In the Russian time, was taken the view that the Russian Imperial Army entered World completely unprepared, was "backward" and this resulted in a huge loss, shortage of arms and ammunition. But it is not one hundred percent correct judgment, although shortcomings in the Royal Army lacked, as in other armies.
Russian-Japanese war was lost not by the military, but for political reasons. After she had done enormous work to rebuild the fleet, the reorganization of forces, elimination of defects. In the end, the First World War on their own training, the level of technical equipment of the Russian Army was second only to Germany. But you have to take into account the fact that the German Empire deliberately preparing for a military solution to the question of the redistribution of spheres of influence, colonies, dominions in Europe and the world. The Russian Imperial Army was the countless in the world. Our homeland after the mobilization fielded 5.3 million people.
First XX century the territory of the Russian Empire was divided into 12 military districts plus the area of the Don Cossacks. At the head of each was a commander. Reservist were men aged between 21 and 43 years old. In 1906, the term of service was reduced to three years, it is allowed to have a 1.5-million-strong army in peacetime, in addition to two-thirds of which consisted of a fighter of the second and third years of life and a significant number of reservists. After three years on active service in the Army man was 7 years in the reserve 1st grade, 8 years old — 2nd category. Those who did not serve, but was fit health for military service because taken into the army is not all recruits (they had an overabundance, took a little more than half of the recruits) were recorded in the militia. Recorded in the militia were divided into two categories. First level — in the case of war, they had to fill up the army. 2nd level — there were enlisted those who were dismissed from military service for health reasons, of his war plan forms the battalions ("teams") militia. In addition, the army could get there, and if desired, a volunteer.
It should be noted that many of the peoples in the empire were exempt from military service: Muslims of the Caucasus and Central Asia (they paid a special tax), the Finns, the small peoples of the North. However, there were few "mixed ethnic armies." These were irregular cavalry compounds whose composition on a voluntary basis could make the representatives of the Islamic peoples of the Caucasus.
Service carried by Cossacks. They were a special military caste, there were 10 major Cossack troops: Don, Kuban, Terek, Orenburg, Ural, Siberian, Semirechensky, Trans-Baikal, Amur, Ussuri, and Irkutsk and Krasnoyarsk Cossacks. Cossack troops exhibited "servicemen" and "militia". "Service class" were divided into 3 categories: advanced (20 — 21 year) Drill (21 — 33), the combatant Cossacks carried a particular service; reserve (33 — 38 years), they unfolded in the event of war, to make up for losses. The main combat units were regiments of Cossacks, and hundreds of divisions (artillery). During the First World War, the Cossacks regiments put up 160 and 176 individual hundreds, along with the Cossack infantry and artillery over 200 thousand people.
Cossack Guards Cossack Regiment.
The basic organizational unit of the Russian army was housing, it consisted of three infantry divisions and one cavalry division. Each infantry division during the war strengthened the Cossack cavalry regiment. In the 4 th Cavalry Division was a cavalry regiment and 4 (Dragoons, Hussars, Lancers, Cossack) at 6 squadrons, as machine-gun and artillery battalion of 12 guns.
At the armed infantry stood since 1891 shoplifting 7.62mm rifle (rifle Mosin trehlineyka). This rifle made in 1892 at the Tula, Izhevsk and Sestroretsky weapons factories, manufacturing facilities due to shortcomings order and abroad — in France, the United States. In 1910 adopted an altered rifle. Following the adoption in 1908 of "easy" ("offensive") followed by a sharp-nosed bullets upgrade rifle, so put brand new curved rib system Konovalov, compensate for changes in the line of motion bullet. By the time the Empire in the First World War Mosin performed in the dragoon, infantry and the Cossack species. In addition, in May 1895 by decree of the ruler was adopted by the Russian army under the gun Nagant 7.62 mm cartridge. By July 20, 1914 in the Russian army on the report card was 424,434 units Nagan pistol of all modifications (by the state was supposed to 436,210), ie, the army was almost completely secured revolvers.
Also, for the army was 7.62-mm machine gun "Maxim". Initially it bought fleet, as in the years 1897-1904 was bought about 300 guns. Attributed to artillery guns, they put on a heavy carriage with wheels and a huge bolshennymi broneschitom (weight of the assembly came to 250 kg). They were going to use for the defense of fortresses and equipped in advance, protected positions. In 1904, they began to create the Tula Arms Plant. Russian-Japanese war showed them the highest efficiency on the battlefield, machine guns in the army began to shoot with heavy carriages, in order to increase maneuverability put on a lighter and more comfortable to transport machines. Need to see that the machine-gun crew are often thrown and heavy broneschity, setting in practice that the defense disguise position is more important than the shield, and at the coming on the first place there is the mobility. Ultimately, these improvements could reduce the weight of 60 kg.
Maxim's machine gun on the fortress ("artillery") carriage. 1915.
This gun was not worse than their foreign counterparts, according to the saturation of the Russian guns army not inferior to the French and German armies. Russian Infantry Battalion 4 (16-latitude) of the composition was armed by the state on May 6, 1910 machine gun team with 8 Maxim machine gun. Do Germans and French have 6 guns per regiment of 12th company
commander. Our homeland war met with good artillery of small and medium caliber, so the 76 mm divisional gun model. 1902 (the base of field artillery Russian Empire) was superior for his fighting qualities with 75-mm high-rate French and German 77-mm gun and received the highest mark Russian gunners. The Russian infantry division had 48 guns, the Germans — 72, the French — 36. But our homeland behind in heavy field artillery from the Germans (and the French, the British, Austrians). In Russia and did not appreciate the significance of mortars, although had the experience of their use in the Russian-Japanese war.
First, the 20th century was an active development of military technology. In 1902, Russian military forces there cars. By the First World War the army had more than 3 million cars (for example, the Germans were only 83). The Germans had underestimated the role of motor vehicles, they believed that it is necessary only for advanced, intelligence units. In 1911, founded the Imperial air force. Our home when the war was over all airplanes — 263 in Germany — 232 from France — 156, in the UK — 90 in Austria-Hungary — 65. Our home was a world leader in the construction and implementation of seaplanes (aircraft Dmitry Pavlovich Grigorovich). In 1913, the aviation department of Russian-Baltic Carriage Factory in St. Petersburg under the control of II Sikorski was built four-engine plane, "Ilya Muromets" — the first passenger plane in the world. After the war of the 4 planes, "Ilya Muromets" have made the first connection in the world bombers.
Since 1914 in the Russian army armored vehicles have implemented rapidly, and in 1915 began to take tests first standards tanks. First field radios made by Popov and Trinity appeared in the armed forces in 1900. Used in the Russian-Japanese war in 1914 in all cases were made by "spark Company" used telephone and telegraph communication.
Developing military science, were published a number of works of military theorists: NP Mihnevich — "Strategy", AG Elchaninov — "Doing the modern battlefield," VA Cheremisov — "Foundations of modern art of war", AA Neznamov — "Modern War." In 1912 he published the "Charter Field Service", "Manual for the actions of field artillery in action," in 1914 — "Manual for the infantry in combat", "Manual on the firing of rifles, carbines and revolvers." The main type of fighting was considered coming, but a lot of attention was paid to the defense. Offensively, the Corps used the intervals of up to 5 steps (a rare battle lines than in other European armies). Allowed to climb, traffic rushes, extension offices and individual soldiers from position to position under the cover of his comrades. From fighter sought to dig in, not only in defense, and in offensive actions. We studied the meeting engagement, the actions in the night criteria, a good level of training showed the Russian gunners. Cavalrymen were taught to act not only in the horse, and on foot. At the highest level, has been training officers and non-commissioned officers. High level of knowledge gave the Academy of the General Staff.
Naturally, there were failures, so the issue has not been resolved with an automatic weapon for infantry, although there are promising developments (Fedorov worked on them. Tokarev, etc.). Not entered the mortars. Very bad was the preparation of the reserve, but the Cossacks were duty and training. Those who screen out and hitting the military service, did not have any training. Poor things were a reserve officer. These were the people who have received higher education, with a diploma they received the rank of lieutenant, but the real service does not have a clue. Also included in the reserve officers, retired on health, by age, for misconduct.
In Russia, underestimated the ability of heavy artillery, succumbed to the influence of French and German theories of misinformation (the Germans before the war vigorously criticized mnogokalibernye guns). They realized too late, before the war was the latest example program, in which planned to seriously strengthen the artillery: the body was to account for 156 guns from their heavy — 24. Vulnerable point of the Russian Federation was to build up foreign producers. Not known for their top military capabilities Sukhomlinov Minister Vladimir Alexandrovich (1909-1915). It was a clever administrator, but did not differ excessive zeal, tried to minimize the effort — instead of the development of Russian industry has found a more conventional way. Chosen, ordered, received a "thanks" from the manufacturer, the product is received.
Russian strategic plan other day of the First World War
The German Schlieffen Plan was broadly known in Russia. The Germans planted a fake Russian intelligence, but resulted in the General Staff, it was a fake, and the "contradiction" recreated the real plans of the enemy.
The Russian war plan foresaw two scenarios of war. Plan "A" — first hit the Germans applied in France, and the plan "G" if the Russian empire against the will to wage war not only Austria-Hungary, and the Germans will strike first and main attack against us. In this scenario, most of the Russian forces had to act against Germany.
In the first scenario, which has been carried out, 52% of all the forces (Army 4) focused their against Austria-Hungary. Counter punches from Poland and Ukraine, they had to kill the enemy grouping in Galicia (near Lviv-Przemysl) and then prepare the coming toward Vienna and Budapest. Successes against Austria-Hungary had to hold the Kingdom of Poland from the likely rebellion. Against the German Empire was to operate 33% of all the forces (Army 2). They had to put converging attacks from Lithuania (from the east) and from Poland (from the south), to break the Germans in East Prussia and the danger to the central regions of Germany. Acts against Germany had to postpone part of the forces of the German Army, which operated against France. Another 15% of forces have been allocated in two separate armies. The 6th Army was to defend the Baltic coast and St. Petersburg, and the 7th Army — the border with Romania and the Black Sea.
After mobilization against Germany was to be set: 9 cases (2 army), their were 19 infantry divisions, 11 infantry divisions vtoroocherednyh, 9 ½ Cavalry Division. Against Austria-Hungary, 17 corps, there were 33.5 Infantry Division, vtoroocherednyh 13 infantry divisions, 18 cavalry division and a half. In two separate armies consisted of 2 buildings with a 5-to five infantry divisions, 7th vtoroocherednymi infantry divisions, with 3 cavalry divisions. Another 9 corps remained in a reserve in Siberia and Turkestan.
It should be noted that our homeland was the first state to create such associations operating as the front — North-Western and South-Western Fronts. In other countries, all the armies of concentrating on a single management body — the GHQ.
Taking into account the fact that the terms of mobilization of the Russian army lagged in comparison with the German and Austro-Hungarian, in Russia have decided to remove the limit deploy armies of the German and Austro-Hungarian border. To the German and Austro-Hungarian army could not hold a consistent coming to Bialystok or Brest-Litovsk, and generally along the east bank of the Vistula in order to cut off the Russian army from the center of the empire. German forces against the Russian forces to focus on the turn of Siauliai, Kaunas, Neman River, Beaver, Western Bug and Narew. This line was removed from Germany almost 5 hits and was the strongest line of defense for its natural properties. Against Austro-Hungarian Empire, the troops were to be concentrated at the turn of Ivangorod, Lublin, Hillock, Dubno, Proskurov. Austro-Hungarian army was considered not such a strong and insecure.
Binding factor was the event that our homeland perce
ived themselves to speak directly with France against Germany. The French pledged to the 10th days of mobilization to put 1.3 million people and immediately start military operations. Russian side gave the commitment to put that time 800 million people (need to take into account the fact that Russian army was scattered over a large area of the country, as well as mobilization reserves), and on the 15th day mobilization to start coming against Germany. In 1912, it has been agreed that if the Germans were concentrated in the East Prussia, while Russian troops will attack from the Narew on Allenstein. And in this case, if the German forces unfold in Thorne, Poznan, Russian hit directly on Berlin.
Supreme Commander was to become ruler, and the actual operation should the Chief of Staff, he became head of the Academy of the General Staff Nikolai Yanushkevich. The post quartermaster-general, who was responsible for all operational work was Nikiforovich Yuri Danilov. Supreme Commander was eventually appointed stately Duke Nicholas. The stake was created in Baranavichy.
Main place of feeble plan:
— The need to start coming to the end of the mobilization and concentration of forces. On the 15th day mobilization Our homeland could concentrate only about a third of its own forces, this led to the fact that the Russian imperial army had to fight in the coming state of partial completion.
— The need to conduct offensive actions against 2-powerful enemies, it was impossible to concentrate the main forces against the 1 st of them.