizens in the Bolivian Army — Military Academy of the German General Staff. Kundt himself had the experience of the First World War, the margin of which was known associate of Field Marshal von Mackensen. Bolivian general staff headed by another German — General von Kluge.
At first, Paraguay countered that 50 thousand armed with machetes Redskins and three thousand Russian volunteers, decided: "Almost 12 years ago, we lost our beloved Russia, occupied by the Bolsheviks. Now Paraguay — a country that has sheltered us from the love and she's going through languorous days. So what did we wait, gentlemen? This is our second homeland and she needs our help. Because we are fighting officers! ".
One of the companions of Belyayev was Major General Nikolai Franzevich Erne — the last in the Imperial Army, produced in this office, Nicholas II. In Paraguay, Ern served as a teacher at the Military Academy. Belyaev himself with the war became head of the Paraguayan General Staff. Of the three Russian officers — the chiefs of staff of armies, one led by Division, commanded 12 shelves. In addition, it was formed by two Russian battalions. All received in the Paraguayan army, our fellow citizens were naturalized newest country.
The main purpose of the coming of their own background Kundt beheld Nanava fort, the capture of which allow Bolivians to cut the enemy's communications and almost in one fell swoop to bring him out of the war.
From a strategic point of view, the German military commander has, of course, the right decision, but his chosen strategy differed excessive candor, and as shown by the subsequent action was disastrous for the Bolivian army. At the direction of the head hitting background Kundt made twice an advantage over the enemy and considered it sufficient for victory by throwing their troops, supported by aircraft and 2 tanks, "Vickers" with German crews in frontal attacks, and not brought to them of success, but turned back formidable losses.
And planes in the jungle criteria was ineffective, as well as tanks, vyaznuvshie in swamps and constantly breaks because of incorrect operation.
But the main cause of trouble Kundt developed operations in another. Defense Nanava ruled Belyaev and Ern. They were ordered to do the wrong weapon emplacements — the trunks of palm trees, disguised as artillery, which the Bolivian planes dropping bombs. Thanks to the Russian generals and helped them to fellow Paraguayan positions were well equipped in engineering terms: approaches to them covered Stitching wire and minefields. Along with the jungle it has become an insurmountable obstacle for the Bolivian soldier, many of which — the inhabitants of the high plateau, unusual nor to the climate, nor to the landscape.
Having said that, even in the middle of Belyaev 20s visited the area Nanava and well researched area around this population Fri Even then, knowing the intensity of Bolivian-Paraguayan relations, Ivan T. considering the possibility of impact in this particular direction.
CONTRIBUTE Belyaev and his front-line experience: in 1915, he fought with the Germans in the Carpathian Mountains — rugged and wooded areas. In addition, the Russian general successfully used the strategy of subversive groups, made up of priemuschestvenno Redskins, as we recall, who knew well and respected by our compatriot from the time of his scientific expeditions in the Chaco.
These units operate on the communications of the enemy, making it difficult to supply deployed on the front of his troops. By the way, we note that a significant numerical and technical superiority of Bolivians were compensated, their isolation from rear bases for about 300 km. And it is the lack of criteria for railway transportation and impassable tropical undergrowth.
10 days of fighting turned to the Paraguayans 248 killed, Bolivians also lost two thousand people. These low loss Paraguayans — a direct consequence of the chosen strategy Belyaev, also a competent training methods Paraguayan soldier, running Russian officers is rapidly becoming a real expert. As well as great sacrifices Bolivians — the vicious straight action Kundt.
Soon in La Paz understood that the steps vaunted German commander Bolivian army operation will only ignominious death, and a year after the outbreak of hostilities, he was sent into retirement.
It's not got the best of the country from destruction, for the Bolivian generals could have the least, if the Germans were perfectly designed to withstand Belyaev and his Russian officers operations. By 1935, the military actions were transferred to the area of Bolivia, army which was on the verge of collapse and almost lost fighting capacity.
Ultimately, the parties signed a peace. Paraguay defended the territorial integrity and sovereignty. Minor acquisitions Bolivia were not worth the blood of any of its fighter, no deprivation of peaceful inhabitants.
After the war,
What was the fate of the Russian Belyaev and his colleagues after the war? Ivan T. in 1937, left the army and all the forces of enlightenment gave the Redskins, having created the first American Indian theater. Immediately, he was a consultant to the Ministry of Defence of Paraguay. General died in 1957 and was buried with full military honors. The country declared a three-day state mourning. On the peninsula of the Paraguay River, and now we can build the tomb of General, which is the inscription on a gravestone in Suvorov's style: "Here lies Belyaev."
Nicholas Franzevich Ern was promoted to lieutenant general Paraguayan Army after the war he served in the General Staff. Ern lived longer lives: died in 1972 at the age of 92. The funeral took place in the presence of the higher ranks of the Paraguayan army, with the role of the presidential guard. The officers of the garrison at the hands of Asunción carried the coffin to the grave.
Without exaggeration, we can say that in any country of the world did not belong to Russian immigrants so warm and sincere reverence, as in this small and friendly Latin American country. In honor of our fellow citizens were called streets and towns. And so far in Paraguay can meet the street, for example, Colonel Butlerova Blinov captain, engineer Krivosheina, doctors Sispanov. The country church was built in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary appeared and cemetery, similar Sainte-Genevieve-des-Bois, "Holy Field."
Last but not least thanks to Russian immigrants, after beating Bolivians who played a major role in the life of Paraguay, it was the only country in the world, and did not recognize the communist regime in Russia. This award is ruled by the state from 1954 to 1989, General Alfredo Stroessner — the drama of fate descendant of German immigrants.
In the Chaco War, as a young lieutenant, Stroessner shoulder on shoulder fought the Russian officers, and later served as a long-term under them. All my life it has kept them respect and took over from their hard-line anti-communist beliefs. Paraguayan government just met his military colleagues from the Far RF and always tried to personally see off in the last journey of each of
And made Belyaev center "Russian Island" (it is in the current time there in Paraguay), as well as the descendants of our fellow citizens, immigrants, as in the past played a major role in the cultural, political and scientific life of the country.