The second "Baikonur". Russia is building a spaceport in the Far East
Russia has finally started to work on the actual construction of a new cosmodrome "East", located in the Amur region. According to Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin, the Russian defense industry, and oversees the space, the scale of this project can be compared with the Soviet plan of electrification of the country — electrification. In this exaggeration does not seem so strong. Cosmodrome "East" — is not double, but a complete replacement of the famous and the great cosmodrome "Baikonur". Originally planning to move here all manned launches. So the amount of work, as well as spending budget will be astronomical.
Back in April of this year, Dmitry Rogozin, said that the construction of new residential areas for the Far East "Star City" for the spaceport "East" will be launched as early as the 4th quarter of 2012, and the launch site will be ready by 2015. In any other scenario, Russian Deputy Prime Minister has pledged to donate his tooth. According to Dmitry Rogozin, in Q4 2012 in parallel with the construction of residential areas will begin construction of the spaceport infrastructure that will display a space rocket "Soyuz-2", which can be attributed to the class of light rockets. In the future there are going to use the acceleration kits "Frigate", as well as heavier rockets.
According to Dmitry Rogozin, cosmodrome "East" will help to make Russia more equilibrium in terms of population density, particularly stressing that today Russia in the east adjacent to densely populated countries such as China, Japan, India, North Korea and South Korea. New cosmodrome "East" Russia will address the full range of tasks in space, that is, the capacity to launch in the near and far space. Southern latitudes spaceport will display ships with a fairly heavy load on the target orbit with minimal effort. In addition, it was decided to build a unique and satellite city, convenient for life and extremely beautiful. In addition, near the spaceport will be built Akademgorodok, which would be an additional incentive for young people to go to live and work in the Far East.
What will the new Russian space center
The new space center in Russia's Far East will be able to give the country:
— independence of space activities across the entire spectrum of tasks: from socio-economic and scientific, to manned space flight;
— guaranteed performance of commercial and international space programs (as opposed to the existing cosmodrome "Baikonur", the work of which at times prevents Kazakhstan);
— improving the socio-economic situation in the Far East, the development of the local industrial production, foreign and private capital investment in the area of creating space center;
— in the long term reduction in rental costs of the Kazakh "Baikonur".
Advantages cosmodrome "East"
According to the Russian Federal Space Agency, the launch site will have the following benefits:
— the initial part of the trajectory of rockets will not pass over densely populated areas of the country, as well as over the territory of foreign states;
— impact areas separating parts launched missiles are located in international waters or sparsely populated areas of Russia;
— the location of the launch site is located close to the developed road and railway lines and airports.
Separately, it may be noted reduction of political risk — in recent years, Kazakhstan has repeatedly blocked the Russian launches, using various pretexts. In this case, the first priority is to reduce the load on the cosmodrome "Baikonur", but it is not a complete replacement, at least until the end of the lease — 2050. Local authorities at the expense of built space center will try to solve their regional problems. In particular cosmodrome "East" is seen as the cornerstone for the implementation of the State program of resettlement of compatriots.
Disadvantages cosmodrome "East" versus "Baikonur"
— the need to build its own airport (on "Baikonur" there are 2 modern), or laying w / d line from the launch site to the nearest airport (needed to transport the spacecraft);
— increase in transportation costs (both time and financial). Currently, major Russian space enterprises are located in Moscow, Samara and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk Territory), from there launch vehicles, spacecraft, and staff delivered to the "Baikonur" air or rail over a distance of 2500 km and 1500. respectively. In the case of the new cosmodrome "East" distance delivery will rise to 5,500 km.
— cosmodrome "East" is located 6 degrees north of Baikonur, which leads to a reduction in the output of the maximum mass of cargo space (all other things being equal, start-up);
— waste of rockets landing in the forest, can cause forest fires, which in this region are Russia a serious problem;
— lack of infrastructure and housing for employees, leading to great financial cost to build a new town, population of up to 100,000 people (and their families staff the Baikonur).
Cost of construction of the cosmodrome "East" is estimated at 300 billion rubles, which is comparable to the cost of the Russian budget for the Olympics in Sochi and the APEC summit. Such a staggering amount of construction voiced G. Naginsky Director of the Federal Agency Spetsstroy. It is worth noting that the government has officially approved the estimate of 81 billion rubles by 2015. However, soon enough in the speeches of officials began to sound the phrase about 251 billion rubles, has now been announced by the new figure — 300 billion rubles.
Baikonur is expensive, but so far that virtually nothing has been done. At the end of September 2012, the work has not gone beyond the stage of clearing forest belts and digging ditches. With these schedules to meet the deadline will not be easy, most of all, the construction time will pass move. Now they say that the first launch of the carrier rocket from the Baikonur "East" is scheduled for 2015, the first manned flight will take place in 2018, with final completion scheduled for 2020.
Any man in the street might wonder, why is it so slow? Of course, not an easy task to build spaceports. In order to assess the scale of the data structures, it is necessary to know their sizes. For example, "Baikonur" with its 15 starting complex, 2 airfields, five hundred w / d paths are spread over an area of 6700 square meters. kilometers. On the territory — it's more of Transnistria or Cyprus. Total world built spaceports 28 (the 5 is taken out of service). But the really big sites from which could start heavy missiles capable orbit the Earth manned spacecraft, only 3 pieces. Apart from the "Baikonur"
and the U.S. Space Center. Kennedy is China Jiuquan space center, covering an area by 2800 square meters. kilometers.
By the time the "East" is finally built, it will be one of the 4 largest space centers of the planet and will be the most modern of them. This will not only launch complex to run heavy vehicles, but the 2 fuel plant: hydrogen and nitrogen. In total spaceport will include about 1,600 different plants. In addition, the Federal Space Agency and the pictures showed a modern star of the town, while that of 30 000 inhabitants. Judging by the pictures, spaceport workers to live in ultra modern accommodation in a floral garden.
Here are just waiting for the miracle would be long. At the time when the superpower chased each other space race, stepping stones erected in the blink of an eye. For example, "Baikonur" was built in less than 2 years. The first work in Kazakhstan began in June 1955 and the year, and the first launch of a ballistic missile took place in May 1957, the first year, 4 months to orbit the Earth off the world's first satellite.
On the "East" priority project has not worked from the beginning. Formally, the work on the site come from November 2007, from the moment the President of Russia signed a decree on the establishment of a new cosmodrome. In fact, the process is slowed down as soon as they could. Many attribute this to the position of the former head of Russian Federal Space Agency A. Perminov, who almost openly opposed the cosmodrome "East". Calculation was then following. Russia and Kazakhstan agreed to lease terms "Baikonur" to 2050. Every year, lists its neighbor Russia — 115 million ($ 3.7 billion), the rental price is fixed for the entire term. We have to admit that this agreement was beneficial for Russia. Total payments for the remaining 38 years of rent will be 140 billion rubles, which is less than what is required to build a new cosmodrome. The savings could well be used for various purposes, for example, to develop new launch vehicles.
Selecting a location for a future spaceport
However, the views of the Kremlin's position Perminov dispersed. Upstairs decided that the space is more important than the independence of saving money. According to the plans, after 2030 the Russian territory will be 90% of all our launches. After that Kazakhstan will likely be forced to practically preserve the "Baikonur", as the conversion of its missiles at launch another's expensive and difficult. Most likely, continue to operate only one launch pad — Baytrek, which is designed for start-up of new missiles "Angara". The cost of its construction of 1.6 billion dollars and takes them on himself Kazakhstan. Here the countries mutual benefit. Russia will sell missiles to Kazakhstan, and he earn in commercial launches.
Having defined the fate of "Baikonur" in Russia have been looking for a new place spaceport. For some time, experts tended to Nakhodka. Choosing one of the most southerly points in the territory of Russia, which, even at 3 degrees south of the "Baikonur". In addition to this gem by the sea and because of this bulky spacecraft could be driving up the waterway. It's cheaper than deliver them to factories with aviation. It is expected to save on shipping Beijing to finish building when finished 4 th in a row Wenchang space center, located on the coast.
However, the choice did not fall in the Primorsky Territory, and in the Amur region, although a number of experts and does not consider it the best. The start point is moved to 9 degrees north latitude regarding Finds spaceport located near the border with China. The trajectory of flight operations is such that in the event of an accident on take-off rescue unit, most likely, will land in the sea, where it more difficult to get to. However, many infrastructure projects, including roads and housing, will have to build from scratch. Impact on the cost of the work and the annual fluctuation in temperature — from +35 to -40 degrees. That there is only one training ground when the samples have to take with a depth of 70 meters.
Cosmodrome in Nakhodka would be good, except for the fact that the rocket into orbit could fly into the airspace of neighboring Japan. In addition, in the event of any accident, our eastern neighbor is not primenul would inflate an international scandal. As a third option considered the option of building in the area of Sovetskaya Gavan in the Khabarovsk region, but he did not come, as was located closer to Japan.