In the scorching July 1942 Don did a great izluke soldiers and commanders of the Red Army, his military work. Fighting off a superior enemy, bursting into Stalingrad and the Caucasus, waste, buried in the ground, burned Nazi tanks, flogged infantry own funeral, again fell back again perceived the battle … Cursed his superiors for errors, and still more "Fritz", whose strength seemed to be Nemer, looked away under the eyes of the inhabitants of villages and hamlets, and remained under occupation, collide in angry clashes with the Nazis — and again retreating. In less than a month — from June 28 to July 24, according to historians, our troops moved to the east almost 400 km.
In the very worst-case scenario manifested itself lacking the ability to link Russian high command of the Armed Forces to anticipate enemy actions, manage bolshennymi masses of manpower, armored vehicles and other means of combat. But the defeat of almost all were justified and pronounced defensive syndrome.
The fact that some of the rank and file and command personnel was paralyzed horror to the forces of the enemy, and even the complete hopelessness, confirmed reports of a special department of the NKVD of the Stalingrad Front in Moscow. In the statements soldiers in their correspondence are increasingly began to appear long rear boundaries, to which many have been psychologically prepared to depart: "The situation we have a very serious, almost hopeless … So we dovoyuemsya that do not hold out in the Urals" (Head of Staff of the staffing Major Antonov front), "The Germans are at the moment snatched the initiative from our hands, and if we do not manage to stay on Don, do not hold out on the Volga. We'll have to retreat to the Urals "(2 quartermaster rank Fey).
Such "defeatist" in the terminology as long sentiments were not uncommon. In certain circumstances, they were given leta1942 weak mental attitude of many soldiers, discouragement and internal readiness for the upcoming retreat.
One of the witnesses of the chaotic retreat and sometimes fleeing troops, Colonel J. P. Tetushkin, commander 141st Infantry Division, which occupied a defensive limit in the Voronezh area, as laid out their bitter memories in a letter to the Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) GM Malenkov, "No one organized the retreating side I beheld at the front of Voronezh, south to g . Korotoyak. These were some small groups of fighters of all instruments of labor that followed, usually without weapons, sometimes even without shoes, having for themselves duffel bags and a kettle. Along the way, they (not all, of course) were collected food from the rear of our military facilities and vehicles. Who goes there with a rifle, it is usually rusty (and proizvodstva1942 city). This picture is familiar to me for the past year. "
Creator of the letter gave his attention to the lack of resistance and not a good Education Corps, the lack of unconditional obedience junior senior, especially in a part fighter — Junior commander. With the conviction of an old warriors (and he was still in the First World War), Colonel Tetushkin gave a hint one way of solving the problem: "We do not have a rigid discipline, that might ensure success in the battle, so no one dared to throw their place in the trenches at least What is the setting. Die Another Day, and hold on. All of this must be provided with appropriate law, as reflected in the statutes. "
To restore the stability of strategic defense, Supreme Command has undertaken a number of critical measures. At Stalingrad sector it has deployed a significant part of their reserves — 6 and 6 combined armies of tank shells. July 12 was created Stalingrad front under the command of Marshal of the Russian Union SK Timoshenko.
The massing of forces and means in threatened areas was accompanied by unprecedented action of propaganda and disciplinary character. In published 28 iyulya1942 godaprikaze Commissar of Defense of the USSR number 227, which received the unofficial title of "Not one step back!" Power, perhaps for the first time since the war dared to tell the ugly truth about the real situation on the fronts, that the forthcoming retreat threatened Russian Union military defeat and the loss of independence.
Russian people learned about the extent of the losses incurred by the state: on the area occupied by the enemy lived before the war, 70 million people gathered in year More than 800 million tons of grain, 10 million tons of smelted metal.
But the main failure is not even, as it should from the order, in the faint-hearted calculations in the vast expanses of the Russian, in the absence of a tribute to the troops strength and discipline. The withdrawal from combat positions without order from higher command became widespread nature.
Paphos order number 227 is enclosed in his subsequent position: "From now on steel law of discipline for each commander, Red Army, and commissar should be a requirement — not a step backwards without the order of the High Command." The order shall be read in all companies, squadrons, batteries, squadrons, teams, staffs, brought virtually to every soldier.
The People's Commissar of Defense and Supreme Commander Stalin not only gave the right, and claimed the right to destroy the place alarmists and cowards. Commanders of companies, battalions, regiments, divisions, commissars and political workers, retreated from the battle without orders from commanders were declared traitors to the motherland with all the ensuing consequences.
As one of the most important repressive sanctions order number 227 led to the introduction of a penalty units of the Red Army. Military councils of the fronts, their commander ordered "to form within the front from 1 to three (looking at the situation) penal battalions (of 800 people), which direct the middle and senior commanders and political workers of the respective arms, guilty of a breach of discipline by timidity or instability, and put them on the more difficult sections of the front, in order to give them an opportunity to atone for the blood of his crimes against the Motherland. " Within the Army also formed between 5 and 10 penalty mouth numbering 150-200 people every where on the same grounds heading ordinary soldiers and junior commanders.
The People's Commissar also ordered to form within each of the three armies — 5 well-armed defensive units (up to 200 people each), put them in a specific rear unbalanced divisions and require them in case of panic and chaotic retreat shoot panic-mongers and cowards.
Aggressively? Angry? Yes, certainly. After stitching the 227th order clearly emerges: withdrawal of our troops to stop at any cost. Though what! According to another — death.
Yes, it is possible and necessary to state that the loss of our strategic initiatives, was intercepted by the Germans as a result of the Moscow counteroffensive, is, first, to the conscience of the creator of the order "Not one step back!". Listen to the views of Stalin, Zhukov, Shaposhnikov, Vasilevsky, there would, of course, vernal disasters in the Crimea and at Kharkov, there would later break the Germans into a huge izluku Don and our retreat right Head to the Volga and the Caucasus Mountains.
But even then the fact that in a fight almost everything depends not on the commander, or the Front Commander of the Supreme, and from the company commander, platoon, from an ordinary soldier. Their discipline and perseverance.
Immediately, like the art of war and the dictates advisable to align the front line in the rear to take a more comfortable position, but directly to the situation imperatively requested by all means stay exactly on the boundary of where you are, then grow into the ground.
Change in the attitude of troops after July 28, 1942 According to many veterans. "If it were not for steel discipline at the front and rear, if we could win at Stalingrad, and of the war in general? We ordinary Russian majestically in one voice can say no, "- wrote the creator of veteran BI Valeshev Chusovoi of the Perm region.
Great force in the war of the order, who can argue. But to become a reality — not a step backwards, it takes something else. That the above-mentioned B. Valeshev recognizes that even in very stringent criteria that determined the order number 227, "were traitors and deserters, and voluntarily surrendering prisoner."
The retreat of our forces after July 28, slowing down, yet not over. They moved still almost 150 km to the Volga. It turns out that not everyone frightened detachments and penal company?
The fact is that order commander materok companion, automatic zagradotryadovtsa, the prospect of penal battalion can only add to the courage of heart or just lick his knees. But the decision each perceives himself. And at first in front of him, to his own conscience responds.
And about the order number 227. How to Treat it or, without reservation, that, although after its publication departure of our troops lasted for some time, he outlined some important limit, the change in the spirit and morale of troops.
In this regard, we can not agree with the war writers LI Lazarev: "It is not in and of itself for the order, as from time to time represent that became life-saving, but the fact that it coincided with the mood of the majestic huge amount of fighting on the front. It was not, why would all of us at any cost, stretch. And rested. Rested in Stalingrad, Voronezh, Novorossiysk. Out of the darkness and bitterness that have been in our souls (Pushkin, thinking that decided the case in 1812, referred to a "frenzy of the people") was born and the force of resistance, which so triumphantly advancing Germans were not able to cope, broke " .