Who waged war Belarusian partisans?

Belarusian resistance was not so homogeneous as saying textbooks, and abandoned to the rear of the Russian organizing guerrilla security officers were not very different in their own atrocities committed by the German troops advanced …

Republic-partisan. Such a stereotype, it seems a long time hung on Belarus. It was only after many decades after the war, the researchers talked about the fact that the Belarusian resistance was not quite so uniform as saying textbooks, and abandoned to the rear of the Russian organizing guerrilla security officers were not very different in their own atrocities committed by the German troops advanced …

Many of the works of the 1st of the oldest Belarusian writers Victor Kazko devoted to military events. The critics are unanimous: if a recognized classic of the genre of military Vasil Bykov's own books showed the thick of the war, Kazko like no other, penetrating eyes showed a war baby. And what war in the literature yet described?

— Truthfully not described war guerrilla, a village close to the plain. We have not said that, as it was: and the ruthless and bloody, and funny. Not shown peasants who had to raise kids, to sow grain and feed the two powers — German and Soviet, guerrilla. And the Germans, and the guerrillas, as they could, stripped the peasant, and it was he who suffered the most in this war. This "war under the roof" as it was referred to Ales Adamovich, to this day remains unknown. Or, take a person like General Gil-Rodionov — an officer of the Red Army, prisoner of war, the commander of the German penal, then partisan Brigade Commander. He and Hitler received the highest merit of the Reich, and the Hero of the Russian Union of Stalin. How could this happen? The truth about the war itself only occasionally comes to the surface — in spite of the official ideology, the official myth-making — says Victor Kazko.

Agrees with him historian Anatoly Sidorevich: Belarus plainclothes really was a real war. If the German command in the occupied territories has tried to impose some semblance of order to the German scheme of taxation is quite understandable, then partisan "Dues" was often very heavy task. Then, on the protection of property and food became armed self-defense groups of farmers:

— The original was a plain-clothes war. In the villages were created self-defense units, which are protected by the so-called "kuferschikov" — guerrilla, steal food and property of their huts. Later, the big-name partisan Commissioner Ivan Varvashenia, who later became secretary of the regional committee of the capital, has announced that orders a "holy war." And how much his fault destroyed the peasant self-defense groups — do not count. They set a condition: to run across the command of the regional committee and staff or to cover you. Who resisted — joined in the case "enkavedisty" already smuggled here in sufficient quantity. In fact, their own well thrashed. And again, the Sonderkommando in July 1941 have already traveled to the villages, and the Germans showed finger, who was reddish activist in the 1930s who was collectivizers. The Germans shot something on a tip from local residents! — Says Anatoly Sidorevich.

The first large organized partisan detachments appeared only in 1942, when Moscow is seriously concerned about the lack of subversive activities in the occupied areas. But particularly with the emergence of organized partisan began to rage against the civilian population of the Germans — in response to guerrilla attacks and ambushes. In 1941-42 guerrilla almost 100 per cent consisted of officials of the NKVD and party and Komsomol activists abandoned due to front the band, also of "encirclement" — soldiers of the Red Army, border and internal troops of the NKVD. By the beginning of "Operation Bagration" in July 1944, according to the Central Headquarters of the Partisan movement, the terrain Belarus acted 272,490 partisan, combined in a 150 partisan brigades and 49 individual units. However, according to the modern researcher guerrilla Vyacheslav Boyarsky, in fact in these formations consisted of about 143 thousand people.

Clearly the number of the population of Belarus, failing to cooperate with the Russian authorities, so far it is not clear. But there is evidence that regional body of the Belarusian Defense (GER), made by Belarusian nationalists, with the active support of the German occupation authorities, by April 1944 there were 21 628 people. In spring 1944, when the fall of Hitler's regime apparently was only a matter of time for recruiting stations BKO were higher than 40 thousand people. In turn, the Alliance of Belarusian youth, freedom to act in the occupied areas, there were about 90 thousand men and women. According to historians, to the middle of 1945 the NKVD arrested in Belarus, about 100 thousand people on the charge of "aiding the invaders."

A unique situation for the views of historians, there was then in the former Vilna province — at the time of the royal it was the territory of the Russian Federation with a mixed Polish, Belarusian, Lithuanian and Jewish population. As a result, the Polish-Soviet War of 1920 land was seized by Poland. In autumn 1939, after the invasion of the Red Army in Poland and the reunification of Western Belarus and the Belarusian SSR, Vilnius (modern Lithuanian capital Vilnius) and the Vilnius region, to address the management of the USSR, were transferred to Lithuania. But these areas then caused a lot of Wraith Moscow.

Says a retired Major General of Artillery, the creator of the biographical book "Nebyshino. War. The occupation of sight teenager "Ilya Kopyl:

— In the Vilna province, and in general in Western Belarus in another might be unlikely. All the same, in the period from September 1, 1939 and before June 22, 1941 in the western part of the country to carry out mass repression. And only the beginning of the war ended the persecution. Although, significantly, with the last trains had to send repressed even in Siberia on June 22. Because this situation is completely understandable — people were not very inclined to help the Bolshevik government. So I speak from his own village: in 1941 and 1942, all th no one we have not gone to the guerrillas. Everything worked on the ground. And in the forest were required to go, when the pro-Moscow guerrillas appeared in the terrain of our Begoml district. In general internal confrontation was this: the partisans and civilians, as well as Polish partisans reddish — Army Ludowa, Home Army. This rivalry was real, in other words, often had clashes between guerrillas and pro-Moscow, as it were, pro-Polish partisans …

According to official figures, Belarus in four years of war, just before the release in July 1944, has lost every third inhabitant of the country. In absolute numbers — 2.5 million. Modern experts say that in fact the losses were much smaller — in the range of 700-800 thousand, and handy annotation Russian control, to degrade the image of the bloody enemy. For all this, historians emphasize, a large number of real victims — the conscience of not only the German occupiers, and policemen from the local inhabitants, and assorted guerrilla death squads thrown from the neighboring territories.

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