Universe — a giant hologram

German scientific experiment called GEO600 scientists to search for gravitational waves, which lasts for seven years, has led to unexpected results, according to the magazine New Scientist.

Using a special device — interferometer — physicists gathered scientific confirmation of one of the conclusions of the theory of relativity. According to this theory, the universe, there are so-called gravitational waves — disturbances of the gravitational field "ripple" the fabric of space-time. Spreading the speed of light, gravitational waves, presumably generate irregular movement of large masses of astronomical objects: the formation or collisions of black holes and supernova explosion, etc.

Impossibility of observing gravitational waves science explains that the gravitational effects of a weak electromagnetic. Scientists, started his experiment back in 2002, supposed to detect these gravitational waves, which could then become a source of valuable information about the so-called dark matter that is in the ground and our universe. So far GEO600 failed to detect gravitational waves, but, apparently, a scientist with the device managed to make the biggest discovery in the last half century in the field of physics.

For months, the experts could not explain the nature of the strange noises that prevent the interferometer, when suddenly offered no explanation physicist of scientific laboratory Fermilab. According to the hypothesis of Craig Hogan, the unit GEO600 faced with a fundamental limit of space-time continuum — the point where space-time is no longer a solid continuum Einstein described and divided into "grains", like photography, augmented by several turns in the accumulation of individual points . "It looks like GEO600 stumbled on microscopic quantum fluctuations of space-time" — suggested Hogan.

If you think this information is not sensational, listen further: "If the GEO600 came across what I guess this means that we are living in a giant cosmic hologram."

The idea that we live in a hologram, it may seem ridiculous and absurd, but it is — just a logical extension of our understanding of the nature of black holes, based on the theoretical basis is quite arguable. Ironically, the "theory of the hologram" significantly helped physicists to finally explain how the universe is arranged at a fundamental level.

Familiar to us hologram (as, for example, on the credit card) are applied to the two-dimensional surface, which begins a three-dimensional look at the ingress of a beam of light at a certain angle. In 1990 the Nobel Prize in Physics Gerardt Hooft of Utrecht University (Netherlands), and Leonard Zusskind from Stanford University (USA) have suggested that a similar principle can be applied to the universe as a whole. Our daily existence itself can be a holographic projection of physical processes that take place in two-dimensional space.

The "holographic principle" of the structure of the universe is very hard to believe: it's hard to imagine that you wake up, brush your teeth, read a newspaper or watch TV just because somewhere on the borders of the universe collided several giant space objects. Nobody yet knows what to us would mean "life in a hologram", but theoretical physicists have many reasons to believe that certain aspects of the functioning principles of holographic universe — a reality.

The conclusions are based on the scientific study of the fundamental properties of black holes, which are also the famous theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose together. In the mid-1970s, scientists studied the fundamental laws that govern the universe, and showed that the theory of relativity to be a space-time, which begins at the big bang and ends in black holes. These results indicate the need to combine the study of the theory of relativity and quantum theory. One of the consequences of such an association is the claim that black holes are not really quite "black": in fact, they emit radiation, which leads to their gradual evaporation and extinction. Thus, there is a paradox, called "information paradox of black holes": formed black hole is losing mass by radiating energy. When the black hole disappears, all absorbed her information is lost. However, according to the laws of quantum physics, information can not be lost completely.

Hawking counterargument: the intensity of gravitational fields of black holes is not clear yet fit the laws of quantum physics. Hawking's colleague, physicist Bekenstein, proposed an important hypothesis, which contributes to the resolution of this paradox. He conjectured that the black hole has entropy proportional to the surface area of its conditional radius. This kind of theoretical area, which masks the black hole and marks the point of no return of matter or light. Theoretical physicists have shown that microscopic quantum fluctuations equivalent radius of the black hole can encode information that is inside a black hole so the loss of information in the black hole at the point of evaporation and disappearance occurs.

Thus, one can assume that three-dimensional information about the starting material can be completely encoded in the two-dimensional radius formed after her death a black hole, about a three-dimensional image of the object is encoded using a two-dimensional hologram. Susskind and Hooft went further, applying this theory to the structure of the universe, based on the fact that space also has a conditional radius — the plane of the boundary beyond which light has not had time to get over 13, 7 billion years of the universe. Moreover, Juan Maldacena, a theoretical physicist at Princeton University, was able to prove that in a hypothetical five-dimensional universe would be subject to the same physical laws as in four-dimensional space.

Hogan's theory, the holographic principle of the universe radically changes a usual picture of space-time. Theoretical physicists have long believed that quantum effects can make the space-time chaotic pulse in minute scales. With this level of ripple fabric of space-time continuum becomes "grainy" and the like made of tiny particles, similar to the pixel, only a hundred billion billion times smaller than a proton. It is a measure of length known as the "Planck length" and is a figure of 10-35 m currently fundamental physical laws empirically tested to distances 10-17 and Planck length was considered unattainable until Hogan did not realize that the holographic principle changes everything. If the space-time continuum is a grainy hologram, then the universe can be represented as a sphere, the outer surface of which is covered with tiny surfaces of 10-35 m in length, each of which carries a piece of information. The holographic principle states that the amount of information that covers the outside of the scope of the universe, equal to the number of bits of information contained within the volume
Universe.

Since the volume of the spherical universe is much more than its entire outer surface, the question arises, how is it possible to comply with this principle? Hogan suggested that the bits that make up the "inside" of the universe must have a size larger than the Planck length. "In other words, a holographic universe is like a fuzzy picture," — says Hogan.

For those who is looking for the smallest particles of space-time that is good news. "Contrary to general expectations, the microscopic quantum structure is readily available for the study," — said Hogan. While the particles whose size is equal to the Planck length, it is impossible to detect a holographic projection of the "grains" is about 10-16 m When the scientist did all these findings, he pondered whether experimentally determine this holographic blur of space- time. And then came to help GEO600.

Devices like GEO600, able to detect gravitational waves, works as follows: if it passes through the gravitational wave, it will stretch space in one direction, and compresses it to a friend. To measure the waves, scientists point the laser beam through a special mirror called a "separator rays." It split the laser beam into two beams, which pass through a 600-meter perpendicular rods and return. Returning back beams recombined into one and create an interference pattern of light and dark areas where the light waves either disappear or reinforce each other. Any change in the position of these sites indicates that the relative length of the rods changed. Experimentally it is possible to detect the change in length than the diameter of a proton.

If the instrument GEO600 really found holographic noise from quantum fluctuations of space-time, it will be for researchers double-edged sword: on the one hand, the noise will be a hindrance to their attempts to "catch" gravity waves. On the other hand, it may mean that researchers have been able to make much more fundamental discovery than was originally projected. However, there is a certain irony: appliance, designed to catch the wave, resulting from the interaction of the largest astronomical objects discovered something as microscopic as the "grain" of the space-time.

The more scientists can not solve the mystery of holographic noise, the more there is a question of further research in this direction. One possibility for the construction of investigations may be the so-called atomic interferometer, the principle of which is similar to the GEO600, however, instead of a laser beam is used low-temperature flow of atoms.

What will it mean for humanity discovering holographic noise? Hogan confident that humanity is on the verge of finding the time slice. "This — the smallest possible intervals: The Planck length divided by the speed of light," — he says. However, most of the possible discovery will help researchers trying to unite quantum mechanics and Einstein's theory of gravity. The most popular in the world of science uses the string theory, which are thought to help to describe what is happening in the universe at a fundamental level.

Hogan agrees that if the holographic principle will be proved that no one approach to the study of quantum gravity will no longer be considered outside the context of holographic principles. On the contrary, it will give a boost to the evidence of string theory and matrix theory. "Perhaps in our hands the first evidence of how the space-time follows from quantum theory," — said the scientist.

Category: Scientists, experts, science

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