If you are reading these lines now article, it means you're still alive. We all — alive. And it was all in vain. The day after the end of the world promised no one thinks that the ancient Maya predicted us and that they all had in mind creating this your calendar. Concluding his day to day — December 21, 2012 (in fact — December 23, just then, for the convenience of astronomical calculations, the end of the calendar made the day of the winter solstice).
And so — just try these Mayan us mere mortals understand …
Must be born a genius to understand. Such as Yuri Knorozov was the only person in the world to decipher their ancient writings. Not Americans, not German — Russian scientist. He learned the secret of one of the most mysterious civilizations of antiquity.
A month before the end of the world — November 19, 2012-th — Yuri Knorozov would be 90 years.
To old age, he had not been in his beloved Mexico. The one where his life work. Infinitely bitterly joked that all the charges that were going on about it, release it or do not let themselves have to go there more than once.
On his favorite photos — the one he preferred to publish in print and display media — a man with a demonic face of Professor Moriarty and a cat in her arms. View Sphinx. Look into yourself.
The tragedy of genius and of society. Loneliness and crowds.
Strange man. Strange. Some — those who could not understand the logic of his thinking — saying cryptic. Friends and colleagues — ironic, sardonic, sharp-tongued, sarcastic, intolerant to other people's stupidity and idiocy. So, perhaps, he would love to laugh at this chip with the "end of the world", to cover the whole of the world is crazy, if lived up to …
However, deciphering Maya writing, Yuri Knorozov and had no idea where all this will lead!
"Especially do anything at all about the Mayan end of the world did not say," — laughing Galina Yershova, a student of Yuri Knorozov, Professor, Russian State University for the Humanities, Director Mesoamerican Center. Yu.V.Knorozova, Director of the Language and Maya epigraphy Yuri Knorozov in Xcaret (Mexico), President of the Russian-Guatemalan Maya Center for Research Yuri Knorozov.
Over the last few days in her office with Indian paintings and maps of Mexico on the walls — a pilgrimage pesky journalists. And all one and the same. And then end of the world: the University of pipe burst!
— Tormented you end of the world? — I ask.
— And how! — Exclaims Galina Gavrilovna.
Well, nothing left to wait for just one day — and then rest. And the new … Mankind loves periodically invent different scary "pugalki", then to be frightened by them and frighten others, sitting with popcorn in front of a movie theater, in which there is any another "2012".
We do not know the world in which we live. And this is what's scary. Unknown. Where are we going? Why? Marking time in the dark for many millennia. Periodically feeling nanokrupinki truth and meaning that surrounds us.
But there they are — know the answers to and not questions, single, ahead of their time.
Instead of gold
And indeed from childhood he was not like everyone else. Across. At school he was constantly trying to avoid for bad behavior, with the obstinacy of character which annoyed the teachers. Jurassic Knorozov daring teachers and otherwise demonstrated his temper. And yet — had a phenomenal memory, which allowed him to quote the pages of my favorite books.
Parents brought him to Behterevsky system. Acquainted to Behterevsky lectures — to create a Russian sociology and pedagogy, renowned psychiatrist Bekhterev believed that only the study of how the people can grow new man — they have borne five children. Two became doctors, winner of many awards, three — candidates.
Enrolled at the University of Kharkov, was in the occupation (and this he can not forgive the rest of his life) in the 43-m, coming from the environment, has managed to recover from the Moscow State University, the History Department, where interested in the history of the ancient civilizations of the East, linguistics, ethnography. This ancient shamanic cults.
1945-First met near Moscow, a simple telephone operator, never took Berlin — although that is what so many credit him: it was from Berlin, as the principal spoils of war, almost from the blazing fire of the German bunker, and he brought two precious books written in ancient Mexican times. "In fact, these books are safely stored in Leninke", — says Galina Yershova, his pupil.
Poor and ruin. People are not up to that — would survive. And trying to read Knorozov dilapidated tomes.
Mysteries of ancient letters, strange, forgotten, long-extinct civilization. What is behind it? What people dream, to write these manuscripts? Which gods were praying when they die? ..
Robbing America conquistadors burned furiously others obscure books — piles of books, and how worthless trash, throwing them into the fire a foreign culture, as happens in all wars at all times, — the Old World were needed only power and gold …
All three manuscripts of the ancient Maya had survived in Europe in general.
"The report on the cases in the Yucatan" XVI century Franciscan monk, Diego de Landa and the "Code of the Maya," published in the Guatemalan brothers Villacorta. Knorozov, who found the manuscript, was not engaged before the Mayan.
So, it's just fate that these books came to him.
"I was living in a hostel Knorozov Jura. He gave science: received a scholarship and immediately bought the book and then all borrowed for food, water, and ate bread "- remember the famous archeologist Sevyan Weinstein.
He began to study the ancient writing systems, deciphering Maya writing, which pored over the riddle then the best human minds.
"Deciphering the Mayan writing — an insoluble problem" — wrote in his article, the famous German scholar Paul Shellhas.
Knorozov read indignant — and challenged the snobbish world scientific community. Why can not explain? ..
"You will live to the year 2000"
Ph.D. degree was in Moscow and lasted only three and a half minutes. After that, the 30-year-old Yuri V. was found not a candidate, and once a PhD.
March 29, 1955 he went to this defense — and did not know what it's over, even allowed the arrest and charged with espionage. According to the Marxist-Leninist theory in pre-Columbian America, there were no states, and therefore, the ancient Maya could be no phonetic writing, which insists Knorozov.
Phonetic writing — kind of writing in which the graphic symbol is tied to a particular sound. According to advocates of Marxism, this letter can be developed only been in a class society.
And then — the ancient priests, human sacrifice and other …
In what Yuri Knorozov, no, not decipher, but at least closer to the mystery of the Maya, which was kept century, did not trust anyone.
He settled in a museum cabinet of curiosities at the Institute of Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR — in a long and narrow like a coffin room. A desk, a bed, and a soldier's books from floor to ceiling. On the walls hung the Maya hieroglyphs. Drinking. Like all Russian, according to the Americans. Well, those of its features that have not learned.
Head shtatovskih school mayyanistiki Eric Thompson, hearing about the results of theses young Russian scientist, in his letter to Michael mayyanistu Co. cynically named all others "witches flying on top of the midnight sky, on the orders of George," and argued that the Maya decipherment letters Knorozov wrong. "Well, Mike, you will live to 2000. Put your message is to the introduction of the "Mayan hieroglyphics" and judge then whether I was right … "
By Michael A letter on the first day of 2000, re-reading it, said: "Thompson was wrong. Knorozov was right. "
So what's the lay of his breakthrough?
Any language is a system, it is subject to certain rules. With these rules, the laws, you can unravel the ancient letter.
Taking the three surviving Mayan manuscripts — the ones that were stored before in Paris, Madrid and Dresden Library — Knorozov in their research was based on the use pattern of characters in a letter by relating them to the laws of the language of the written text. At the dictation of the alphabet in manuscript Landa Maya signs not recorded sounds, and the names of Spanish letters.
The manuscripts were priestly prayer book. That is the schedule of holidays, religious or other, and what sacrifices must bring, and what to do at all these days. Nothing particularly wrong with normal agricultural calendar year. And yet — the knowledge of astronomy: the Mayan priests were excellent.
— The same Mayan calendar found in the 50s on the narrow high panels Tortuguero small town in the state of Tabasco, and studied in the 70 years of the last century — says student Knorozov Galina Ershov. — Part of the monument had been stolen and moved to the United States. The inscription on the panel consists of continuous dates — this is the calendar. Judging from other Maya texts, in these places there is a good astronomical priestly school. Calendar describes 13 major cycles and ends with the end of the 13th cycle.
Approximately 21 December. Plus or minus two days. Mayan astronomers it was just a transition point of the vernal equinox in the constellation of the Jaguar in the constellation of the Monkey, in our opinion — from Pisces to Aquarius.
— Even now like to write about the descent of the terrible god Bolon Yokte and astronomers Maya is just the planet Mars (in the cycle of 780 days), which will start on December 24 reverse movement — continues Galina Ershov. — Actually, the Mayan calendar came before the Maya. After all, their civilization — the successor of older civilizations of Mesoamerica. In the second and first millennium BC there was the Olmec civilization — and they developed this calendar. It begins in August 3114 BC.
— We started him on this date in mathematical reasons, so that all the numbers together and turned round. To start the Jaguar era, roughly coinciding with the beginning of our era, we had to figure 126.96.36.199.0. Everyone loves these anniversaries. Before the beginning of our era Olmecs saw that the vernal equinox moves from one zodiac sign to another. Earth is spinning like a top is very slow, and the earth's axis in circles like a top of the top — one cycle per 26,000 years. During this time, the point of sunrise at the equinoxes and solstices bypasses all the zodiacal constellations, passing each of them for about 2000 years — the god of the sun, as did the Maya, in turn, is staying with the gods, which we have called the zodiacal constellations.
Events such as the shift of the vernal equinox from one constellation to another, noticed in many developed cultures. We have the story of Jesus Christ symbolism permeated the era of Pisces, and the Maya this zodiac sign called Jaguar.
The whole Mayan calendar fixated on the number 13, and the cycles themselves, the last of which is from 3114 BC to 2012, is also 13. The end of the calendar, in the coming days of the winter solstice in December 2012, recorded a beautiful figure 188.8.131.52.0.
So any future descendants Mayan predictions do, especially in the millennium. It is understandable. Terrible end of the world tomorrow, but what will happen in the centuries — this scare anyone? ..
He died in poverty
In 1956 Knorozov "released" to the International Congress of Americanists in Denmark. From then until the beginning of perestroika he never went anywhere, even knowing his name there by the invitations. He was blamed for the fact that during the war was in the occupation zone. In fact — a terrible folly: a man all his life in Latin America, in this same America could not get!
Over time, foreign scholars come to terms with the realities of the Soviet Union and began to go and see for yourself to Leningrad to Knorozov. At the height of the Cold War, the American school mayyanistiki has finally approved the proposed principle of deciphering them.
In 1963 he published a monograph Knorozov "Writing of the Maya." In 1975 he came to him, and true recognition at home: Yuri Valentinovich awarded the State Prize of the USSR.
Himself Knorozov always ironic attitude to their abilities and made them decryptor great discoveries:
"When I was no more than five years, the brothers hit me on the head cricket ball … Vision was restored, though with difficulty. I can make a recommendation to: future decipherers hit on the head, but it is unclear how. You can experiment to get a control group — and if someone ends give, and what not! "
All his adult life, until the last hour, explored the language and culture of the ancient Maya. Compile a dictionary, translated books, inscriptions on monuments, statues, learned the myths and legends …
Through his translations were obtained with valuable information about the structure of the underground Mexican pantheon of gods, ideas about where to go souls of the dead on Narcotic divination rites, rituals sending messengers to the gods …
… For his contribution to the development of science Yuri Knorozov was awarded the highest order of the Republic of Mexico — the Order of the Aztec Eagle. He personally handed him the president. A Mexican embassy during the life of a scientist funded the creation of the Center of Mesoamerican Studies named Knorozov the Russian State Humanitarian University.
Only a single time, in the early 90's, Knorozov allowed to leave the distant, uncharted Guatemala. Climbing alone in a pyramid at Tikal, he stood a long time at the top and did not say anything …
In Guatemala and Mexico, it was considered almost a god. And at home …
Yuri Knorozov was not in March 1999. After he did not have no family, no children — nothing but ancient manuscripts. He died all alone in the hallway of one of the city's hospitals: against sudden stroke, inflammation of the lungs. Kunstkammer room to bid farewell to the great scientist leadership decided not to provide — to say goodbye to the genius of a few friends came to a close the hospital morgue.
…For each of us one day will come your own end.
Info: Catherine Sazhneva
Category: The prophecies and predictions, visions and hypotheses