With Prussia — against France, with France — against Germany

With Prussia - against France, with France - against GermanyPresident of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev "to verbovaniya public attention to Russian history and the role of in the world historical process," declared the 2012-th — the Year of Russian history. It must be stressed that this year there are two dates that are of particular importance for the history of Russian country marks the 200th anniversary of the victory in the war against Napoleon, and 70 years of the end of the Battle of the Capital (20 April 1942). These actions are connected by a common goal — the defense of Moscow.

Wehrmacht operation to capture Moscow in 1941, code name "Typhoon", was declared a culmination of the entire German Fri coming, and was planned as a galloping to the end before the coming winter. For the operation, were two-thirds of German armored units and almost half of the United Army, operating on the Soviet-German front. Management of Nazi Germany meant that the achievement of objectives of the operation with the USSR war will be won.

HITLER FOR FORGED blade USSR

In the middle of modern professionals more soft-spoken assessment of the Metropolitan battle given the history of the famous English doctor Richard Evans in his article "Why superb Hitler's plan failed," posted in September 2009 in the Guardian: «monstrous scale of the conflict between the Wehrmacht and of the Red Army has surpassed all previous actions 2nd World War. On the Eastern Front killed more people than all other fronts, taken together … Two years after the outbreak of war in September 1941, the German cannon swept away everything in its path: it seemed that the 3rd Reich did not stop in the race for supremacy in the Europe. But looking back, it becomes clear that it was the apogee of success of Nazi Germany … "

Indeed, the operation to capture Moscow began brilliantly. The main forces hide behind the Soviet capital of the Western Front were rounded up and killed in a huge cauldron of Vyazma. Yet in the midst of rapid German coming from the small town of Mtsensk began to arrive unannounced news. Theorist and practitioner of "War Engines" Heinz Guderian later wrote about it: "October 6 … The 4th Armored Division was attacked by Russian tanks and she had gone through hard time. The first time was manifested in the form of an advantage harsh Russian T-34 tanks. The division suffered significant losses. Scheduled for the coming frisky Tulu had to postpone … Our anti-money which could act against the T-34 only in particularly appropriate conditions. "

Shown to be effective as the new rocket launchers, famous "Katyusha". Near Moscow, rocket launchers for the first time appeared in a number of bolshennom, and the effect of their volleys proved so effective that it became clear the need for their upcoming massive deployment. After the war, General Field Marshal Ludwig von Kleist said famous British military theorist and historian Liddell Hart: "The Soviet military equipment and weapon were good properties in 1941, particularly tanks. Artillery was awesome, as well as most of the types of small guns — rifles were more modern than ours and had a higher rate of fire. The T-34 was the best tank in the world. "

"The myth of German invincibility was over," — wrote in his diary Chief of the General Staff of the Army Halder. Blitzkrieg strategy, is the core of the plan to attack the Soviet Union, now collapsed. In the next months, the German soldiers and officers barely able to escape the fate of Napoleon's army.

As part of the 4th German army under the command of Field Marshal von Kluge were four battalions of French volunteers. Army Chief of Staff Gen. Blyumenrit in his memoirs, "Battle of Moscow" wrote: "Borodino Field Marshal Kluge turned to him with a speech by recalling how in the time of Napoleon, the French and the Germans fought here on the shoulder shoulder against a common enemy. The next day the French bravely went to fight, but, unfortunately, did not survive the attacks of the enemy nor the strong, nor the bitter cold and blizzards. Such tests they have never had to endure. French Legion was defeated, suffering heavy losses from enemy fire and frost. After a few days he was taken to the rear and sent to the West. "

Yes, revenge for 1812, the French did not come out. Russian troops almost 6 days repulsed an attack by superior enemy forces. Borodino field has captured the enemy. But then defend it did not make sense, because the enemy had begun bypassing Russian troops from the flanks. The commander of the 5th Army, part of which was defended by the Borodino field, General Dmitry Lelyushenko read: "It seemed to us that we stand in the face of history, and it is imperative commands: do not disgrace himself the glory of those who fell here the death of the brave, multiply their feats of valor new, stand death, but block the path of the enemy to Moscow. " January 21, 1942 of the 5th Army re-entered the field of Borodino.

It must be emphasized that the defeat of the Wehrmacht outside Moscow was almost predestined all back in 1939, when the contract was signed a non-aggression between Germany and the USSR. Due to this the USSR was time to strengthen its own defenses. Namely, the size of the armed forces from September 1939 to 21 June 1941 increased by more than 2.8 times. Creating a weapon in the middle of 1940 began on tractor, shipbuilding and some other non-military factories.

Were made and mastered the creation of the Yak-1, MiG-3, Il-2, bomber Pe-2, T-34 tank, rocket launchers "Katyusha", the new standards cannons, machine guns, machine guns. To a large extent, it has become possible thanks to expand economic and trade cooperation between the USSR and Germany, which allowed to purchase much-needed supplies, equipment and technology, difficult while in other markets, in exchange for the supply of certain raw materials. As noted in Volume IV study "The German Reich and the second global war", published in Germany in 1983, the supply of equipment contributed to the German war industry saturated development of the USSR.

In Germany, the new standards were purchased weapons, including aircraft, which made Russian, not inferior in performance characteristics of the German. Namely, the most massive Russian anti-tank gun, the eminent "sorokapyatka" is an improvement in the USSR, the German office tool "Rheinmetall". Aircraft engine M-17 was anything but a license as BMWs and 203-mm projectiles exploding head to Leningrad Germans plunged a German cruiser "Lützow", acquired in 1940 and renamed "Tallinn."

At such a step unprecedented German management has gone to scare the Soviet Union to its arms, believing that nothing like this in the Russian Union of late will not be created. On this occasion, in his book "The Purpose of Life" outstanding aircraft designer Alexander Yakovlev, who participated in the Russian trade delegation in November 1939 to familiarize with the German aviation technology, said: "We are troubled that if modern technology, why show it to us . But we firmly believed that this technique need to purchase and how to learn. " With developed on the basis of these samples instrument Russian Army reached Berlin, where he was defeated in the remains of the third Reich.

TOTAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO VICTORY

All that was manufactured in the Soviet Union before the war in order to strengthen the country's defense, was missing for a large
-scale reflection of Hitler's aggression. Germany has worked on all of continental Europe, preparations for war were involved in the economy and human resources not only conquered by Hitler in European countries but also neutral. An advantage of the Nazi war was certain. These things, and formed the basis of the plan "Barbarossa", which provides that for the defeat of Russian Union will need at least 8-10 weeks. Hitler's control was so confident in the success of this plan, with the spring of 1941 began to develop detailed plans for world domination with the introduction of resources of the conquered Soviet Union.

In the service diary of the High Command of the Armed Forces of Germany for February 17, 1941 was set out Hitler's claim that "after the end of the eastern campaign to predict the invasion of Afghanistan and the company coming to India." The capture of Afghanistan and then India, where German forces were to unite with the Japanese troops, scheduled to be held in late fall 1941 and winter 1941, with the year of 1942. After the decision of the British prepyadstviya Germany in alliance with Japan intended method of planting large amphibious assault to seize the United States and Canada. June 22, 1941 British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was clear about the Nazi attack on the USSR. He held a meeting of the Cabinet chief, at which it was decided to issue a statement of support of the USSR in the war against Germany.

In a statement on June 22 evening Churchill stressed that, while remaining a bitter opponent of communism, the British government is considering an attack of Nazi Germany on the Russian alliance as a prelude to an attempt to gain British Isles. "So the danger menacing of, — he said in his own speech — is a danger that threatens us and the United States, just like the case of every Russian, fighting for their own hearth and home — is the cause of free men and free peoples all corners of the globe. " June 24, 1941, speaking at a press conference, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt said: "Of course we are going to provide the RF all the help that we can."

To USSR No declarations were important and beautiful words, and some help. 1 October in Moscow was signed the Lend-Lease Act.

Dr. stories Temple Institute Vladislav Zubok marks a fundamental psychological importance of Lend-Lease, "Americans are very much doubt whether it is possible to distribute the Lend-Lease to the Soviet Union, as expected, that the country is under pressure from the Nazis fall. And it seemed that in August and September 1941, this estimate had good reason. Roosevelt's statement that the need to help the Union and the Russian blitzkrieg that will certainly fail, it became severe mental support for the Russian people. " Indeed, large-scale deliveries began on a regular basis just after the battle at the Metropolitan buried not only the blitzkrieg and the myth of the invincibility of Nazi Germany, and Hitler's plans for world domination. Jora Marshal Zhukov, who this belongs to a tremendous reward, emphasized: "In the battle of Moscow was laid a strong foundation for the next defeat of Nazi Germany." The turning point in the war has gone through a number of stages, the first of which was a victory for Moscow.

As a result, significantly changed attitude of England and the United States in the efforts that are applied a Russian alliance, fighting the aggressor. The victory of Russian troops near Moscow accelerated the design, and then strengthen the anti-Hitler coalition. January 1 in Washington, 26 countries of the coalition, among them the Soviet Union, the United States and Britain signed the declaration, which pledged to use all its resources to fight against the aggressor.

Without a doubt, this was the result of successful actions of the Red Army near Moscow, which was the highest score given to the leaders of the anti-Hitler coalition. In a speech at the London radio February 15, 1942 Winston Churchill stated: "Leningrad and Moscow are not taken. The Russian army are on the battlefield … They triumphantly advance, forcing the vile invader from their land, which they so bravely defended and so much love. More than that, they first have dispelled Hitler's legend. Instead of winning and abundant prey, which he and his hordes gathered in the West, Hitler still found in Russia only setback, defeat, shame unspeakable atrocities, beatings or death of millions of German fighter and an icy wind, stainless over Russian snows. " The same assessment of developments in those days gave Franklin Roosevelt in his own message of the South American Congress: "The great victory in the Battle of the Metropolitan was the beginning of the turning point in the war. This is an outstanding event strengthened the international prestige of the Russian Union. Bearing the brunt of the fight against Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union firmly took the leading position in the anti-Hitler coalition. "

The defeat of the Germans at Moscow made a tremendous memory for managing the organization "Free France" General de Gaulle. General ordained this particular speech on the radio January 20, 1942, in which, as it was, he said: "The French people ecstatically welcomed the success and growth of the forces of the Russian people, for these successes France closer to its cherished goal — to freedom and revenge … The fact Our homeland that tomorrow is sure to be featured in the front row favorites, gives Europe and around the world guarantee balance, rejoice that France had even more reason than that at least some of the other power … To everyone Unfortunately, very often in the centuries on the way the Franco-Russian alliance met interference or opposition generated by intrigue or misunderstanding. Yet the need for such a union becomes trivial at every turn of a brand new story. "

With Prussia - against France, with France - against GermanyAt the governor had huge plans of conquest.
VV Vereshchagin Napoleon at Borodino Heights. 1897. State Historical Museum, Moscow

Without a doubt, if we evaluate the effectiveness of cooperation of the anti-Hitler coalition, the Lend-Lease Act have played a role in the defeat of Nazism. Without outside help Russian Union had to be significantly more difficult. During the war in Murmansk and Arkhangelsk came 78 convoys, which included a total difficulties 1,400 vessels and distributed more than 5 million tons of strategic goods. "Northern Corridor" remained the main channel of delivery allied with the Soviet Union before the end of 1943, when the Americans built the latest Transiranskuyu metal road through Iran and the Soviet Union began to get up to a million tons of strategic goods each month. There was also a third route — for ferrying aircraft from an airbase Fairbanks, Alaska, on through Siberia.

According to U.S. sources, the Soviet Union received 2,680 tons of steel and more than 170 thousand tons of aluminum, 29.4 thousand tons of tin, 240 tons of copper, 330 thousand telephones, radar 2 thousand, 5 thousand radio stations 480 thousand cars (152 thousand of whom were "Studebakers"), 900 tons of explosives and 18 million pairs of shoes and much more. Experts note that "the important role played by the supply of non-ferrous metals, without which it is impossible to create armor. According to another does not explain how the Soviet Union was able to significantly increment the creation of tanks. " In Russian historiography is usually argued that the amount of aid under the Lend-Lease, the Soviet Union was quite small — only about 4% of the funds spent
by the state to war. Abroad at the same time it was stated that the victory over Germany was determined to Western cannon.

Now the ratio of the republics of the former Soviet Union to help allies and changed some attention was also drawn to the fact that small matter had both quantitative and high technology features as well as access to new specimen of weapons and equipment. On this occasion, after the war, Marshal Zhukov said: "It is impossible to deny that Americans drove us so much material, without which we could not sformirovyvaetsya their reserves and could not continue the war … We did not have explosives, gunpowder. Had nothing to equip rifle cartridges. Americans truly helped us out with gunpowder and explosives. And as they drove us sheet metal! Did we could quickly make the creation of tanks, if I did not help the South American steel? .. Without American trucks we have nothing to be to drag our artillery. " But all this came after the defeat of the Wehrmacht outside Moscow.

HISTORY LESSONS ARE NOT SUBJECT OBLIVION

Metropolitan battle because of the significance of its results for the upcoming move and the final second world war that resulted in the saddest consequences of the Third Reich, just after the end of the war caused a lot of publications. German generals and Western historians have tried to justify the defeat of the Wehrmacht natural criteria: big Russian space impassable gryazyuka in autumn floods, merciless cold continental winters. Indeed, the winter of 1941/42 stood out terrible, but it was so for both sides. However, the Russian troops were better protected from the cold. In November they were already dressed and shod for the winter, meanwhile, as the Germans did not have winter clothing.

To declare that in Germany, no one knew what the weather happens in Russia, it would be very naive. In his book Blumentritt says the officers and generals of the Wehrmacht were preparing to march to the East after the approval of Hitler's plan "Barbarossa": "In the months to create a very quixotic atmosphere. First, we set ourselves a clear idea, which would entail a brand new war. In World War I, many of us are still junior officers led war in Russia, so we knew what awaited us. In the middle of the officers were felt some anxiety and uncertainty. But debt service sought painstaking, detailed work. All maps and books related to the Russian Federation, soon disappeared from the bookstores. I remember that on the table of Field Marshal Hans von Kluge in Warsaw has always been a pile of books. Napoleon's campaign in 1812 was the subject of special study. With great attention Kluge read the reports of General de Caulaincourt about this campaign. They revealed the difficulties of war, and even life in Russia. Lofty Places battles of Napoleon's army had been inflicted on our maps. We knew that soon will go in the footsteps of Napoleon. "

Indeed, memories of Armand de Caulaincourt "Campaign of Napoleon in Russia", which apparently closely studied not only Kluge, had to give a lot of useful disk imaging for the Wehrmacht generals. The fact is that the objectivity of knowledge and creator of Russian realities make it a valuable historical document memories. After Caulaincourt from 1807 to 1811 year was the ambassador of France in Russia and in the post trying to do everything possible to prevent a conflict between the two powers-name. In 1812 he returned to Russia with Napoleon.

In his memoirs, that is, it leads its own conversation the other day with Napoleon forcing the French army of the Neman River. Napoleon wanted to hear world-Caulaincourt about the retreat of the Russian army without a fight from the Russian part of Poland, which, he believed, dropped the authority of in the eyes of the Poles. Caulaincourt writes on this subject: "I told him that I do not believe in the right fights and I think I always read it that Russian is not so not a lot of areas, so that they could not give him a decent piece at least in order to remove it further away from France and his prinevolit dividing his forces. " In the end, this Russian strategy and led to the defeat of Napoleon. He's crossed the Neman 420000th army, which was almost a quarter of Germans, Italians, Dutch, Polish and other representatives of the peoples of Europe, and returned back only a little more than 10 thousand

Tribute to the conclusions of the memories Caulaincourt was manufactured. In the book "The German generals talk" Liddell Hart leads memoirs about General Blumentritt. He says that after the German "troops came across a great fortified defenses on the river Nara and were stopped, all the commanders began to ask," When do we stop? "They remembered what happened to Napoleon's army. Many of them have started to re-read Caulaincourt gloomy memories of 1812. I have to this day in the sight of the commander of the 4th Army Field Marshal Kluge, as he barely pulling legs of mud, goes through the yard to discover a command post and long-standing in front of a map with a book in hand Caulaincourt. And so every day or a day. "

Liddell Hart points out in his book that he was "particularly interesting was this comment Blumentritt, since August 1941, when it seemed that nothing can stop the coming of German, I wrote an article in the October issue of the magazine" Strand ", using numerous citations of Caulaincourt to show the doom of Hitler's march on Russia. I Blumentritt said that the German generals, apparently, very late Caulaincourt began to remember. He nodded his head, a dark chuckle. "

Perhaps, in the history of warfare is difficult to find another such example, when ignoring the lessons of the past would lead to such consequences. But this phenomenon and to this day continues to be the case. And in our country have enough politicians, political scientists, professionals who through ignorance or in the interests of short-term political benefits forgets the lessons from the events of the past nedavneshnego. After all, how much has been said and written about the violent words of purchasing Russian Federation Ministry of Defense small lots of weapons and military equipment abroad. And no one thought that if Russian Alliance did not like in Germany before the war, in 1941 the Wehrmacht was celebrating a victory. But the twentieth century managed to avoid the "new world order" Hitler's Thousand-Year Reich, which meant for the people of the planet from global concentration camp crematorium.

MILITARY COOPERATION Yesterday and Now

After the end of the second world war began cool war that ended with the collapse of the USSR, which may seem like paradise compared with what was presented to us twenty-first century. September 11, 2001 began brand new era when international terrorism, contrary to all the principles in a human and opposing the laws of civilization, has proved particularly ruthless. Vladimir Putin was the first world leaders sent a telegram to George W. Bush, in which, as it was noted: "The series of barbaric terrorist acts against innocent people, cause us indignation and outrage. Please convey our deepest sympathy to relatives of victims of the disaster, and all the victims, all over the South American nation. We are well aware of your sorrow and pain. Russians to discover experienced the nightmare of terror. There is no doubt that such ruthless actions should not go unpunished. The entire international community must unite in the fight against terrorism. "

And it really happened exactly as during the struggle against Nazism. The international community come together to jointly combat terrorism. Now on the ground in Afghanistan, which housed the main bases and training camps of international terrorism, in accordance with resolution number 1386 of the UN Security Council 20 December 2001 made International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). At the moment
the command of ISAF carried out by NATO. In the ISAF military units 49 states — as members of NATO, and not included in it.

For obvious reasons our homeland did not send its own troops to Afghanistan, but it is of great help for the supply operations in Afghanistan. Thus, according to Russian area is the northern distribution network through which to Afghanistan receives more than 50% of cargo international coalition. At the current time, Moscow and NATO agreed to launch a so-called multi-modal transit working from Afghanistan to Europe which will combine air and ground transfer of cargo, which will allow to increase the extraction efficiency of NATO troops from Afghanistan, scheduled for 2014. A transit point for these purposes elected Ulyanovsk.

But a similar cooperation between Russia and NATO in solving problems jointly counter terrorism internationalist not appeal to many cheers Russian patriots. They blame the leadership of the country, which makes it Tipo NATO base on the territory of Russia. In this regard, it should be recalled that in 1941, at the airport of the Northern Fleet Vayenga, a few framework of the 10-km north of Murmansk, based 151st Air Wing of the Royal Air Force of England (39 Hurricanes fighters and 556 military personnel). Combat Wing task was to ensure the defense of the naval base of the Northern Fleet in Murmansk convoys and with loads of Lend-Lease.

You can think of other British aviation combat operations in which the actuated base near Arkhangelsk and Murmansk, on shuttle flights Allied bombers were carrying out the bombing of objects in the field of Nazi Germany, the airfield at Poltava. From June to October 1944 with the Poltava airfield site that allowed to be up to 1,200 U.S. troops, seven focus groups conducted 18 Allied air operations. In 1030 they participated aircraft, including 529 B-17 "Flying Fortress". These military and political nuances of cooperation of the Allies contributed to the acceleration of victory over Nazism.

United States and Britain helped Russian Union is not the love of the communist ideology, and in his own quest to save themselves from Nazism. Now Russia and the West does not share the ideology. Especially since in the fight against the common enemy, which is the international terrorism, you have to be very probable level of political and military cooperation. The only way to beat him.

The defeat of the Wehrmacht in the Metropolitan battle made the conditions for the final victory over Nazism. And millions of people in the countries that were intended to become objects of strikes German military machine and subject to destruction as "human waste material," according to Nazi racial theories, his salvation must first sacrificial feat unheard Russian soldier near Moscow. That's why it's majestic historic event live and will live forever in the memory of not only Russian, and other peoples of the world.

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