"It is necessary first to find the enemy in the air, which will enable to seize the initiative, and the means to bring success … "Catch" the enemy, pilot-fighter must not let him out of "capture" before the time, until the last cartridge is expended, then it is useful to indicate the desire to ram an enemy airplane. Such a maneuver often forces the opponent to create a landing in our territory. "
These lines belong to the captain of the low Evgrafov — Russian pilot, who developed the base strategy of the Russian fighter aircraft. Thanks to these courageous intellectuals laid the Russian school of air combat, from which came more than a dozen aces.
AUGUST 26, 1914. On that day our compatriot Captain Peter Nesterov, the world's first aerial victories scored. At the end of the month the Austrian Air Force began also active in the South-Western Front — the first global war was already in full swing. Almost exploration was conducted in the open. August 25th crew of the 1st "Albatross" took off at the airport of the Russian-based 11th Bomb Squadron. The next morning he reappeared over the disposition of our forces near the town of Zholkva that near Lviv. Rising into the air Peter Nesterov sent their own "morality" to intercept the enemy. Having overtaken the enemy car, he knocked her ramming attack. Pyotr Nesterov became an ace in the same battle, he died himself.
The word "ace"Aviation was confirmed in a bit later. Translated from the French means ace, distorted Old French «Deus»-God. First official title appropriated ace pilot, having gained more than 5 registered wins (confirmed by 3 and more than witnessing a fight) — France, Britain and Russia, and a 7 — in Germany and Austria-Hungary. A little later for the title ace needed to bring down more than 10 enemy aircraft.
Thus, the ram could not be the optimal air combat fighting techniques, and so many military pilots found the method of installation on aircraft guns. Now November 3, 1914 French military pilot Sergeant Roland Garros, together with Major de Rose invented a device that allows you to shoot a machine gun through the plane swept screw the working motor, aviation previously used exclusively for intelligence purposes. Soon serial warplanes Moran-Saulnier equipped with novelty Garro and a machine gun — it was mounted parallel to the axis of the aircraft. In March 1915, an aircraft into the battle in different parts of Germany and the French front. Sam Garro scored three victories and, in fact, opened the line up aces. Garro followers were many French pilots. They began to wreak havoc in the middle of the enemy. But it so happened that the first ace in April of the same 1915 was captured by the Germans, and they successfully used already well-established principles of combat introduction of aviation. Moreover, the designer Anthony Fokker, who worked in Germany, installs plane synchronizer machine-gun fire, which significantly increased its combat ability. There are fighter planes, and right behind them aces — French, German, Russian, Austrian …
First formed the French school of aerial combat it, by the way, were many Russian pilots. In 1916, the French had great fighter units. German ace Manfred von Richthofen in his own memoirs, French fighters called "magicians". "They love to set traps, attacking by surprise, he noted. In the air, it is not easy to do and easy to escape the trap, because plane the enemy in the air is no longer visible, and invisible plane not yet invented. Because fall for such tricks can only be new. In general, the Gallic blood occasionally manifests itself, and then stormed the French … ".
Of strongest representative of the French school of the air battle captain Rene Paul Fonck scored 75 victories. On account of Captain George Guynemer — 54 won the match. 3rd result — the lieutenant Karls Nenzhessera — 43 victory. In the French Air Force in World 52 pilot shot down more than 10 aircraft each. In total, they have killed 908 enemy vehicles. French pilots have gained major victories on the fighters of its own production — Moran-Saulnier «N», SPAD-VII Louis Besher design, SPAD-VIII, and the Nieuport 11 Nieuport 17. So, SPAD-III (it waged war aces — Fonck, Guynemer, Nenzhesser), filled 150-horsepower engine, a top speed of 180 km / h and was the most high of all military aircraft. His arms — one synchronous machine gun bullets with a huge SUPPLIES — 500.
But the merits of the RAF pilots (among them were also natives of Canada, Australia, of New Zealand, some African countries). On account of Major Edward Mannock shot down 73 aircraft, Major General William Bishop (UK) — 72 Major R. Collishaw (Canada) — 60. 29 British pilots won more than 10 wins each, destroying all that 681 aircraft. If you take into account the merits of the pilots who belonged to Britain, the result of more weight. For example, the 18 most effective pilots won more than 35 wins each, shooting down a total difficulties 881 aircraft. British fighter aces fought on De Havilland DH2, Bristol F2, Sopwith F.1. "Camel". In the U.S. Air Force 10 pilots were aces, destroying 142 enemy vehicles along.
South American pilots fought in the Air Force and other countries of the Entente, and therefore the total score aces United States more weight — 293 downed aircraft. Of strongest pilot Captain Edward Rickenbacker won 26 aerial duels. Among the aces of the First World and went 9 of Italian pilots shot down 183 aircraft. The most productive of them — Francisco Baracca — 34 air victories. Fought bravely and Belgian pilots, three of which have killed more than 10 enemy aircraft each. A favorite, Lieutenant Willy Coppens, scored 37 victories.
Masters of air combat proven and Russian pilots (of their conversation in front). A total aces Entente was shot down over 2,000 German aircraft. The Germans recognized that they have lost in air combat aircraft and 2,138 that are not returned from the location of the enemy about 1,000 cars.
Against this background, the merits of the German aces look more respectable. In 161 German Air Force pilot was on his own account and more than 10 aerial victories (such number of aces had no air force of any country). They killed 3,270 enemy machines. Many aviation specialists believe that a personal priority for the German ace — a captain Manfred von Richthofen. According to them, he shot down the most enemy aircraft — 80, according to other sources — about 60. 62 wins in its own asset is Lt. Ernst Udet, 53 — Lieutenant Ernst Levenhardt. Among the aces Germans and the Allies — Air Force pilots of Austria-Hungary. So, Captain Godwin Brushovsky won 40 bouts.
The German pilots during the war fighter used Albatross D.III and Albatros DV, Fokker E.SCH, Fokker D.VII, Fokker D.VIII, and other modifications (ie, Manfred von Richthofen had fought a fighter Fokker Dr-1), Junkers D1.
Now about the effectiveness of the pilot of the First World. Painstaking analysis of documents and literature on the use of fighter aircraft in 1914-1918, states that he is a French pilot Rene Paul Fonck with 75 aerial victories. Well, what about the German ace Manfred von Richthofen, which some researchers attribute destroyed 80 enemy aircraft and consider it of strongest ace of the First World? There is reason to believe (based on the research of some harsh professionals) that Richthofen's 20 wins are not reliable.
And what are the merits of the First World Russian pilots? Prior to this, we note that the first fighter squadrons in the Russian army were first made in 1915. One defended Warsaw, the second guard against attack from the air royal bet. In the spring of 1916 formed another 12 fighter units — one for field army. In the same year, due to the fact that Germany has deployed to the east more aircraft, are the front-line fighter units. Russian pilots have waged war on the French aircraft production in 1915, there is the first Russian-made fighter Sikorsky S-16.
The greatest number of victories of Russian pilots won Captain Alexander Kazakov — 17 (unconfirmed, given the downed aircraft that fell on the area occupied by the enemy, — 32). The war for him began Dec. 29, 1914, when he was after Gatchinskaya military aviation school arrived at the Western Front in the 4th Squadron of cabinet. Fighters in our awareness did not exist then, and he first enemy aircraft shot down on high-speed monoplane "Moran-Zholne" made in France — ramming attack. April 1, 1915 Captain found west of the Vistula River near the village of Guzov German biplane "Albatross", caught up with him and knocked the wheels, a German plane flew like a stone. And then there were more and more aerial victories.
The captain knocked Yevgraf Kruten 15 (20) of enemy aircraft, Captain Peter Argue — 15. Despite the modest outcome compared with other states aces, had a reputation as a high-quality Russian military pilots who have used sophisticated tactics. French military pilot Jean Duval, who was watching over the actions of Russian fighter pilots on the Eastern Front, recommended to his colleagues: "Do flip, spin, dive and other numbers in relation to the enemy, doing the same thing. Similarly, the distance from where you left, occupy the position for firing, with the machine gun is aimed at the target, and all this in a quarter of a second — only then will success … "
A lot of tricks in the arsenal of aerial combat has brought Yevgraf Kruten. His more processed receptions — attack with the advantage of height, the passage of the sun at 50-100 meters below the enemy, cool fighting spread to the tail of an enemy airplane. Kruten opened fire with a rather short distance — 19-15 meters. The best pilots in Germany and Austria in the battles with him constantly suffered defeat. Thus, the Austrian ace Lieutenant Frank von Linco-Crawford (30 wins) three times, "crossed swords in the air" with Kruten and, as noted himself an Austrian, each time was required to "drop" (land) to save his life. On the eastern front of the low was not equal.
Fought professionally and other Russian pilots. Columnist for one of the Austrian newspaper noted that "the Russian pilots were and still are to us more insecure adversary more insecure than the French." Ah well!
Russian air aces FIRST WORLD
2. The captain Yevgraf Kruten 15 aircraft
3. Captain Peter Argue 15 aircraft
4. Lieutenant AP Seversky 13 aircraft
5. Lieutenant Ivan Smirnov 12 aircraft
6. Lieutenant Mikhail Safonov 11 aircraft
7. Captain Boris Sergievsky 11 aircraft
8. Ensign Edward Thomson 11 aircraft
9. Ensign Constantine Artseulov about 10
x — The following table shows only confirmed victory.
x — Some researchers believe that the Russian pilots P.Marinovich, V.Fyodorov, I.Orlov shot down more than 10 enemy planes each, and E.Pulpe, G.Suk, O.Teter, Ya.Mahlapuu, V.Yanchenko and eleven more pilots more than 5.
Zabugornye air aces FIRST WORLD
2. Mannock (UK) 73 aircraft
3. Bishop (UK) 72 aircraft
4. Udet (Germany) 62 aircraft
5. Manfred von Richtofen (Germany) 60 aircraft
6. Guynemer (France) 54 Plane
7. Mc Caddy (UK) 54 aircraft
8. Levenhardt (Germany) 53 Plane
9. Fallard (UK) 48 aircraft
10. Voss (Germany) 48 aircraft
11. Rumei (Germany) 45 aircraft
12. Berthold (Germany) 44 aircraft
13. Beymer (Germany) 43samoleta
14. Credit (UK) 43
15. Nenzhesser (France) 43 planes
16. Loeser (Germany) 41 aircraft
17. Madon (France) 41
18. Jacobs (Germany) 41 aircraft
19. Belka (Germany) 40 aircraft
20. Brushovsky (Austria) 40 aircraft
21. Buchner (Germany) 40 aircraft
22. Lothar von Richthofen (Germany) 40 aircraft
23. Menkgoff (Germany) 39 aircraft
24. Gonterman (Germany) 39 aircraft
25. Coppens (Belgium) 37 aircraft
x — The assets of aces — the destruction of the enemy aircraft and balloons. At the expense of some pilots entered and unconfirmed aerial victories.
x — Of the English aces in the table are only British.