The Russian missile weapon of the 19th century

Vladimir Sokolov. The head of "Rocket Artillery XIX Century" from the book "Fire-worshipers"

The story of rocketry XIX century should begin by mentioning the name of the famous Russian designer, organizer of the production and the use of military rockets Zasyadko General Alexander Dmitrievich (1779-1837) [in the portrait on the left]. Intrigued by the missile business in 1814, he has three years to show artillery range in St. Petersburg military rockets of their own design, range which reaches 2,670 meters manufacturing these missiles in a special pyrotechnic laboratory in Mogilev. In 1826, work was transferred to St. Petersburg, where for the purpose it was created constant missile facility that can provide high-volume creation powder rockets.

Zasyadko not only outstanding rocket designer, and founder of the specialized military missile units, shown to be effective in almost all the fighting early XIX century. In the evaluation, given to him by Field Marshal Barclay de Tolly, said: "During the time spent with your main my apartment to see the preparation and consumption of experiences in the army missiles with pleasure I beheld successful work and diligence in your opening so new and useful tool."

At the initiative of Zasyadko in Russian-Turkish war of 1828-29 years. creation of missiles has been established specifically in the area of combat. As a result of the 24 companies of the 2nd Army received about 10 thousand missiles calibers from 6 to 36 pounds. (The last line matched the caliber of 106 mm.) To start their available units were launchers, providing simultaneous launch up to 36 missiles. These were the "ancestors" of eminent Guards mortar — "Katyusha".

In March 1829 missile design Zasyadko arming ships of the Danube Flotilla. This was the beginning of the introduction of missile weapons in the Navy, which contributed to the "Note on the introduction of the use of missiles in the Navy." Creator of the "Diary" was another prominent Russian rocket scientist since Colonel (and soon-General) Konstantin Konstantinov (1818-1871) [in the portrait on the left]. He was, of course, one of the most outstanding figures in the history of Russian missile technology. The aforementioned "Note", he pointed out: "Missiles that the action with the galleys could be useful, should not be the least 4 inches in diameter and 2-foot lengths. They are provided with brandkugelyami or any other shell stuffed with discontinuous or incendiary composition. " Tube launchers for these missiles had a length of 5 feet and allowed to fire "with leaving the rowers in their places."

It is noteworthy that engineered Konstantinov ship missiles were supplied with "side holes in the direction per se, that fire could erupt in the direction of the tangent to the circumference of the rocket, the purpose of this device is that, during the flight of a rocket report rotational movement, from which it has validity and a huge range of flight. " At an elevation angle of 45-55 ° launcher these missiles had initially range above 3 km. Konstantinov believed that "resists the countless fleet, under appropriate criteria for the use of missiles can deliver any success." Chairman of the Naval Scientific Committee supported the initiative of Colonel Konstantinov and requested the General Admiral (at the time — the highest naval officer of the Russian Empire, which was subordinated to and Marine Department) on the implementation of missiles on combat ships and coastal fortresses. As a result, in service of the Russian Navy and Coast Guard were incendiary, illumination and rescue rocket calibers: 2, 2 1/2 and 4 inches with a range of up to 4 km. As the warhead used on their "trehfuntovye, chetvertpudovye polupudovye and grenades", also "near and far buckshot." Flares were equipped with parachutes. Rescue missiles were used to dump all (cables) from the ship in distress or at him. In one of the budget documents designated agency reported that in the batch of 590 missiles had been paid
2034 rubles 46 3/4 penny.

Since January 1851 formation of the first Russian naval missile training team. A year later, she was transferred to the Ordnance Department of the Ministry of Marine. This command is located in Kronstadt. Experienced missile battery has eight launchers "machines" made by the Kronstadt Naval plant. The personnel of the batteries included 3 officers, eight gunner and 30 privates. Battery commander was appointed captain Marine Corps artillery Musselius. Previously, he served at St. Petersburg Missile institution, where he showed himself an outstanding scientist and pyrotechnics. Numerous experienced shooting held battery Musselius in Kronstadt, namely the four-inch firing incendiary rockets in June 1856, have allowed the Navy Department to make further conclusion: "Martial and incendiary 4 -, 2 — and 2 1/2-inch missiles with great utility can change weapons at all rowing boats, as in cleansing the enemy shore so well and for the burning of fortresses. "

Found in the reports of artillery Black Sea Fleet flagship for 1848 minutes of regular firing from ships along the shore combat cruise missiles evidence of an organized military use of Russian missile ship's guns still 6 years before the Crimean War. In August of the same year at Fort "Emperor Peter I» were conducted first tests of missiles and coastal defense, which showed the need for missile sea fortresses. Generally, in the 40-ies of the XIX century, rockets fired by the St. Petersburg Missile institution in bulk, firmly joined the existing military facilities of the Russian armed forces. In 1850 the commander of this institution has been appointed General Konstantinov. His organizational, military and engineering activities have gained heyday in 1870, when he was put in charge of them designed by Europe's largest missile factory in the town of Nikolayev on the Bug. This plant has been equipped with automatic machines construction Konstantinov. His name has received international acclaim. When the Spanish government conspired to build a similar plant in Seville, it has asked for assistance from the Konstantinov.

Especially necessary to emphasize the importance of the device invented by Konstantinov for determining the most experienced flight speed in some areas the trajectory of rockets and artillery shells. In the base unit acts lay dimension of discrete time intervals between pulses of the electron current, the accuracy of which was brought to 0.00006 seconds. It was an amazing achievement for that time practical metrology. It is interesting that the author of trying to assign themselves a recognizable British physicist and businessman Charles Winston. But the intervention of the Paris Academy has fixed value for the Russian inventor.

Konstantinov made another very fundamental for laboratory research rockets device — a ballistic pendulum. With it Konstantinov for the first time established a constructive depending driving force of missiles and the configuration of its law in time from the beginning to the end of burning rocket fuel. To record the readings device used auto electrical device. Konstantinov wrote: "Missile Pendulum brought us a lot of guidance relating to the impact of the proportionality of the components of the missile, the missile the size of the internal voids, number and size of points on the generation of the driving forces of the rocket and the sight of her actions, but these experiments were not yet quite numerous, so enjoy all that can be expected of such a device. " Based on the test results is no
t enough massive rockets Konstantinov came to the wrong conclusion about the impossibility of the creation of a large mass of aircraft to fly in space with the help of rockets.

Looking ahead, we say that the ability of the missile ballistic pendulum had not been exhausted by its inventor. In 1933, the pendulum was used successfully Konstantinov employees Gas Dynamics Laboratory — the first Russian organizations that worked on the rocket and space technology — the final design of the world's first electronic rocket motor.

Lasted until the military action, the need for the supply of military units missiles grew. Thus, in February 1854, in the district where the Bug Lancers opposing Turkish cavalry, sent two thousand Konstantinovsk missiles. For their combat use were formed equestrian team with 24 launchers machines. This contributed to the complete defeat in July of the same year three times superior forces of the enemy. The structure of the Black Sea Cossack units at this time included six horse and as many foot rocket teams. The same team had in the Caucasus and Tenghinka famous regiments that fought in the Caucasus. The field of combat missiles introduction Konstantinov was very wide: from Revel to Plevna and Kars, from Bukhara (1868) to Khiva (1871-1881 gg.) From Bucharest to Turkestan, where in 1871 was sent fifteen hundred missiles and two years later — more than 6 thousand.

Konstantinov often lectured on rocket technology and its application. In 1861, these lectures in French, was published in Paris in book "On the military missiles." Only three years later, this unique book was published in St. Petersburg (translated Kolkunova).

For his outstanding work on rocketry Konstantinov was three times awarded the highest credit artillery since then — Michael's premium. In general, the range of interests Konstantinov was not limited to missiles, it extends from the automation and gas dynamics to … self-heating canned food. Unfortunately, the inventor died in the prime of his life at the age of 55 years.

XIX century in general was extremely fruitful for professional Russian rocket. These included a notable place belongs Adjutant General (according to other documents — Engineer General) Karl Andreyevich Schilder (1785 — 1854) [in the portrait on the left], the creator of the world's first missile submarine.

Presenting high attention this invention, he wrote: "As part of since 1832 seeking funds to extract the probable usefulness of the method of igniting gunpowder electricity, I opened the advantageous possibility of consumption of this method in the water. Guided by the methods of diving, I suggested a iron boat. " Followed by resolution of its construction, but … at his own expense inventor. Built in May 1834 at the Alexander factory on the Neva Schilder submarine with a crew of 13 people could move around on the surface and underwater using paddles type of duck legs, driven by the movement of oboestoronnee sailors, which were located inside the hull. The boat was provided with six missile launchers sealed containers in the form of tubes mounted in an inclined position, three on each side. Rockets had a warhead with a powder charge weight from 4 to 16 kg. In addition, on the bowsprit has a powerful mine that supplied specifically to the attacked ship. The launching of rockets and mines undermining implemented by electronic fuses that are included on the team commander of the boat, which followed the order through the periscope.

Along the way, we can say that Schilder was listed naikrupneyshim spices own time by mine blasting work.

First in the world of underwater missile launch took place on the Neva River, 20 kilometers above St. Petersburg (loaf only!) During the life of Alexander Pushkin. So Makar, all have reason to be the creation of missile submarines winning Russian inventors. Because you can not accept the contention of the West German magazine "Soldier and Technology" relating to the 1960 that the first missile submarine was the German submarine U-511 on the upper deck which were installed pipes to launch rockets caliber 210 mm. This boat was built more than a century after the boat Schilder.

Russian missiles 19th centuryDrawback boats Schilder [in the picture at right] was a low rate of speed — about half a kilometer per hour. As a result, the Committee recommended that the underwater experiments survey in order to increase speed. But Nicholas I allowed to do this work only the "Dependent its inventor," and funds from Schilder was not. And the first in the world missile submarine was sold for scrap.

Involuntarily comes to mind the dramatic fate of the "secret vessel" — built a serf Yefim Nikonov (with the support of Peter I) wood submarine capable of diving to the real. After the death of the king in 1725, "secret vessel" was hidden away "from foes eye" in a remote shed, where decayed.

Vorachivayas the beginning of the XIX century, it must be emphasized that at the time neuvvyazkami military rocket scientist involved in the Military Committee. Assuming that the main problem of the composition of rocket fuel, the committee held during the period from 1810 to 1813. numerous studies in this area. Particular care should be studied by the fuel of the British military rockets stubbornly imposed by Russia. The analysis led to the conclusion that "in the not anything special, and these missiles are not the essence of any new, specific composition incendiary agent, but one thing is able to quickly launch a transfer of power over long distances without the usual incendiary composition of consumption by the languid artillery guns. " After this conclusion the Committee's attention has shifted to the design of rockets. As a result, it was found that "the power of zeal missiles Home is dependent on compliance with serious improved accuracy in size sleeves and tails."

Committee member Kartmazovo managed in 1814 to combat missiles 2-types: pep with a range of 2,960 m and a grenade with a range of 1,710 meters has already been mentioned Zasyadko us even more successful in competition with the British, his militant rocket flew a quarter of a mile further similar William Congreve rocket design, was then considered the best in the world.

Colonel, then General William Congreve (1777 — 1828) belonged to the elite of the British armed forces. His enthusiasm for combat missiles, apparently, has been associated with anger against the British in India. In battles at Seringapatam in 1792 and 1799. Indians have used successfully against the invaders combat powder rockets fitted with wood-tails to stabilize the flight. Having started to develop their own designs in 1801, headed for growth Congreve flight range 20-kg missiles to 2,700 m and confident stabilize their flight from the central (and not the side, as the Hindus), the location of the tail. Kongrevovy rocket perfectly used by the British during the shelling of the ships in the 1806 French port of Boulogne, at the siege of Copenhagen, and in the struggles for Gdansk and Leipzig. Congreve rockets were recognized as the best in the world and adopted for service in the armies of Denmark, Austria, Prussia, France and other countries. In the Crimean War of 1854 — 1856 the England-French fleet Congreve rockets fired besieged Sevastopol. One aspect of the fire was the 4th artillery battery near the Malakhov Hill, commanded by Lieutenant Count Leo Tolstoy.

Despite the recognition and affinity with Russian Tsar Nicholas I, whom he accompanied on a trip to the UK, Congr
eve died at home in oblivion and poverty.

Congreve rockets were improved and significantly less expensive British designer Gel, to remove from their stabilizing tail. Americans first to appreciate the advantages of missiles Gel and successfully used them in the war against Mexico. August 18, 1850 a British merchant Nottingham offered Russian government to implement over 30 thousand pounds (189 thousand rubles at the then exchange rate) Gel secret missile production and annotations on their use. It was the second attempt since 1848 to impose Nottingham RF British military missiles. A proposal was made, provided empirical confirmation of practical advantages of these missiles in comparison to Russian. Coming soon in St. Petersburg, the Volkov field, took the controversial firing rockets and design Gel Konstantinov. The advantage of rockets Konstantinov was so natural, that the proposal was rejected by Nottingham. In addition, Russian missiles and cost even less — only three rubles apiece. As a consolation prize Nottingham was given a valuable gift, but the disgraced businessman showed no tribute to the king's gift of reverence and enacted after the scandal was expelled from Russia.

In 1842, the British company "Veda and Co." Russian government offered to buy her winery equipped for mass production of Congreve rockets. By order of the Russian authorities investigated the plant Konstantinov (then Captain) and reported to the Central Ordnance Department of the War Ministry that "there is nothing to learn from the British." Soon received a proposal from Germany to Russia to supply missiles shortened design, and it was rejected.

By the middle of the XIX century in service with the Army, River and Sea Fleet of the Russian rocket was just a tool. At this time it is particularly well used in countless wars that led the Russian government to reflect zabugornoy anger and expand the limits of their own, namely the conquest of the Caucasus and Central Asia.

The Russian military rocket technology has gone through a period of rapid XIX century heyday. But she was gaining strength konkurentnst traditional artillery. There are different caliber rifled barrels (right up to 410 mm) shells to them with belts and tipped with a massive explosive, high-precision fire control systems, including high-speed. All this dramatically increment the range and accuracy of artillery fire and combat the effect of the target. Moreover, after graduating in 1856 the Crimean War and the conclusion of the Paris peace treaty, and the conquest of the Caucasus and Central Asia, the War Department had lost enthusiasm for the missiles. All this has led to the fact that in 1887, orders for the creation and delivery of missiles to the armed forces of the Russian Federation actually ended. In 1910, was closed and a huge missile plant in Nikolaev. By inertia individual missiles still produced on Shostkinsky gunpowder factory. It seemed to rocketry in Russia ended.

But on the improvement of missiles still working some enthusiasts. For example, a teacher of the Artillery Academy Pomortsev M. (1851 — 1916) reaches for year to the growth of his death almost two times the flight range missiles due to the improvement of the stabilization system. His rockets weighing up to 12 kg range have up to 8 km. At the same time the sample Pomortseva vary powder had compressed air of success. Military engineer Nikolai Gerasimov at the same time, using gyroscopic device, made a mock of modern anti-aircraft guided missiles.

Despite the curtailment of production of missiles in Russia, the end of XIX — early XX centuries were marked by the emergence of a large number of our homeland basic theoretical work on jet technology, which we will tell in Chapter 4.

Russian missiles 19th century

Rocket platoon Semirechensk Cossack troops, about 1891

Alexander Shirokorad. The head of "Rocket System Konstantinov" from the book "Russian mortars and rocket artillery"

In 1842, the head of the Rocket institution was appointed Colonel Konstantinov (1818-1871 gg.), A member of the Naval Scientific Committee and the Military Science Committee. By the way, Konstantinov was the illegitimate offspring of the majestic Duke Constantine Pavlovich of communication with the singer Anna Clara Lawrence, in other words, the nephew of Emperor Alexander III.

In the years 1847-1850 on the basis of the unit of artillery ballistic missile installation Konstantinov made elektroballistichesky pendulum. This device allowed to practice with reasonable accuracy the thrust rockets and determine the dependence of its value from time to time. The creation of rocket elektroballisticheskogo pendulum laid the base of the theory of ballistics missiles, without which it was unimaginable future development of jet guns. Calculated and the empirical method Konstantinov was possible to find a more profitable mix of size, shape, weight, missiles and powder charge to the merits of longer-range missiles, and the correctness of the flight.

The Russian Army were adopted subsequent missile system Konstantinov: 2 -, 2,5 -, and 4-inch (51 -, 64-and 102-mm). Regardless of the purpose and disposition of fire have been introduced and new names rockets — field and siege (serfs). Field missiles armed with grenades and shot. Siege missiles armed with grenades, buckshot, incendiary projectiles and lighting. By outfield missiles treated 2 — and 2.5-inch, and by the siege (serfs) — 4-inch. Weight missiles depended on the type of battle of subsequent data, and characterized by 2-inch missile weighing 2.9 to 5 kg, 2.5 inch — from 6 to 14 kg, and 4-inch — from 18.4 to 32 kg. (Figure Color Plate XXX)

In launchers (rocket machines) Konstantinov used tubular rails. In this case, the gap between the pipe and the missile was made less than a British launchers that ennobled accuracy. A single launcher Konstantinov was rather short of steel pipe mounted on wood tripod. The angle of elevation of the pipe usually was given by quadrant, with a pipe. Traversing the machine produces a specific goal in sight tube. Machine tools were easy to start and comfortable to carry people and freight on horseback. The greatest weight of the machine with the tube reaches 55-59 kg. (Fig. 84)

Russian missiles 19th century

Ris.84. Field missile with a missile machine Konstantinova

Horseback Missile Command Konstantinov specially developed lightweight launcher weighing about 1 pounds (16.4 kg). It is easy and fast on the horse lading.

Firing range missile system Konstantinov made by him in the years 1850-1853, there were very significant for long. For example, 4-inch rocket, equipped with a 10-pound (4.1 kg) with grenades, had the highest firing range 4150 meters and the 4-inch incendiary rocket — 4260 m Firing range missiles were significantly superior to the firing range of art
illery respective calibers. For example, chetvertpudovy mountain unicorn arr. 1838 had the highest range Accuracy of only 1810 meters.

Rockets Konstantinova on their weight and dimensional features are not sufficiently different from zabugornyh counterparts, but surpassed them in accuracy. Thus, comparative tests of U.S. systems (Gel) and Russian missiles, conducted in the summer of 1850, showed that the lateral deviation of the Russian rocket was less than 30 steps (21 m), while the South American missiles had lateral deviation of up to 240 steps (171 m) .

In the period from 1845 to 1850 Rocket institution made missiles for experiments — 7225, for the troops — 36187; incendiary rockets for experiments — 1107, for the troops — 2300; explosive rockets for experiments — 1192 missile canister for the troops — 1200. Total 49211.

In 1851 and 1852 Missile institution has released the launch to 2700 per year in 1853 — 4000 missiles in 1854 — 10 488, in 1855 — 5870 rockets. At that time, produced only launched rockets Konstantinov.

In May 1854 on the request of Southern Army commander Menshikov of St. Petersburg Missile places in Sevastopol sent 600 missiles 2-inch caliber. With this launch party in Sevastopol were sent by accelerated transport of Lieutenant DP Shcherbachev, gunner and four privates, "see the current and the use of missiles." The convoy with rockets sailed from St. Petersburg in May 1854, but only arrived in Sevastopol on September 1 of the same year.

10 rockets were launched at the enemy from the 4th bastion. Severe damage to the enemy, they did not cause, in connection with what authorities sent the missile command in the castle servants guns and rocket passed to the warehouse.

In 1855, Lieutenant-Colonel FW Pestich formed a mobile missile battery from the sent missiles and launchers for them. The plant is located at 5 troechnyh polufurkah taken from the convoy Taturinskogo Regiment, and a battery manned 20 sailors, gunners with sunken ships. For each installation identified by 70 missiles. Other 250 missiles handed over to battery Alexander and Constantine ravelins.

At the end of the defense of Sevastopol Pestich offered to install in the windows of upper floors remained building machines for launching missiles on strategic directions of the principal attack allied forces. First test runs made personally Pestich of modern three-story barracks window adjacent to the marine hospital. The launches have been very successful — you set the elevation angle of 20 ° rocket drifted to the front trenches. The explosions occurred missiles directly into the enemy's trenches, causing significant damage to the enemy in manpower. After some time, the enemy opened fire on the upper floors of the barracks.

August 10, 1855 in Revel was made rocket salvo on Allied ships. Rocket troops commanded himself Konstantinov. But the results seen in the ships were not.

After the Russian-Turkish war of 1828-1829, member of the Russian artillery was only one missile squadron. In 1831 it was renamed the company of a missile battery. Hard states missile battery had. Throughout its existence just before the start of the Crimean War, the composition and organization of the missile battery is constantly changing. An example of the missile battery to 1831 was following:

Officers (the commander of the battery) — 10.
Gunner — 24 people.
Musicians — 3 people.
Buglers — 3 people.
Ordinary (scorers, Arsenal and gantlangerov) — 224 people.
Noncombatant different specialties — 99 people.
Total in battery — 363 people.

It is armed missile battery consisted of:
shestitrubnyh huge machines
for a 20-pound missiles — 6
single-tube tripod machines
for a 12-pound missiles — 6
single-tube tripod machines
for a 6-pound missiles — 6
Total machines — 18

Horses in the battery supposed to have in time of war 178, in time of peace 58.

Konstantinov rocket successfully used during the war of 1853-1856 on the Danube, in the Caucasus and in Sevastopol. They showed the highest fighting properties against both infantry and cavalry, and at the siege of fortresses, especially in 1853 when taking Akmechet and in 1854 during the siege of Silistra. (Figure Color Plate XXXI)

Russian missiles 19th century

XXX. Start-up machine and a 2-inch rocket Konstantinova

Russian missiles 19th century

XXXI. Rocket Konstantinov of the Crimean War

As an example of the successful implementation of missiles can cause a scramble Kyuruk-Dara (Caucasian campaign in 1854). A squad of Prince Vasily Osipovich Bebutov of 18 thousand infantry and cavalry stormed the 60000th Turkish army. Russian artillery consisted of 44 infantry and 20 cavalry and 16 guns, rocket machines, consisting armed cavalry and missile command. In the report of the chief of artillery Separate Caucasus Corps on August 7, 1854 stated: "Citing the horror of enemy missiles surprise and novelty of their own consumption not only made a strong moral remembrance of his infantry and cavalry, but being accurately targeted, applied and actual harm to the masses , especially during the pursuit. "

Immediately after the end of the Crimean War, most of the missile batteries and the teams were disbanded. Last missile battery was disbanded in April 1856, according to the high command of Emperor Alexander II. But there should not talk about the incompetence and reactionary king and his officials, as did many Russian historians. I came out of it quite fun — with obscurantist Nicolae Palkin missiles were the Russian Army, and at Liberale "Tsar-Liberator" them completely abolished. The point here is not the rockets, and in the event of rifled guns, in which, under the same overall weight and dimensions properties as that of the smooth-bore guns, rose sharply accuracy and firing range. Do I have to state that the primitive rockets with large fins were much the shortest range, and most importantly, a large spread.

Yet Konstantinov did not finish the work on the improvement of missiles, he strongly advocated them in their speeches to the officer corps and in print. At the cost of the tremendous efforts Konstantinov was returned in 1859 as a division of missile missile polubatarei and reach resolution on the construction in Nikolaev new missile factory.

Experiments carried out from 1860 to 1862, with rocket elektroballisticheskogo pendulum Konstantinov was found that the orientation of missiles of an old standard (1849) is dependent on the uneven burning "of the deaf", which is significantly thicker than the walls of a powder (ground) of the ring. It was also found that if the "dull structure"To make itself as long as the thickness of the rings of the main rocket, it really avoid sudden variations of a missile from a given line of motion. This was achieved in a new swatch rockets Konstantinov constructed in 1862.

Bimbo also had the shape of a rocket grenade, but to a large extent to their different internal structure. First, the chamber was reduced by an explosive charge, whereby the generated lumen of a refractory composition with the bur
sting charge which is isolated from the main rocket composition. As a result of the missiles were eliminated early breaks on the machines. For this purpose was also improved and the impact Palniki for launching rockets. He was now out of the trigger and rapid-tube latest design. The principal improvement is the reduction of the value "of the deaf" to the size of the thickness of the wall of the main rocket. Improvement "of the deaf" significantly improved ballistic properties missiles. Namely, the increased rate of missiles, has become more measured their flight on the active branch line of motion. All this has led to increased shooting accuracy and efficiency of their actions.

Rockets arr. 1862 produced 2-caliber: for field artillery — 2-inch with a range of 1,500 m and for land and siege artillery — 4-inch with a range of up to 4,200 m

In 1868, Konstantinov made a new machine and new rocket launchers, through which missiles rate increased to 6 shots per minute. For the design of the rocket machine for a 2-inch rocket scientist Council Artillery Academy awarded in 1870, St. Michael Konstantinov huge bonus.

Unfortunately, after the death of Konstantinov in 1871, the missile deal in the Russian army went into decline. Missiles sporadically and in small amounts used in the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878. More rockets were used successfully in the conquest of Central Asia in the 70's and 80's of the XIX century. This was due to their good mobility (missiles and machines transported by his pack), with a strong psychological effect on Aboriginal and, last of all, the lack of enemy artillery. Last rockets were used in Turkestan in the 90-ies of the XIX century. And in the 1898 war rockets were officially retired Russian army.

Like this post? Please share to your friends: