On the role of the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI) is fully applicable: conducting independent foreign policy has significant nuclear and missile capabilities, aims for regional leadership. What after all is actually a creation of the programm Iranian ballistic missiles? As it is not safe for the surrounding countries? Make out these issues more carefully.
Short-range ballistic missiles
Iran is not only purchased, and without the help of others developed a huge amount of unmanaged solid tactical missiles mobile home with a range of up to 90 km, comparable in its features with Russian tactical missile system, "Luna-M". Because of the low accuracy of the basic purpose of these missiles consisted of strikes by large towns, placed near the band edge.
At the current time in service with Iran have only two types of missiles: the Chinese WS-1 and the Iranian Fajer-5, made on the basis of North Korean counterparts. 302-mm rocket WS-1 and 333-mm rocket Fajer-5 have a firing range of 70-80 km and a warhead weighing 150 kg and 90 kg respectively. On one missile launchers are four such types. They can not be used as carriers of nuclear weapons (light weight nuclear warhead on the basis of weapons-grade uranium for placement on the applicable carrier rocket, is 415 kg).
Tactical missiles appeared on the terrain of Iran in the late 1980s. Then Tehran has purchased 170 to 200 Chinese two-stage missile CSS-8 (DF-7 or M-7) c range of up to 150 km with a 200-pound head. The first stage of the rocket is liquid, and the second — a solid fuel. Rocket CSS-8 has an inertial control system that is resistant to external influences. At the moment, Iran has 16-30 launchers (PU) for launching missiles of that type. The Iranian version of the CSS-8 missiles has received the title of Tondar. It is mobile and has a range of up to 150 km.
In the 1990s, Iran with the help of Chinese professionals made its solid-fuel missile Zelzal-2 diameter of 610 mm. This rocket mobile home with the greatest flight range of 200 km at 600-kilogram warhead. One PU is only one type of missile. Iranians without the help of others that have upgraded missiles, which allowed increment range her flight to 300 km. In 2004, such a missile, which received the title of Zelzal-2 was put into service.
By developing missile Fateh-110 Iranians started in 1997, its first successful test flight took place in May 2001. The upgraded version of the missile has received the title of Fateh-110. It has the following properties: diameter — 610 mm, maximum range — 200 km, the head of the weight — 500 kg. Unlike other Iranian missiles short range Fateh-110A has a glide ratio and armed with a guidance system that significantly increment the accuracy of its shooting.
But the main focus in the area of the Iranian missile short-range missiles were R & D program there, "Shehab."
Made in the Russian Union of ballistic rocket R-17 (NATO on ordering — SCUD-B) and its analogues upgraded (first North Korean) served as the Iranian spice base for developing its own missiles. Initially, Iran has purchased missiles of this type abroad, partly — in Libya and Syria, but priemuschestvenno — in North Korea.
In March 1985, Iran conducted the first combat launches of missiles R-17 on Iraqi targets. More actively firing missiles of this type was carried out in a 52-day period in March-April 1988, later dubbed the "war of the cities". Then the Iranian forces to run up to five rockets a day, possible radial deviation (CEP) which was on the point of aim 500-1000 m
By that time, Iran has already taken the first test launch of missiles "Shahab-1": range headed for 320 km with a payload of 985 kg. Its mass creation lasted until 1991. After that Tehran has begun to purchase more advanced missiles R-17M (SCUD-C) with a payload of 730 kg and a range of up to 500 km. Namely, increase the flight range of the R-17M was achieved by elongation of 13-14% of the fuel and oxidizer tanks.
Almost immediately a "Shahab-1" Iranian engineers began developing a modification — "Shahab-2". To do this during the 1991-1994 Iran purchased in North Korea from 250 to 370 missiles R-17M, and later — and much of the processing equipment. In 1991, the Iranian spices in the field of rocketry were trained in North Korea. All this has allowed Iran in 1997 to deploy its own missiles of this type of establishment. Given the increasing range and use a similar system control accuracy of missiles "Shahab-2" was low: their CWE was 1.5 km.
Missile programs from "Shahab-1" and "Shahab-2" were absolutely collapsed in 2007. Yet Iran is currently up to 300 missiles "Shahab-1" and "Shahab-2".
The forthcoming development programs from the Iranian missile was the creation of intermediate range ballistic missiles.
Liquid medium-range missiles
A new step in the development of Iran's missile was the creation of medium-range ballistic missiles as part of programs from "Shahab-3". With all of this extensive application engineering solutions found a North Korean ballistic missiles, "Rodong".
To test a single-stage liquid rocket "Shahab-3" Iran began in 1998, along with the development of missiles "Shahab-4." The first successful launch of "Shahab-3", which set a new North Korean engine, took place in July 2000. Create missiles "Shahab-3" Iranians were able to start at the end of 2003, with the help of Chinese companies.
By August 2004, Iranian experts at reduced size of the head of the rocket "Shahab-3", upgraded its propulsion system and the increment in store fuel. Such a missile, which received the title of "Shahab-3M", has a head portion in the form of a bottleneck, enabling it to provide accommodation of cluster munitions. It is believed that this version of the missile has a range of 1.1 thousand km of the head with a weight of 1 ton.
In September 2007, during a military parade in Iran was featured brand new rocket "Qadr-1» (Ghadr-1) with the largest range of shooting 1.6 thousand km with 750-pound head. It is an upgraded missile "Shahab-3M", which was carried out only by Iranian spices.
Tehran initially planned to develop ballistic missiles "Shahab-5" and "Shahab-6" with a range of 3 thousand kilometers and 5.6 thousand km, respectively (programm creation missiles "Shahab-4" with a range of 2.2-3 million km has been terminated or suspended in October 2003 for political reasons). But, according to the views of Russian and American professionals, the ability of missiles in this direction is largely exhausted. This does not preclude the creation of multi-stage liquid Iranian missiles, but more likely that the main resources will be concentrated on the improvement of solid-fuel missiles (scientific backlog acquired in the development of liquid rocket finds its application in the field of gallakticheskoy).
At the current time, Iran has less than 32 PU mobile home single-stage liquid propellant missiles "Shahab-3" and "Qadr-1" in the brigade, located in the central part of the country. Accuracy of these missiles is low (CHED is 2.0-2.5 km).
Solid medium-range missiles
It was naive to think that the technology of solid-fuel medium-range missiles were transferred to Iran from China. Of course, some help from Beijing was provided, but most of the work done Irania
n spices for 2-decades mastered the technology of solid-fuel rockets. First, they focused mainly on short-range missiles, reaching in their development of significant success. This allowed the management to put the Iranian issue of developing ballistic missiles with a range of 2 thousand km, using a rigid fuel. And such a missile could do by May 2009, when Tehran announced the successful launch of a two-stage solid-fuel missile, "Sajjil» (Sejil).
The process of developing missiles "Sajjil" has followed properly. First, using the already made with Chinese assistance infrastructure for the production of solid-propellant short-range missiles, the Iranians have built nearby city of Semnan enterprise capable to prepare the fuel charge size. Immediately, the pace was quick enough to develop solid-fuel rocket engines of the first and second stages. This puzzle was solved in 2005. First, the bad launch of a new type occurred in November 2007. Then the Iranian missile was presented as Ashura (Tenth). Second launch "Sajjil," apparently successful in November of next year. With all this, it was stated that range her flight was almost two thousand kilometers. The third flight test of the missile, which received the title of "Sajjil-2", held in May 2009.
The firing range of the missile at the head of the weight of 1 ton, which implies a 750-kilogram warhead, is 2.2 kilometers. When reducing the weight of the head of up to 500 kg and range can be increased to 3 million km (in this case, the rocket can not carry nuclear weapons). Rocket "Sajjil-2" has a diameter of 1.25 m, a length of 18 meters and a takeoff weight of 21.5 tons, which allows mobile-based method.
A significant shortcoming of Iranian ballistic missiles "Shahab-3" is that they have to be for a long time before the start of the fill (liquid propellant technology ampulizirovaniya Iranians probably do not have). At this time, the rocket clearly visible to the air and gallakticheskih surveillance and easily vulnerable to high-precision weapons.
Solid-fuel rocket "Sajjil-2" is devoid of this defect. In addition, it is shorter than the active leg of the route, making it difficult to capture on this most vulnerable section of the line movement. The adoption of rockets "Sajjil-2" may be in 2013.
Be sure that in the coming years to improve programs from Iranian medium-range ballistic missiles will the future development. After adopting the solid-fuel rocket "Sajjil-2" in four or five years could be the creation of the modern three-stage ballistic missile that uses a rigid fuel. It has been estimated range of its flight at the head of the weighing 1 ton range from 2.7 to 3.5 thousand kilometers. But, do not seem to want in the West, this obviously is not enough to make a potential danger for the whole of Europe.
So Makar, the Iranians have gained significant success in missile. Of course, at first they used intensively assistance from North Korea and China. But as the in-house technical level they increasingly turn to independent development of ballistic missiles. Proof of this was the creation of a fairly modern two-stage solid-fuel missile, "Sajjil-2."
Available at IRI tactical and operational-tactical missile significant increase combat capability of government forces. Their presence is a natural in the criteria of difficult relations between Tehran and the Arab world and a certain backlog own air force in comparison with prosperous states of the Persian Gulf. In fact, the Iranian short-range missiles only support the existing balance of forces in the region. And that there would be need if the West graduated scale deliveries here more advanced weapons.
Iranian medium range ballistic missiles right up to 2020 may not be representative for the whole of Europe even possible danger. They have committed another purpose — to deter Israel from striking air strikes. In full, this task will be solved after entering the army missiles "Sajjil-2", which has enough range and a higher readiness.