The confusion in the identification between an endangered species, gear hammerhead shark, and like him a new, not yet named, could threaten the survival of both species.
According to a recent article in the journal Marine Biology, a new type of hammerhead shark was found off the coast of southern Brazil. This study supports the hypothesis that the new species is distributed much more widely than previously stated. However, the "double" shark-toothed hammer, seemed to run into the same problem as the gear itself hammerhead shark — the prospect of disappearing from the face of the earth as a result of mass destruction because of valuable fins and meat. The scale of production is such that the species can not recover their numbers.
Ten million sharks a year are caught around the world because of valuable fins and meat, nearly destroying their population, which, of course, causes extensive ecosystem integrity in which sharks inhabit. This has prompted international organizations to take comprehensive measures to protect sharks from the uncontrolled destruction.
"It is important to formally recognize the existence of a new type of hammerhead shark and give it a name, and to conduct a systematic study of this kind in order to obtain knowledge of the state population — said Professor Mahmood Shivdzhi, who oversaw the new research center in the U.S." Save the Sea Sharks "NSU -OC. — No intervention by the authorities in order to stop the uncontrolled destruction of this species, we risk losing it before anything about him to know. "
The research team Shivdzhi first discovered a new type of hammerhead shark in 2005, studying the DNA of sharks, which were regarded as a hammerhead shark tooth on the basis of external similarities. A team of scientists from the University of South Carolina regardless confirmed the existence of a new species in 2006. Comparison of DNA, according to NSU the University of South Carolina, found that 7% of sharks, described as scalloped hammerhead shark, were members of a new species. This means that the population of gear hammerhead shark in the territorial waters of the United States may be even fewer in number than expected.
At the moment, the National Marine Fisheries Service U.S. study materials to reach a verdict on the status of gear hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) — whether to include them in the "List of endangered species of the United States." They are already in the "Red Book" of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The new species is so far beyond this list.
"We hope that during the consideration of this important issue gear hammerhead shark, their" double "will be recognized as a protected species, and will be corrected the misunderstanding that arose in the past, when the number of individuals of this species, and was credited with the" double "- said Shivdzhi .
According to Danielle Pinhao, associate professor at the University UNESP in Sao Paolo, Brazil, where the work as a visiting fellow in the laboratory Shivdzhi, "that the new species found in Brazilian waters, where a very active production of a hammerhead shark, a concern about the state of populations, not only in the territorial waters of the United States, but all over the western Atlantic. now — this is an international problem, and it is important that further studies are carried out in a new type of Brazilian territorial waters. "
In addition to genetic differences, the two shark species differ in the number of vertebrae. "The Double" is about 20 vertebrae less than gear hammerhead shark, that is, 170 vs. 190. DNA analysis has shown that the way of split about 4.5 million years ago — suddenly long for the creatures, seemingly so much alike.
Hammerheads and other large sharks are uncontrolled catching for years. Scientists fear that a further reduction in their number and variety can irreversibly change the complex food chain in the oceans and upset the balance of the ecosystem. For example, one study of a loud, resonated, found that a strong reduction in the number of sharks off the east coast of the U.S. leads to an increase in the number of one of their victims — bycherylogo slope, which, in turn, eating scallops, causes a reduction in the number of seafood delicacies and as a result, reduce its supply to the market.