Now a days Black Sea Fleet

Today is the Day of Black Sea Fleet

May 13, 1783 in Akhtiar bay of the Black Sea consists of 11 ships of the Azov fleet under Admiral Fedota Klokacheva. It came two months after the annexation of Crimea to Russia. On the shores of the bay soon began construction of the town and the port, which became the main base of the Russian Navy and received the title of Sevastopol. 13 May every year is celebrated as the day of birth of Black Sea Fleet.

But during the day, and the base can be considered another date: January 11, 1783 Catherine II signed the edict on the implementation of the position of the Black Sea Fleet. So Makarov, this day — January 11 old one style, or on January 22 on a brand new style — was the birth of the Black Sea Fleet of days.

Glory to the Dark Sea. Fleet and Sevastopol in the late XVIII — early XIX centuries.

Having a base for the fleet in the Sea of Azov, Our hurried home to strengthen its military presence in the Black Sea. Empress Catherine II ordered to bring out Dark Sea of Azov to the military detachment cruise ships disguised as commercial. In addition, the Empress gave the order to send in the Dark Sea with the Baltic squadron of six frigates under the command of Captain 2nd Rank TG Kozlyannikova, but the Turks did not miss warships through the straits. It remained to build ships on the spot. But the construction of the fleet in the South hampered shallow water of the Don and its tributaries, which housed the shipyard, as the Gulf of Taganrog. In order to build ships more or less suited only the Dnieper-Bug estuary, and in December 1775, Catherine II issued a decree respective Admiralty Board, ordering directly reduce building ships on the Sea of Azov. May 31, 1778 rescript newcomer Catherine shipbuilding and naval base gave herself to the care of Novorossiysk Governor General His Serene Highness Prince Grigory Potemkin. June 18, 1778 Empress ordered to call the latest naval base Kherson. July 7, 1780 in Kherson were laid two first ship. Catherine understood the terrible fragility of Russian-Turkish contract and otherwise hurried construction of the Kherson shipyard and ships. In 1782, Prince Potemkin even had to resort to a free hiring carpenters in 1150 "for the ship's structure" [5]. In August 1783, arrived in Kherson captain of the 2nd rank, the future Admiral Fyodor Ushakov, along with 700 sailors and 3 tyschami craftsmen. [6]

Today is the Day of Black Sea Fleet

At the end of 1782 reported Potemkin Catherine own plan for Russia to join the Crimea. Significant place was given in terms of the actions of the fleet, bringing the total command of the fleet and the army in the south of His Serene Highness Prince offered to take over. Empress accepted all the plan Fri, even without seeking world fleet manager Admiralty Board. January 11, 1783 Catherine II signed the edict on the implementation of the position of the Black Sea Fleet. So Makarov, this day — January 11 old one style or January 22 on a brand new style — was the birth of the Black Sea Fleet of days. In rescript said: "For the command zavodimym our fleet in the Black and Azov Seas ordain immediately send our Vice-Admiral Klokacheva who NEED to make our instructions come Novorossiysk Sea of Azov and the Governor-General of Prince Potemkin" [7]. In honor of the Black Sea Fleet base Catherine gave the order to cast a medal, "Glory to the Russian Federation."

1st Black Sea Fleet Commander Vice-Admiral A. Fedotov Klokachev proved in Chesmen battle 24-25 June 1770, in command of a captain of the 1st rank battleship "Europe", in 1776, he headed the Azov flotilla. He distinguished personal bravery and was not only an experienced sailor, and a good manager, so the choice of Catherine was unmistakable.

Meanwhile, Turkey was preparing for the recent war with Russia, she could not come to terms with the loss of the Crimea. In 1776, the Turkish government demanded the return of Kinburn and the Crimea. Then in autumn 1776 Our homeland has put in Crimea troops AV Suvorov and landed on the Crimean throne pleasing her Khan Shahin Giray. Fearing for his power, Khan asked Russia to throw troops in the Crimea. Turkey withdrew its troops, but soon picked up her emissaries there rebellion against Shahin Giray. Turkey sent troops to the Crimea but they will not sit down for fear of Suvorov and the Russian attack from the sea. In the spring of 1779, Turkey signed the Convention to confirm the contract in 1774 but April 8, 1783 Catherine II in view of Turkey's constant violations of the criterion of the contract included the Crimea into Russia and renamed it the Tauride. Manage Tauride Empress commissioned Potemkin. A dream come true for generations of Russians, their blood was not shed in vain — Our homeland annexed the Crimea, and along with it acquired a strong position in the Black Sea and the Black Sea is very lucrative trade routes, the economy of the south Russian had to develop new skills. But to provide a fully strategic position of the Russian Federation in the south could only Navy. Creation of the Black Sea Fleet was required in every possible way to speed up.

First, in May 1783 sent a Potemkin Klokacheva order with instructions to take command of not only the Navy, and the Kherson shipyard caught in a state of neglect. Captain of the port of Kherson Captain 1st Rank IT Ovtsyna Potemkin moved temporarily assigning him instead of Captain 1st Rank Marko Ivanovic Voinovich, known for bravery and honesty, the commander of the ship was being built, "Glory to Catherine." In late July, Voinovich succeeded arrived on behalf of the decree of Empress Captain 1st Rank AP Muromtsev. Voinovich returned to his former position and took part in the hasty completion of your own ship — the first ship of the line Russian Black Sea Fleet. September 16, 1783 66-gun "Glory of Catherine" was launched. In May 1788 Potemkin gave the order to rename the ship in the "Transfiguration." Under this naming of the ship participated in almost all the battles squadron FF Ushakov [8].

Newborn, the Black Sea Fleet was necessary not bad, comfortable throughout the base. Such a framework was Akhtiar bay at the southern tip of the Crimea. The first of the great Russian military leaders drew attention to the bay Akhtiar Alexander Suvorov. As already mentioned, Lieutenant-General A. Suvorov commanded the troops that our homeland has introduced to the Crimea at the end of 1776 Suvorov immediately appreciated the strategic, operational and tactical importance Akhtiar bay. "Like the harbor — he wrote — not only from the local peninsula, and all the other Black Sea is not there, wherever the fleet is better preserved and serving on the hold placed easier and safer to be able to" [9]. June 15, 1778 Suvorov situated on the shores of the bay Akhtiar six battalions of infantry, cavalry and artillery. He gave the order to immediately cover the battery bay, while secretly ordered to carry out works, NIGHT MODE to stand in the bay of the Turkish ships have seen nothing. On the morning of June 16 the watch on the Turkish ships at one time have seen themselves under the muzzles of Russian shore batteries. Turkish squadron consisted of more than 10 ships and Russian batteries were only thr
ee, and still be more in the Bay Turks took a chance on the night of June 17, they left her water area. The head wind made it difficult to move, the Turks had to tow the ships boats, and far from the bay they have not moved. As he wrote Suvorov Russian resident at the court of the Crimean khan Sakharov Konstantinov: "The unpleasant weather prevented stambultsy out of Acht [iarskoy] wow [Ani]. Perpetrate one shot, they were stretched out of the harbor by boat, was shot seven times down the rumba eg [avilis ] to Ochakov; half hour could not retreat, one frigate, more so to the other struggled but prevailed, and the boat was gone. Upon this distance they stand … "[10]. Caring Turkish Navy has strengthened the Russian puppet regime Shahin Giray. Empress appreciated demonstrative action Suvorov — "to oust the Turkish fleet out of the harbor and Akhtiar on the Crimean coast," she complained to the captain of diamond-studded gold snuff-box with his portrait. [11]

In the same 1778 Akhtiar bay for the first time investigated with sea view crew frigate "Usmotritelny" under the command of Captain 2nd Rank Berseneva [12]. In 1780, the bay again visited the Russian ship. According to the description of the long shores were deserted, "the whole place was wild and covered with a small wood-burning woods and bushes". [13] Only on the north bank housed Mongolian village of 7-9 walled cottages under the name of Ak-Yar (Snow White Bluff), on behalf of him and bay a long time called on Russian maps Akhtiar.

Today is the Day of Black Sea Fleet

November 17, 1782 in Bay entered the Russian frigate "Brave" and "Usmotritelny" under the command of Captain 1st Rank IM Odintsov. They were the first of the Russian ships were near the Ak-Yar for the winter. The sailors built themselves in the support, then betrothed rusks, a small barracks, dug four wells. The attached great support careening frigates — tipped them on board for cleaning the bottom of the keel and accrued shells and aquatic plants. The place where the careening, then received the title of "Killen-beam". During the winter, crews measured the depth of the North and South bays, made their descriptions and maps. On the banks of bays found a lot of keys and wells. Now, after the examination, it was possible to relocate Akhtiar bay all combat nucleus of the Black Sea Fleet. But first take care of the coastal and antilanding defense — in the middle of April 1783 on the shore of the bay arrived Grenadier battalion, and at the end of April — Kaporsky and Dnieper and field artillery regiments. Troops built barracks and warehouses ("Akhtiar store"), began to strengthen the harbor.

May 2, 1783 in Akhtiar bay includes 11 ships of the Azov and then 17 ships of the Dnieper flotilla. Black Sea fleet for the first time focused in their own modern master database. The ships are located in the South Bay, which is recognized by more than harmless.

May 6th Fleet Commander Vice-Admiral FA Klokachev personally examined Akhtiar bay, came in complete ecstasy. Here's what he wrote to the Vice-President of the Admiralty Board Count Ivan Chernyshev, a member of the Academy, disinterested scientist and intelligent leader: "And, behold, I will not fail to inform Your Excellency that at the very entrance to the Akhtiar harbor I marveled at the sea with its excellent position, entering the room and looking around, I can say that in Europe there is no similar this harbor — location, size, depth.

It is possible to have a fleet of up to 100 linear vessels, to all that nature has constructed the same estuaries that alone for themselves broken down into various harbors, in other words — the military and merchant. Without self-observation can not believe that so Sia harbor was good. Now I started this very neatly harbor and the position of its place and outline, as long finish, immediately send a card. Than pleased to have Her Majesty the Emperor in the local harbor fleet, then on a similar basis to be here to have a port in Kronstadt ". [14] July 13, 1783 map was sent to Admiralty Board, at its base there began to develop plans for the future town.

Meanwhile, in St. Petersburg were preparing plans for the town, 3 June 1783 on the west bank of the South Bay three sailors have laid the first stone house: the chapel, blacksmith shop and a house for the Admiralty to Rear Admiral FF Mackenzie (from 8 May 1783, he led the Black Sea squadron instead has served to Kherson FA Klokacheva). In the southern part of the harbor, at the Nicholas Cape, began to build a wood dock and stairs Sloop — Catherine's future, then the Count's, a marina. This is the day — June 3 (June 14 on a brand new style) — became the founding days of the town. In honor of this action in 1783 was cast medal, "Usefulness of the Russian Federation." Initially, the city was called Akhtiar, on behalf of the Mongolian coastal village of Ak-Yar. February 10, 1784 decree of Catherine II legitimized the birth of a new town and ordered to continue to call it Sevastopol, which in Greek means "City of Glory" [15]. After the death of Catherine II (6 November 1796), the new ruler of Paul I in 1797 gave the order to return the town its first name — Akhtiar. Four years city Akhtiar was called again until Alexander I in 1801 did not renamed it completely in Sevastopol. [16]

Notes

1 History of the Russian shipbuilding. Ed. ID Spassky — T. I. — St. Petersburg., 1994. — S. 188-190.
2 Veselago F. A short history of the Russian fleet (from the start of navigation until 1825). — Ed. 2nd. — Moscow-Leningrad, 1939. Pp. 66, 67.
3 History of Russian shipbuilding. — S. 242-243.
4 Veselago F. Ordinance. Op. — Pp. 102-104.
5 History of the Russian shipbuilding. — S. 248-255.
6 Black Sea Fleet: Historical Sketch. — M., 1967. — S. 11.
7 History of the Russian shipbuilding. — S. 256.
8 Ibid, pp. 257-258.
9, p. By: The Story of Sevastopol: 1783-1917. — Ed. SF Naida. — Kiev, 1960. — S. 27.
10 A. Suvorov. Letters. — M., 1987. — S. 42-43, 506.
11 Ibid, pp. 515.
12 Black Sea Fleet. S. 11.
13, p. By: history of the city of Sevastopol. — S. 27.
14 Ibid, pp. 28-29
15 Black fleet. — S. 12, Sevastopol 200 years: 1783-1983 / / The collection of documents and materials. — Kiev, 1983. — S. 29.
16 Zverev BI Pages of Russian naval annals. — M., 1960. — P.124.

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