North: Battle on the River Svolna

Fedor Filipovich (Friedrich August Philipp Anton) Dovre.

After winning the 1st Infantry Corps Lieutenant General Peter Wittgenstein Khristoforovich on 2nd Corps under the Marshal Nicolas Oudinot (more details in the article IN: Northbound: win a Klyastitsy) French retreated to Polotsk. Count Wittgenstein in anticipation of the coming of the 10th Prussian corps of Marshal Jacques Macdonald was the main force on the right side at Drissa Sokolische. The Russian avant-garde, under the command of Major-General Gelfreich located at Sivoshinoy by sending strong patrols on the road leading to the Volintsev Polotsk and Nevel. July 22 Corps commander, having received information about the retreat of the enemy on the left side of the Western Dvina, the main force moved to Sivoshinu. Avant-garde was promoted to the white, and the garrison of Prince Repnina to Volyncy to cover the right flank by Disney.

July 23 (August 4), the main forces of the 1st Corps were to Volyncy. At that time, it became clear that the enemy has no intention to act on the part of Disney and even destroyed the bridge there. Because detachment Repnina withdrew to the main forces. Wittgenstein decided to go to Rasitsam to be able to counter the enemy's attack both cases. July 25 housing came to Kokhanovich, to the subsequent day the troops have gained Rasits. To cover the part of the Dvina was nominated squad under the support. Avangard Gelfreich covered the body from the river Drissa. General Alexei Y. Gamen (he commanded a separate 3-thousand. Detachment) was instructed to throw Hussars in the districts Kreizburg to observe the forces of MacDonald, and other forces lead to the connection with the case. Reinforcements marching from Pskov to Gamenu also been forwarded to the 1st Corps.

At the same time, housing Uda has been substantially strengthened. Napoleon Bonaparte received the news of the sudden defeat of Oudinot and his forces retreat to Polotsk, sent him to the aid of the 6th Bavarian Corps under the supervision of Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr (he was placed in Beshenkovichi). The Bavarian corps was very relaxed: it decimated the ranks of hunger, disease, grueling transitions. He moved around the country, which was already devastated by other troops. The cavalry was divided from the body and foragers could not make deep raids. In passing through the Neman body had 25-27 thousand people and for 5 weeks, never joining the fight, fell to 13 thousand fighter. Yet the arrival of the body of Saint-Cyr increment forces Uda up to 35 thousand people. July 26th Corps St. Cyr was in Polotsk. After connecting to the Saint-Cyr, Marshal Oudinot decided to resume the offensive act.

Wittgenstein was less than 20 thousand fighter. At the same time, Russian troops were well equipped, their morale, supported by Klyastitsy victory was high. Inaction troops Udine, prompting Count Wittgenstein launch an operation against the forces of McDonald. July 27, Colonel Albrecht crossed the Dvina and pushing the enemy's positions, seized materials for boats and ferries. Russian troops began crossing tip. But the news acquired from French prisoners (they said about the arrival of the body of Saint-Cyr), Wittgenstein forced to abandon the offensive action. In addition. Balk said about crossing the Prussian troops across the Dvina, at Kreizburg.

Wittgenstein, suffering from a wound acquired in the battle Golovchitse, had to temporarily surrender command of the corps chief of staff Fedor Philippovich Dovre. FF Dovre was from the French nobility. In 1784 he graduated from the Engineering Academy of Dresden and began to serve in the Polish army. Polish insurgents threw him in jail and was released Dovre Russian troops. In February 1795, was hired by the Russian army captain engineering service and soon became a teacher of fortifications and military art in the Artillery and Engineers' Corps of Cadets. In 1801 he was transferred to the Sweet by Quartermaster. He studied astronomy, in 1805 — 1806 years. route survey conducted during the motion of the Russian embassy Count YA Golovkin in China. In 1807, he participated in several battles against the French troops. In the 1810-1811 years. Dovre managed all the work on the Military Review western borders of the Russian Empire. In 1811 was presented to map the entire border space empire by 55 sheets attached with 37 positions and descriptions of plans terrain. For this large-scale work and the drafting of fortifications along the western borders of the Russian Federation was awarded the rank of Major General. In the same year, Dovre was appointed Quartermaster-General of the 1st Infantry Corps, then — duty general, and with the outbreak of hostilities — the chief of staff. Wittgenstein pointed out that Dovre marked by "prudent instructions and advice" in the battles of Yakubov Klyastitsy and Golovchitse.

The annotation transferred to General Dovre was designated to go to Udine. July 29 (August 10), the 1st Infantry Corps were to Kokhanovich. Moving ahead under the vanguard Kazachkovskogo. It was followed by the main forces of the body, consisting of 25 battalions, five squadrons with 66 guns.

Corps Uda and St. Cyr acted from Polotsk July 27 (August 8) moved to intercept the troops of the 1st Infantry Corps. July 29 (August 10) housing of Saint-Cyr crossed Volyntsev at Drissa, Oudinot and the body moved across the river and took Svolna Kokhanovichi.

The fighting in the r.Svolne (at Kokhanovich and Volyntsev)

Gelfreich forces arrived to Kokhanovich almost directly from the forward units of the enemy. Russian stormed the enemy and forced them to retreat to the heights lying on the right side of the river Svolna.

July 30 (August 11) the enemy remained in place. Dovre decided to pre-empt the French and assault them. Troops Gelfreich and Kazachkovskogo, supported by squadrons Yamburgskoye Dragoons (of 8 battalions, 15 squadrons, with 21 cannon) threw back the advanced units of the enemy and captured the heights. It turned out that the main forces of the French are on the left bank of the river, and on the right is placed cavalry, supported by infantry formations. The enemy held the sharp end of the village and Svolna where there were bridges. General Dovre sent to attack the Grodno Hussars Regiment, under the supervision of Lieutenant Colonel Ridiger and Platov Cossack regiment colonel of the 4th. The Russian cavalry forced the enemy cavalry to move to the coast, under the protection of the infantry and artillery. Under the fierce fire of the French artillery, Russian cavalry retreated.

Dovre advanced artillery and infantry vanguard Gelfreich and 5th Infantry Division on the heights near the village of conflagration. Two squadrons of the Consolidated Guards Cuirassier Regiment covered the right flank, the other two squadrons of the same regiment, Yamburgskoye Dragoons Regiment and two squadrons of the Grodno Hussars sent to the left flank. French left wing was tilted towards the river. This attack was mortally wounded commander of the 25th regiment of Chasseurs Denis. Russian rushed to the bridge, but were stopped by heavy artillery fire from the left bank of the river.

Against enemy forces located at the sharp end of the focused under the Kazachkovskogo, they were left-wing militant bands. His team included Tengin Estland and infantry regiments from the 14th Infantry Division and the artillery company. Successful Russian cannon fire that lit the village and destroyed the bridge, forced the French to withdraw to the other side of the river. Major General Kazachkovsky providing themselves with the left flank, sent two battalions under the supervision of Colonel Lalin and 6 guns to capture the manor Svol'na. Russian guns led the
French gunners in confusion. Lialin Svol'na walked from the river, and led a bayonet attack battalions. The French were driven out of all the buildings. A huge number of Frenchmen were killed and drowned, but the prisoners took more than 200 people. Our success arrows keen to have crossed the bridge the fleeing French. But were attacked and overthrown by the French cuirassiers. The French cavalry, chasing Russian shooters went over the bridge and past the manor Svol'na. Grodno Hussars, led by Ridiger defeated enemy, and at the grange cuirassiers ran into an ambush by the grenadiers. Artillery fire ended the defeat of enemy forces, only a few cuirassiers could go across the river.

Part of the 5th and 14th Infantry Divisions, supported by the fire of 48 guns taken at the height of the right-hand side of the river. The French retreated to the heights of the left bank. The troops of both lines were doing tests to the other side of the river, but they reflect the artillery fire was successfully located on the banks of Svolna. This event led Dovre limited success achieved.

In the battle on the river Svol'na 1st of infantry housing lost up to 700 people. The enemy had another huge loss, since only the prisoners were captured and 300 fighter. Energetic pressure of Russian troops led Uda decide that the Russian housing received significant reinforcements, and he led the troops for Driss to Polotsk. Troops 1st Infantry Corps on July 31 (August 12) remained in position at Svolna. Dovre Svol'na for dealing with "the credit for the courage and bravery" was awarded the Order of Sv.Zhoru third degree.

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