For a long time it was thought that in December 2012, according to the Mayan calendar, is expected to end. But where this information came from the ancient Indians?
The birth of the myth
Mayans were counting down the days on a mythical date, which corresponds to 11 or 13 August 3113 BC This date is not recorded by Indians as zero point of the beginning began, and 126.96.36.199.0, that is, as a symbol of thirteen quatercentenary (baktun). Then begins the first day quatercentenary zero, then the second, third … seventh. But what happens if quatercentenary Othmer full circle "back" to the date of 188.8.131.52.0? Is not it would be the end of the world?
The first is related to the accident year 2012 Professor of Anthropology at Yale University and author of several popular science research civilizations of Mesoamerica Michael Ko. He wrote: "For the typical Mesoamerican religions idea of repeating cycles of creation and destruction. The Aztecs, for example, believed that the universe has passed through four such cycles, and our age is the fifth cycle of creation, which is destined to die because of the earthquakes. Maya representations were similar. They also assumed the existence of a long duration of time cycles. There is evidence that the length of each of these cycles is 13 baktun, a little less than 5200 years, and that Armageddon must come at the last day of the thirteenth Baktun. Thus, it is estimated that the world was created in 3113 BC, and the end of the world to be December 24, 2011, when the Long Count calendar comes the end of the next great cycle. "
Later scientist corrected December 24, 2011 to December 23, 2012, since forgotten that in our calendar, unlike the Maya, no year zero. Perhaps, this date would not be famous — you never know in the world of ancient calendars and bizarre beliefs! — If it were followed by Michael Koh not named Jose Arguelles, author of "The Mayan Factor: vnetehnologichesky way."
According to Arguelles, the cycle of the 13-baktun — the residence time of the Earth in the "galactic synchronization beam." Entry time into it — August 3113 BC, and the output is scheduled for December 2012. This day would be a "sync with the Beyond," and "we will close not only to the Great Cycle, but also the existence of homo sapiens. Rainbow of human consciousness will rise from pole to pole, and we fast forward to heaven. " However apocalypse will not happen if people time "Rebuild" and cease to destroy the planet.
Arguelles book became popular. The world learned about the end of the world on the Mayan calendar.
Jose Arguelles, author of "The Mayan Factor: vnetehnologichesky way."
In 1998, an independent researcher of Mayan culture programmer John Major Jenkins suggested that the 12/21/12, the date of the end of the cycle, was not chosen by chance. On this day there is a rare astronomical phenomenon, the so-called "galactic alignment." Location of the Sun at the time of the winter solstice will coincide with the center of the galaxy. On this day, Jenkins wrote, "the world will change."
Scientists do not see in the "galactic alignment" nothing unusual or sinister. However there are fears that it could cause a solar storm that razogreyut Earth so hard that her bark is melted and the continents will move relative to each other. There is also a view that will swap the pole, and this too can cause shifts continents.
This is the only one of the versions of the end of the world. On the other, in 2012, we are waiting for a collision with the planet Nibiru.
Scientists refer to these scenarios skeptical. Yet that said Maya themselves about the year in which we now live? Are there any prophecies?
Surprisingly — yes.
Bologna-Yokte, god of change.
Prophecy of Tortuguero
In 1996, a renowned expert on the Maya writing David Stewart and his colleague Stephen Houston found the inscription in Tortuguero mound. When interpreting the text turned out similar to this: "Will end quatercentenary thirteenth day 4 Ahau 3 Kankin the month. On that day, the Bologna Yokte, god of change, will go down to (or from) the Black? .. and do? .. "
This text is not clear and there is the famous Mayan prophecy about the end of the world.
Record breaks at the most interesting. What on earth, we can learn about the upcoming events of the year on the basis of just such poor data?
Expected coming of the Bologna Yokte, the god with a rather nasty character. Legend has it that at the dawn of our era it was part of the Battle of celestial gods. On the first day of a new era inhabitants of heaven were attacked. One of their enemies and was the Bologna Yokte. His "colleagues" and Chuck Chaak-Chel made a flood. This scene is captured in one of the four extant manuscripts of the Maya — Dresden hieroglyphic code. But the date of a catastrophic event, unfortunately damaged.
Ukrainian researcher of Mayan culture B. Talah believes that the sinking of the Earth as seen by the ancient long-term state of the universe, and the "day of creation" — as a time of recovery.
Perhaps, in December 2012 we are waiting for is not destruction but stabilization? Bologna-Yokte — god of change, but they do not always promise the worst. There is another point of view. According to S. Houston, one of the scientists who found the inscription in the settlement Tortuguero, the Bologna Yokte is not the name of God, and the designation of the meeting "many gods." Thus, 21 (or 23), we will welcome a whole host of heavenly beings.
A colleague S. Houston's D. Stewart bluntly stated that the prophecy in question, conditional and is questionable, because part of the character text is damaged. Maybe ominous and does not?
The most interesting is that the Mayan calendar begins before 3113 BC and end with the year 2012. There are records of the events before and after the great cycle.
Moreover, the date of the "beginning of baktun" Maya did not pay any special attention. In the ancient Mayan town of Palenque, in a local temple inscriptions found text, which says in passing that ended quatercentenary thirteenth, and then follows the story of the exploits of the gods.
It is possible that 12/21/12 will be for us too quickly.
The appearance of the conquistadors was predicted by Indians.
In Mesoamerica, writes Michael Ko, really existed an idea of the cycle of creation and destruction. True, the more it is characteristic of the Aztecs. From them comes the myth of the sun, which ends its existence is a rain of fire, then floods. The current, fifth era awaits death from the earthquake, but the exact date of the accident is not known.
Foretells disasters Aztecs submitted every 52 years. To appease the gods and to extend the existence of the world, the ancient people brought their victims.
Tales of disasters find in the sacred book of Guatemalan Quiche Maya "Popol Vuh." It says that people have created more than once. The first, made of clay, have failed: could not stand, move, were blind. Gods had to destroy them and create a new people, this time out of wood. These "products" did not have the heart, soul and memory, do not honor their creators. Besides, there were angry, hurt animals and had a passion for destruction. Angry at their creations, the gods gave them a flood. In the few survived the disaster, and they have become … in monkeys. Only the last "version" of people — corn — was flawless.
Some of the researchers believe that these myths could be the Mayan era conquistadors, but there is no evidence for this. Others argue that the judge of the "classical" Mayan texts of the colonial era should not be. They were recorded pupils monastic schools in Latin, and therefore under the influence of new ideas could be distorted.
Preachers apocalypse mixed Aztecs and Mayans. One of the books on 2012 called "The Return of Quetzalcoatl", although this is the name of the god of ancient Mexicans. Aztec Calendar for mistaken and so-called Stone of the Sun (Spanish: Piedra del Sol), basalt monolith disc with a symbolic image of the Aztec cosmology and solar cult. From this confusion was born the myth of a sinister Mayan prophecy. And for the end of the Maya themselves thirteen baktun was probably just an excuse for a holiday.
End of the world — the conquest?
Perhaps the Mayans already experienced their end. August 11, 3113 BC — Common, but not the only the start date of the Great Cycle. According to the chronology of the Mayan culture researcher Joseph Herbert Spinden adopted in the early twentieth century, the Maya civilization for 256 years older. Consequently, the date of the end of the world falls on … 1756. And if you follow a different correlation, thirteen baktun ended in 1493 …
At the conclusion of the tenth century Maya went to countdown to twenty years. For each of their base their prediction. Prophecy for twenty years, which constituted the years 1992-2012, but much earlier — the years 1480-1500 are the same: "… hematemesis come. Kukulkan come a second time. Word of God. ICA will come. "
1480-1500 years — the time of the discovery of America. Maybe the Mayans were indeed prophets and foretold the coming of the conquistadors?
Category: The prophecies and predictions, visions and hypotheses