The last few decades base Russian fighter aircraft design bureaus are Sukhoi and Mikoyan. But this noble "post" in his time with varying success claimed by other development organizations. Namely, CB, SA Lavochkin, before it was transferred to the rocket-space theme, created their projects fighter jets. On the first of the works on this path and it will go.
First experiences with the "reactivation" were held in the summer of 42-th. Then, under the wings LaGG-3 installed two ramjet engine. The result came out diverse: on the one hand, the rate has risen indeed, and on the other — grown drag. In addition, continuous-flow engines burned so much fuel that the fine-tuning of the aircraft considered unwise. According to the decision of T-bills from May 22, 1944 was built plane La-7R, additionally equipped with a liquid-engine RD-1 Design VP Glushko (300 kgf thrust). This plane also remained purely experimental.
Immediately it began to work on the turbojet aircraft, which received the title of La WFD. It was created under the C-18 engine design AM Cradles. Structurally, the plane was a twin-boom vysokoplan with 2 keels vozduhopoglotitelyami on the edges of the fuselage and tricycle landing gear with the front desk. Armament (two 23-mm guns with ammunition, 60 rounds) due to the small amount of nose of the airplane was positioned in the front of the tail beams. Assembly, right to say uncharacteristic machines Lavochkin, Gorbunov or Gudkov. But this is a clarification: the work on the conceptual design was headed by SM Alekseyev, who, unlike the Lavochkin, did not consider dvuhbalochnye scheme of "architectural extravagances." Later, when the head Alexeyev OKB aircraft factory number 21, it will continue to actively study such schemes. Curiously, a British twin-boom jet fighter DH-100, made at about the same time, built a large series and has been recognized as a whole successful. La SRM, in turn, have not embodied in metal. The main reason — the lack of motor. C-18 Cradles got to the stage of bench tests, during which proved to be not too far away with the best hand. Designers-minders back for Cullman, and aircraft manufacturers had to somehow wriggle.
On Whatman paper
At the end of stateliness Russian war in the hands of our engineers has got a huge amount of captured German jet engines Jumo-004 and BMW-003. Also, the Russian aircraft builders will have access to the technological lines, which made the German motors. Since the country was in need of similar products, it was decided to create their own "Russified" engines under the names of the RD-10 ("Jumo") and RD-20 ("BMW"). Go with this leading designers who specialize on fighter (Mikoyan, Yakovlev and Lavochkin) began development of aircraft under the German-Soviet engines. The design bureau headed by SA Lavochkin, have decided to work out at once two of the project, even more so, not so long ago, the team CB eventually gathered a hundred percent, and at the same factory. The initial list of projects looked like this: "150" — a light fighter with a single engine RD-10 "160" — a heavy twin-engine aircraft with similar engines. The twin-engine fighter, it was decided to do for the reason that the thrust of the 1st motor is 900 kg was sufficient to ensure the features that significantly superior performance of piston engines. More precisely, sufficient speed and rate of climb itself slider could give, but they had to sacrifice for the sake of fuel, weapons, etc. Two engines, respectively, could provide the usual relationship aircraft flight and combat characteristics, although weigh down the car and reduced maneuverability. But the optimism generated by the reunion KB, soon disappeared. Because of the apparent lack of power from the "160" refused. Yet, the concept of the twin-engine fighter languid not forgotten — she later became engaged in SM Alekseev in the post of head designer of OKB-21.
In developing the "150" was planned on making much use of La WFD, but the incident was not allowed to take over the assembly of one hundred percent. RD-10 was almost one and a half times weaker than the C-18, which was made by La WFD. Because the glider had to rearrange — to facilitate and reduce the resistance. For the latter offered a position at TsAGI engine air intake specifically on the nose of aircraft, and the wings are better for high speeds. Namely, the scheme nizkoplan at tremendous speeds had a number of disadvantages in comparison with the average or the highest-wing. Also recommended new thin airfoils, which are not subject to a wave of the crisis, as they were called, "mahoustoychivye." All tips aero-hydrodynamic Institute were taken into account, though not without effort. By April 45th was prepared preparatory project "150". It was a single-engine cantilever vysokoplan right wing. The engine is positioned at the rear of the fuselage, and the jet stream was published under the tail wheel is relatively small thickness. By his own profile fuselage went something average between two-beam and Reda scheme, of course, taking into account the fact that the tail wheel at the "150" one. The air in the engine did a frontal air intake through the channels, enveloping the cockpit. All three landing gear positioned in the fuselage, thus there are two fuel tanks in the center section. More least 5 tanks of fuel from all sides "stuck" engine. In the end, came to greatly reduce the drag of the aircraft and achieve the applicable settlement hell even with a relatively feeble engine RD-10.
In July 1945, T-Bills issued a ruling on the work on jet aircraft. Namely, CB Lavochkin had to submit to a series of small tests of 5 copies of your own aircraft. The plant number 81, which then housed the design office, could not even cope with that task, because to solve a series of experimental NCAP had to build a factory number 381. But a more powerful 381-th was "tuned" to the creation of existing series reciprocating engines. As a result, by the first of November (as instructed decision) the first instance of the La-150 did not have time to build. Four more aircraft before the start of the 46th and did not come out of the shop. Need to see Mikoyan-250 also was not built just right. At the end of the 45th illumine the People's Commissariat of Defense began to worry: the projects Russian fighter jets showed them what it was, after a time, we want the volume of disk imaging they did not have, and yet here came from the Air Force Institute test results of German fighter Me-262. Military pilots even began to offer a little rework "Messerschmitt" (Russian install the equipment, etc.) and run in a batch creation, and simultaneously make a similar plane. The development of analog instructed KB PO Dry,
but the result came out not much similar to the "original."
Even during the purges models "150" in TsAGI, late summer '45, it became clear nasty feature: if lateral stability thanks to the advice of an aero-hydrodynamic Institute came even superfluous, something worthwhile — obviously insufficient. The tail feathers of La-150 was made in the image of reciprocating machines that apart from the incoming flow fin and stabilizer jets are blown from the propeller. A jet blowing itself out, causing terrible keel was doing his puzzle. Decided to lower lateral stability due to the negative cross-V installation or folded down wingtips. The second option was elected as a less severe for the implementation of the project. But plant Number 381 corrected documentation did not go, so again not to delay timing of construction Test series. Also had its disadvantages in aircraft assembly. The fighter was placed under the RD-10 is comparable with its small-size dimensions. Promising more massive engines were larger and, as a consequence, could not fit in the fuselage of La-150 without drastic improvements.
By 26 April the 46th, when the I-300 and Yak-15 made its first flight, La-150 has just passed the static tests. According to their results had improved the chassis, support and strengthen the tail wing, also increment the keel area. Unfinished car urgently necessary to alter in accordance with the refreshed design. By the end of spring finally managed to collect all 5 cars. Thus on the 381-m factory built only three — the other in the form of spare parts were sent to the factory number 301, where from them and made ready aircraft. There, in the 301-m factory amplified design ready fighter and "semi-finished". Until a few months spent on debugging, improvements and other additional work.
In the air
Only 1 August 1946 now on the Commissariat and the Ministry of Aviation Industry has given permission for the flight tests. A prototype of La-150 was brought to the FRI. Which is interesting, because the disposable wing and features of the transport infrastructure to the town of Zhukovsky aircraft were traveling in a specially made trailer. Upon arrival, revealed problems with the engine, and later with another, and only after the third substitution first flight "150" was ready for taxiing and flying. And here came not without problems: August 26, during high-speed runs down the runway, speeding up to 100-110 km / h, the plane is "sat" on the tail. On the experimental swatch, you see, is not found weapons, because in the free volume of the goods installed. The center of mass moved forward, and the danger to the tail boom was missing. All these immediate improvements again, "ate" time, so that the first flight of the La-150 took only 11.
First Russian jets still took tests, while "150" is not so long ago for the first time took off. But the homeland in the face of the High Command wanted to behold the latest technology at the parade on November 7. It was impossible to miss time and MAP gave the order to build a "ceremonial" aircraft (19 Yak-15, MiG-10 9 8 and La-150) in just a month. Until now there are disputes, which was the premise of this solution: the desire to control the country show the power of Russian industry or a typical test the new management of MAP and the Air Force. Yet, the factory number 31 in Tbilisi and number 1 in Kuibyshev receive documentation on the aircraft Yak-15 and MiG-9, respectively. KB car Lavochkin "shared" between 301-m and 21-m plants. Since the factory number 301 were already complete, 21 minutes to deport not only drawings, and a group of professionals. The heads of companies, of course, a very "rejoiced" newcomer behalf. Still, during the war in the start of production of the new aircraft took 3-4 months, but now have to do the same thing, but for 3-4 weeks. At the same time, the respective heads of factories was the experience of the job and it took almost a few days: a week of preparation and 10 days to create a 4 "150" (plant number 21). Raportuya highest authorities, directors of factories claimed that you can continue to create, but on one condition: that there is no shortage of engines. As it turns out, make a glider with the equipment lighter than the engine. And it's not so much the timing of production, reliability, and how many resources of the first motors.
"Parade" aircraft were built in a timely manner. But it's still been no real fighting machine. Namely, in the La-150 as before instead of weapons were loads correcting alignment. Also, the pilots were ordered to the front in the flight did not accelerate to more than 600 km / h and did not exceed three times the overload. If the overload everything is clear, the speed limit imposed because of a weak construction gear doors: the trial in excess of a threshold of 650 km / h opened up their flow. In addition, all available La-150 were transferred to the parade organizers and tests on time stopped. So it's not an extra precaution in the way. In the course of the celebration was to be held two triples "150" on the Red Square. Two more aircraft were spare. But all was in vain rush — the air part of the parade on November 7 was canceled. The reason for the ordinary, lit up: the non-flying weather.
There are not unfounded perception that specifically prepare for the parade are most affected by the coming fate of the La-150. Since at the time of the parade this aircraft flew least 2 months, the military saw the raw, incompletely apparatus having a lot of shortcomings. Claims have been at all: Pilots not happy with bad Putney sustainability, technology lamented the awkward access to the engine and a motor gasoline-starter (this is an important element of the aircraft, as luck would have it, the other broke down more often), and the commanders did not have enough weapons (two 23-mm guns) and range. In addition, at the time of the transfer of aircraft in the "front team" had not been removed key flight data — speed, ceiling, range, etc. In other words, and defects in La-150 was pretty, and the time required to fix them a lot. Because military acknowledged a promising fighter MiG-9 and Yak-15, and the project "150" transferred to the category of experimental. At the same time, do not exclude the possibility of its start in the series provided correct all defects.
Three built La-150 finalized and sent back to the factory tests. The first machine was used to remove the flight data, the second has become a shield for the measurement of fuel consumption, and a third "chased" for aerobatics. First brought to mind landing gear doors, and its system of emergency release. Almost immediately after that test schedule was disrupted due to the fault of nature: LII airfield until covered with snow, that it did not have time to clean up. In the two months (December 1946 — January 1947) i
s not fulfilled, and 10 missions. When the weather finally took pity on the testers, began to mock engines — on the plane to fly at the speed and altitude changed four pieces. They carefully set up and controlled on the ground but in the air often began difficulties: the first engine nedodal almost hundred kilometers of speed, 2nd — 70, and only the third brought the aircraft to the settlement. As it turns out, in the cold of winter on heating oil and taxiing were not heated to more than 30-35 degrees. When lifting it basked, and reaching 80 degrees, resulting in a decrease in turnover and decrease traction. With this objective in mind have developed a plan of flight, and the plane at an altitude of 4200 meters was dispersed to 878 km / h Factory tests ended April 27, 1947.
La-150 had to pass by the same municipal tests. It was a copy of which has received wingtips, downward deviation of 35 °, slightly wider cabin with the latest dashboard, ejection seat and cockpit armor plates and a number of other innovations, the main technological nature. In addition, the title of the aircraft have added the letter "M". La-150M arrives on state tests 24 July the 47th, but on August 9 found shavings in the oil. By this time in the course of 14 missions revealed that the airplane fell, namely, the maximum speed was reduced to 800 km / h Due to the lack of new motor tests broke off almost a month, and later SA Lavochkin offered them to finish. In-1's, it was clear that the properties of the aircraft are not sufficient, and in-2, by the time the municipal tests introduced a new plane of La-156 with far the best numbers. In late summer, the 47th has passed factory tests aircraft "150F", filled the experimental RD-10 engine with afterburner (traction on the board in 1240 kgf). La-150F was able to accelerate to 950 km / h, but because of the whole set of problems it did not even send to the municipal tests.
In the second half of the 40-ies of the last century, aircraft designer SA Lavochkin — La-9 and La-11 became one of the most popular Russian cars. Their "big brothers" La-5 and La-7 amazing proven themselves in the Russian majestically. But reactive creatures Lavochkin was not destined to come anywhere close to them. Of all the Jets 'La' was built only one standard — it was a La-15. After the failure in the field of jet aircraft KB Lavochkin redirected to the aerospace branch, but that's another story.