Why did Russian authorities did not favor the attention a topic as the fate of prisoners of war in the war the Soviets and Poland? Maybe because the samples to protect them from abuse and humiliation by the Bolsheviks were very poor and lack of skill. Perhaps, as the Soviet regime discredited the event that portions of the Red Army not only suffered a disaster comparable to that of a small country like Poland, and were, in fact, left to the mercy of fate and favorite. Just getting a grasp in excerpts of memoirs and documents, you realize how dire the situation was captured Red Army. Why did the Poles have accumulated such a hatred of the Bolsheviks, and why they are such a pleasure to torment the defenseless?
Affairs Poland and the Russian Empire, and later the Soviet Union, has always been, very little unfriendly, but in times of crisis they have seriously deteriorated. Contributed to strained relations and abolishing the Brest peace and transition to the Red Army liberated the German armies areas, and the emergence of Russian Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. The Polish Office claimed the designated land, and could not come to terms with their transition under the rule of the Soviets. Hatred is fueled almost all terror, because "communist contagion" seriously feared in Europe after 1917. In the testimonies of contemporaries possible to see that the Bolsheviks specifically feared and sought to destroy the first comfortable way. The fact that the Bolsheviks population Poland taken as invaders, and their desire to "wake up" the world revolution there was not much popular. Targets Russian government also can not be called righteous, as the main task of the Bolsheviks in this step was the imposition of a "hotbed of revolution" on the international stage and, at first, to Germany, the road to which was through Poland.
In the course of the war prisoners were a huge number of fighter. Poles captured thousandths of the Red Army, whose composition often came civilian staff, including the ladies. Izymatelstva by the Polish military were known far outside the occupied territories. Different kinds of violence were accompanied by beatings and murders, arson and mass destruction and sometimes entire communities pt. Russian authorities have tried to answer countermeasures regarding the population of Poland, but the scale of such brutality is not headed for. It must be said that the particular ruthlessness different groups Boudin, and the Polish side Balakhovich. Izymatelstva perceived massive nature and were corrupted so that when reading the testimonies of witnesses and survivors appear doubt if he still had those executioners human form and the spark of reason. The forces were not equal, because, apart from both the Polish army, supported by strong European powers, the Soviets had to wage battle with the snow-white movement. But all the torture of the captured territories fade against the background of Fury anger and hatred of the Bolsheviks in the concentration camps.
To be precise, Red died, not only in the camps, and on the way to them. Embittered Polish soldiers and officers receive special pleasure from the abuse of defenseless prisoners. As is often the case, the modern representatives of Poland or speak a little differently about to create on their local lawlessness, understating the number of deaths and says nothing about some outrageous events. But a large part of the crimes against the Ukrainians, Russian and Belarusian hide all still fails. A huge amount of documentary evidence of ill-appeal with the prisoners do not explain the nuance of the story is, no matter what it lusted build Europe.
In most cases, the mention of the place of detention of prisoners of war can be found, such as the names of the Brest Fortress, Tuchola, Minsk, Strzalkowo, Wadowice and more than 10-ka camps and Sat. Almost all thanks to the materials representative of Russian Reddish Cross country Poland Stephanie Semplovska, we can return the tragic picture of these places for the destruction of the Russian people. Very clearly outlined the conditions of stay of prisoners in his article researcher Maliszewski, based on the documents as the Russian side and the Polish press, those distant years.
In particular, strikes a deal Wagner and Malinowski, former commander of a concentration camp Strzalkowo. The captain and the lieutenant found special pleasure to beat half-dead people whips made of Stitching wire. The atrocities of the 2-villains have become known to the public at one time when camp Lithuanians went squad deserters, some of whom were beaten to death in the first days are the same.
We know exactly how people were tortured Nazis, but if we consider the Polish camp, they could not have been better, and perhaps worse. People do not actually fed, in the hope that most of them will die the death of starvation. Most of the barracks was not applicable for living and medical care in general was not provided. The wounded had virtually no chance of survival, and healthy transferred epidemic dysentery, typhoid and several times during the season. In untreated wounds bred worms, and in the barracks was the stench of rotting flesh and feces of patients. The very air in the camps was contagious and fatal. Many in the first months of the new cases of tuberculosis. In areas not only do not have enough stores, but even the most necessary accessories for hygiene here it was impossible to meet. The walls do not actually protect against the cold and were made of rotten or boards or sheet-iron, and the men slept on the ground. No grass, no hay prisoners has been issued, contributing to the development of respiratory ailments. The situation was aggravated by the lack of latrines, because digestive spread of infection. The people were so hungry that they chose the cleaning of the manure piles. Even burning the water was a rarity and a blessing.
The command of the camps are not fussed about the most simple actions to isolate contagious patients, resulting in dozens of prisoners dying day. Solely Tuchola in accordance with the report of Lieutenant Colonel hidden Matuszewski killed about 22-thousand people. Specifically for this Tuchola was named death camp, though not a lot of other places than from him different. In this horrible place that became a tomb for many young Russian guys actually did not have healthy people. Even simple supplies such as bandages are not enough, and doctors had to wash and dry them, removing the dead. Convoy treated the captive as slaves, and even worse than the cattle. Murder a
nd torture have become ubiquitous entertainment, and local residents recalled that the facilities were so crowded that the land is not always covered the remains.
All prisoners of war conditionally divided into Russian White Army, Russian Poles, the Red Army and the Bolsheviks. Was the most languid position of the Bolsheviks, they often settled in unheated barracks, had no warm odezhki and shoes and did not actually eat. Their life was subordinated to the prison regime and absolutely none of that has not been evaluated. These prisoners were completely powerless and for the open izymatelstva over them, as, in general, and for the murder of prison guards is not condemned.
First, in November 1919 signed an agreement on the exchange of prisoners, resulting in the district councils were sent to 400 people. But due to the fact that the Polish prisoners of war in Russia was much less, the question of the return of the Red Army in the upcoming authorization is not received. In September 1920, Brody signed an agreement on the transfer of Russian prisoners in exchange for Polish, but Moscow has considered such an agreement is not profitable, and again left the Red Army in the camps. Yet, trying to establish business with Poland still made, but Jozef Pilsudski fanatic who dreams to revive the grandeur of the Commonwealth, to establish contact was very difficult. Lack of desire to negotiate in almost all based on the active support of the Polish military forces of France and Great Britain. In the end, a hell for Russian prisoners of war lasted three years, have experienced that far not all.
Prior to the current day or the fate of many thousands of Russian prisoners of war is not known. The warring parties as their own purposes and not have gained, areas have been broken. Some of them still became part of the USSR, but the cost was paid for their very highest. At one point, the Minister of Sapieha asked about the fate of prisoners of war, to which he replied that go with them, because conscience asks the majestic Poland. Judging by the fate of the unfortunate, the conscience of the notion of the concept of the Minister was very specific.