Day of the Pacific Fleet of the Russian Navy

  • Day of the Pacific Fleet of the Russian Navy
  • Day of the Pacific Fleet of the Russian Navy

Order of the Commander of the Navy of the Russian Federation on April 15, 1999 date of formation of the Pacific Fleet (PF) is set to 21 May 1731. On that day, the Senate of the Russian Empire "To protect the land and sea trade routes and trades" established Okhotsk Flotilla and Okhotsk military port. Okhotsk Flotilla (Siberian Flotilla, Paul flotilla) was the first permanent naval unit of the Russian state in the Pacific.  Ships and vessels of Okhotsk Flotilla became the first link in the origin of the naval forces of Russia to the Pacific coast, and played a crucial role in protecting the interests of the powers in the region.

Subsequently, the fleet has been converted to the Pacific fleet, which was in its development stages, from sailing to armored, steam from a gun to a nuclear missile.

From the history of the Navy

From the Arctic Ocean to the Korean peninsula for hundreds of kilometers stretch beautiful and rich land of Russian Far East, including the Maritime and Khabarovsk Territories, Amur, Kamchatka, Magadan and Sakhalin Oblast. The coast is washed by the waters of the Far East of the five seas — East Siberian Sea, Chukchi Sea, Bering, Okhotsk and Japan. More than 15 thousand kilometers stretches seaward boundary of our homeland in the north and east. Huge Russian Far East, its natural resources. More than 100 million hectares are taiga forests in the interior there are deposits of gold, silver, copper, tin, zinc, iron, coal, ore and many other non-metallic minerals. Uncountable and bioresources of the Pacific Ocean. The Far East has all the possibilities for that to become one of the leading centers for the development of Russia.

Far East — this is our land from time immemorial, discovery and development of Russian people. Their remarkable courage, selfless efforts were approved by the legal rights of Russia on the shores of the Pacific Ocean. And the chief defender of Russian Far East was the Pacific Fleet. Its glorious past is fully associated with the activities of the Russian people for the development of the region.

XVII Century

To have survived the news of the great campaigns of Russian explorers and seafarers' meetings of the sun "to the shores of the Pacific Ocean. In the spring of 1639 Butalskogo jail in Siberia moved to the East squad Tomsk Cossack Ivan Jurevicha Moskvitina. He reached the mouth of the hive and built on the shore of the Sea of Okhotsk first Russian car park. October 1 (October 11, in style) squad came out in the sea and the mouth of the campaign Hunting (this date is considered the beginning of Russian Pacific Maritime). This campaign has shown that for hiking in the sea requires large vessels of special construction, and small odnoderevki, where Russian Cossacks successfully moved on Siberian rivers. Troop Moskvitina wintering on the river Hive founded a special "plotbische", which the researchers called the cradle of Russian Pacific shipbuilding. It was built two koch length of about 17 meters each. These were single-masted (sometimes two-masted), single-deck, sailing and rowing boats, with a special, able to withstand compression in ice. In 1640, the Cossacks on kochah visited the islands Shanter, the mouth of the Amur River and the north-western coast of Sakhalin.

In the summer of 1643 from Yakutsk to the east along the rivers Lena, Aldan River and its tributaries moved squad Basil Danilovicha Poyarkova. The Cossacks came to the mouth of the Amur River, where they wintered. In 1645 the Cossacks kochah went to the Sakhalin Gulf and the Sea of Okhotsk. For the three months Poyarkov reached the mouth of the hive. The detachment Poyarkova already known by the way, moved squad Yerofei Pavlovich Habarova. He founded the first Russian on-Amur settlement. In 1647, a detachment of seeds A. Shelkovnikova passed by the Sea of Okhotsk between the mouths of the Hive and Hunting and founded the fort oblique. It was the first Russian port and the city on the Pacific coast.

Moved to the east coast of the Russian people and the Arctic Ocean. In autumn 1648 came out of the mouth of the Kolyma River detachment Semyon Ivanovich Dezhneva. He discovered the "Big Stone Nose" (Cape Dezhneva) and passed the strait that separates Asia from America. During a storm in the Pacific Ocean, kochi scattered, some washed up on the shores of Alaska, others — Kamchatka. In 1649 the average flow of the river Anadyr Anadyr was founded, which became one of the bases for promotion to the south and east.

At the end of the XVII century begins the development of the Kamchatka peninsula. There were based Russian winter quarters and jails have become bases for penetration of the nearby islands and North America. Everywhere people were carrying advanced Russian culture, higher forms of economic activity, which gradually takes over the local population.

XVIII century

In 1711, Ivan Kozyrevsky and Daniel Y. Antsiferov examined first islands Kuril Islands. Then Kozyrevsky learned most of the Kuril Islands. In Kamchatka, at this time there were several forts — Lower-Kamchatsky, Taghilsky Bolyneretsky. From Yakutsk to get through these forts Anadyr, and then through the Okhotsk. The way to Kamchatka from Yakutsk held until at least six months.

In 1713, Peter A. King signed an order finding the sea route to Kamchatka. Soon, from St. Petersburg to Okhotsk sent experienced shipbuilders — Kondrati Moshkova Nicephorus Cod, James Neveytsina, Ivan Butin and others who have played a major role in the development of the region. In 1716, on the river Kukhtui about Okhotsk, the master Cyril Carpenter, Ivan Fedorov Kargopoltsev and Bartholomew built the first offshore vessel created by Russian shores of the Pacific Ocean — the rook "East". Rook made the voyage to Bolsheretsky jail, then capital of Kamchatka, and from that time Okhotsk and Kamchatka tied scheduled flights.

In the 1720-1721 years. Russian naval officers, surveyors Evreinov Ivan and Fyodor Luzhin made by boat "Vostok" expedition to explore the coast of Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands, they made the first map of the peninsula and islands. In 1723, the squadron was re-Okhotsk another rook, in 1727, the shipyard has built Okhotsk Shitik "Fortune" in 1729, two boats — "Lion" and "Eastern Gabriel."

At the end of 1724 was organized by the First Kamchatka Expedition, which was ordered to find out if the strait between Asia and America (Dezhneva report on the opening of the Strait got lost and was found later). The campaign led by Captain-Commander Vitus Bering and non-commissioned Lieutenant Alexei Chirikov. This expedition in 1725-1730 gg. opened the strait later named Bering Sea, examined some parts of the coast of Kamchatka and Chukotka.

In 1731 he became a military port of Okhotsk, was established Okhotsk Flotilla, it was the first commander of the GG-Skornyakov Pisarev. In the Okhotsk created shipyard. In 1740, founded the school, which in 1756 was transformed into a Naval School of finished navigators for ships and vessels that went off the coast of the Far East. By the middle of the XVIII century in the Okhotsk Flotilla seven ships: 3 bot 3 galliots and one brigantine. Okhotsk was the cradle of the Russian naval forces in the Pacific.

In the 1729-1732 years. Cossack head of Athanasius and Major Dmitry Shestakov Pavlutsky to "Fortune" and "St. Gabriel "explored the northern Kuril Islands and Shantarsky, Uda Bay and the Bering
Strait. In 1732, Ivan Fedorov and co-driver Michael Gvozdyov surveyor made a trip to the Cape Dezhneva and then to the north-west coast of North America. In 1741, packet boats "St. Peter "and" St. Paul "under the command of Bering and Chirikov came from Petropavlovsk to find ways to the coast of America. Storm and divided them to the shores of North America's first came Chirikov, and then the Bering. Sea route to North America from the Kamchatka Peninsula has been opened. During this expedition were opened and the island of the Aleutian chain.

In the 1787-1790 years. expedition under the supervision of Joseph Billings and Gavriil Sarychev on the ship "Yasachnaya" explored the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the east of the Kolyma River and identified the sea route along the coast of Siberia to the Pacific Ocean. In the 1790-1791 years. Billings and Sarychev on the ship "Glory to Russia" explored the coast of the Bering Sea. In 1799, for the strengthening of Russia's military presence on the Pacific coast in the Okhotsk sent three frigates and three small ships under the command of Rear Admiral IK Fomin. In the same year in the Okhotsk sent a regiment of soldiers to protect the settlements and land borders.

By the end of XVIII century Russian sailors discovered and mastered not only the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kuril islands, many Aleutian chain, the Commander and the other islands, explored the way to North America. Russian lands based on the settlement. In 1784, on the island of Kodiak Russian merchant GI Shelehov bases fortress. It establishes the Russian-American Company, which played a major role in the development of Russian Far East, making travel and strengthening Russian positions in the region. In 1799, the new CEO of AA Baranov founded on the island of Sitka New Archangel, which became the capital of Russian America. On the American coast one after another arose Russian settlement. The southernmost Fort Ross was erected at the mouth of the Slav, in the area of modern San Frantszhsko. Before Russia opened brilliant military-strategic and economic prospects for the control of the entire northern part of the Asia-Pacific region.

XIX century

In 1805, IF Krusenstern on the sloop "Hope" investigated a number of Japanese islands east coast of Sakhalin Island, the Tsushima Strait. In 1811, Lt. V. Golovin on the sloop "Diana" to explore the Southern Kuriles, and then on the sloop "Kamchatka" defined the coordinates of several islands of the Aleutian Islands. In addition, a major role in the study of the region played an OE Kotzebue, Litke, Yu Lisyansky, MN Stanyukovich, M. Vasiliev, and many other Russian researchers.

However, a territory development hindered its remoteness from European Russia. Russian settlers experienced constant need of food, weapons, ammunition, various tools, etc. It was believed that this problem can be partially solved using the Amur River and its tributaries. But for this it was necessary to ascertain whether the river is navigable throughout its length. The expedition of French explorer La Perouse in 1783, attempted to penetrate into the Amur estuary of the Sea of Japan, but concluded that the Sakhalin — a peninsula. Ten years later, the same conclusion was made by the British explorer Broughton. In 1805, unable to enter the mouth of the Amur River in the north and Krusenstern. In 1845, searching for the mouth of the Amur brig "Constantine" under the Gavrilova. Then the issue of Cupid officially been closed. Its actually on its own initiative opened the commander of Transport "Baikal" Lieutenant Commander Gennady Nevel in 1848. He became convinced that the Amur can pass large ships and discovered the strait that separates Sakhalin from the mainland. Nevel proved that Sakhalin — an island, and that in the mouth of the Amur can get the big ships from the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan.

Nevel in 1850 founded the Nicholas military post (Nikolaevsk-on-Amur), approved the position of Russia in Primorye, which is coveted American and British colonialists. A few years worked Amur expedition. In 1853, in the Bay of De Castries was established a military post. Thus, self-sacrificing labor Russian sailors Russian empire had free access to the Pacific Ocean. At the mouth of the Amur, Sakhalin Island, and in some places the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan were established military posts, which played a major role in protecting the Russian Far East.

As of the Russian round the world because of its more convenient geographical location has moved to the forefront of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Also had an open Okhotsk and the shallow waters of the raid. As a result, the main military port decided to move to another location. Since 1849 the main base of Okhotsk Flotilla (since 1856 Siberian) has Petropavlovsk-on-Kamchatka. Here flotilla received a baptism of fire — in August 1854 was repulsed by the Anglo-French attack squadron. Heroic defense of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky led Basil Zavoiko.

Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky long been the main base of the fleet. In 1855, because of the vulnerability of Petropavlovsk base, ships and people were evacuated from there to St Nicholas post. Since 1871, became the main base of Vladivostok. The main problem of the fleet in the pre-revolutionary period was the lack of shipbuilding base (newer ships sent from the European part of Russia) and a poorly developed system of bases.

Far East at the end of the century was the area of interest of the great powers and Russia took an additional 1895 to 1898 shipbuilding program "for the needs of the Far East." It included an increase in the Navy in the Pacific to 10 battleships, four armored cruisers, 10 protected cruisers, 10 cruisers rank 2, over 30 destroyers. In 1897, the main base of the fleet was the Port Arthur. Was formed by the Port Arthur squadron (the future First Pacific squadron).

XX century

By the beginning of Russian-Japanese war of 1904-1905. The naval forces of the Russian Empire in the Far East consisted of the 1st Pacific Squadron and the Siberian Flotilla. Its main base was in Port Arthur. Vladivostok was based created in 1901 by the Vladivostok squadron of cruisers and destroyers. Russian-Japanese War was remembered alongside the heroic and tragic events: the feat of the cruiser "Varyag" and the gunboat "Korean"; battle destroyer "Guarding", the heroic defense of Port Arthur, the death of the 2nd Squadron of the Pacific Fleet in the Battle of Tsushima. Despite the heroism and courage of Russian sailors, the main forces of the Russian Navy in the Pacific died. They for their part have done everything possible to win. The main reason for the defeat lay in the area of government policy in the Far East, for many decades it was flawed.

By the beginning of the revolution of 1917 the naval forces in the Pacific were not restored, priority was given to the development of fleets in the Baltic and the Black Sea. In the Siberian flotilla in 1914 consisted of two cruisers — "Askold" and "Pearl", a gunboat, 8 destroyers, 17 destroyers and 13 submarines. During the Civil War sailors and Siberian Amur Flotilla participated in the struggle for the establishment of Soviet power in the Far East, the war against the White Guards and interventionists. In 1922 the Company introduced the Naval Forces of the Far East, which was part of a detachment of ships Vladivostok and Amur Flotilla.

In 1935, the Naval Forces of the Far East reformed in the Pacific Fleet (PF). During the Great Patriotic War, fought on the fronts of more than 140,000 Pacific Fleet. During the Soviet-Japanese War of 1945 PF participated in the liberation of the Korean peninsula, like seizure Kurils and Sakhalin. By the beginning of the 1970s was created by ocean-going nuclear missile fleet, which solved the pr
oblem of strategic deterrence of potential enemies in the Asia-Pacific region.

Since 1991, the Pacific Fleet suffered decline, it fully reflected the problems of the Russian state. Failure were withdrawn its most capable and powerful units: aircraft carriers Project 1143 "Merlin" — "Minsk" and "Novorossiysk"; TARK Project 1144 "eagle" — "Admiral Lazarev" (there is a possibility of modernization); BDK ocean-going Project 1174; large anti-submarine ships 1134B Project "Golden Eagle", most of the destroyers URO Project 956 "Buzzard", all the frigates with guided missiles, etc. The critical situation in the submarine fleet. For two decades, the Navy did not get a single ship first, second grades.

The current state

Currently, the Pacific Fleet is the largest operational-tactical union of the Russian Navy and a major force for peace and security on the eastern borders of our country. Especially its role is growing in a situation where the Asia-Pacific region is becoming a "powder keg" of the planet.

His military base at the present time are: the missile cruiser "Varyag" (flagship), 4 BOD Project 1155 "Frigate" — "Marshal Shaposhnikov", "Admiral Vinogradov", "Admiral Panteleev" and "Admiral Tributs", 1 destroyer URO 956 project "Buzzard" — ""; several nuclear submarines and intercontinental cruise missile.

It should be noted that in recent years, due to the increasing threat of Russia in the international arena, the Pacific Fleet began to pay more attention. The number of exercises, exits to the open sea. Pacific Fleet promise to strengthen the amphibious assault ship of the "Mistral" — the first French helicopter carrier "Vladivostok" is assigned to the main base in Vladivostok KTOF. Amur Shipyard is building for the PF series of Project 20380 corvettes: laid "Perfect" (operational plan to introduce in 2014), "Loud," a few more ships are going to lay in the near future. There are plans to upgrade to the 2020 Project 956 destroyers "Buzzard", "Admiral Lazarev". Also scheduled to transfer from the Northern Fleet Pacific Fleet at the disposal of "Admiral Nakhimov" and "Marshal Ustinov".

We congratulate all of Pacific seafarers and their families on the Day of Russian Navy's Pacific Fleet, and wish them good health, a simple human happiness and success in the service. A fleet — a worthy continuation of military traditions, increasing the combat power of the glory of the Great Russia!

  • Day of the Pacific Fleet of the Russian Navy
  • Day of the Pacific Fleet of the Russian Navy

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