Article 9. I sincerely striving to the international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people on the endless days renounces war as a sovereign right of civilization, and of the danger or the introduction of force as means of settling international disputes.
2. To achieve the objectives indicated in the previous paragraph, will never be created by land, sea and air forces, as well as other war potential. The right of belligerency of the state is not recognized.
As noted on the official website of the Ministry of Defence Land of the Rising Sun, renunciation of war as a means of international politics, does not take away from the Land of the Rising Sun the right to self-defense, because, despite the severe restrictions imposed by the Constitution, Japan has countless and well kitted army. Many of the restrictions imposed on Japan after the second world war, are to this day, although produced is not so sure as before. Japan lacks offensive weapons: bombers, ballistic and tactical cruise missiles. Until now there is a ban on traditional aircraft carriers — all the forces and means of Marine Self Defense Force focused on tasks of air defense and anti-submarine. In the operational codes of Japanese war ships usually in letter D (defence — defense, Eng.), But the Japanese fleet has sufficient powers to conduct military actions against the ship groupings in order to gain dominance in the sea and ocean waters adjacent to the coast of the Japanese islands, blocking heavy zones of Okhotsk, Sea of Japan and East China Seas, the embodiment of amphibious operations and okazynie support ground forces in the coastal areas.
Ground Self-Defense Force Land of the Rising Sun — a modern army, which are armed with 900 main battle tanks, hundreds of artillery pieces (including a 155 mm self-propelled guns), multiple rocket launchers, 80 attack helicopters "Cobra" and "Apache". Experts say the higher the saturation of the army air defense missile systems (SAMs huge range of acts of "Patriot" air defense missile systems to the near zone "Hawk" and "Stinger").
As part of the Air Self-Defense Force is 260 combat aircraft, including 157 fighters F-15J (built in the land of the rising sun in the license). Great attention is paid to the implementation strategy of aviation, the Air Force has 17 AWACS aircraft, including four languid radar surveillance aircraft Boeing E-767.
Due to the fact that in 2007 the U.S. refused to implement the Land of the Rising Sun fighter fifth-generation F-22, the military administration of the country of the rising sun has decided to develop a Mitsubishi ATD-X — own aircraft fifth generation.
The ships, which surprised the world
From the moment of his own creation in 1952, the Marine Self Defense Force land of the rising sun slowly but inexorably gaining momentum, becoming a top XXI century in one of the most powerful navies in the world. In the battle of the Maritime Self-Defense Force — 50 destroyers and frigates of various types, 18 diesel submarines, landing craft 5, 7 missile boats, 80 anti-submarine aircraft P-3C "Orion", 4 electronic warfare aircraft EP-3C anti-submarine helicopter deck 60 SH -60J, 30 anti-submarine helicopters HSS-2B, 10 helicopters, minesweepers, MH-53E, also 90 training aircraft.
First, 70s makeup Marine Self Defense Force Land of the Rising Sun has replenished with 2 extraordinary ships — destroyers of the "Harun". Hard to say what guided the Japanese sailors to select the type of the coming destroyer — may be practical considerations (ASW task then was a pressing one, taking into account the number of submarines in the Pacific Fleet of the USSR). Perhaps residents of the rising sun felt nostalgia for the glorious times of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, aircraft carriers are unbeatable when it crumbled in vinaigrette South American fleet, inflicting wounds languid U.S. at Pearl Harbor, the Philippines and the Coral Sea. In general, judge for yourself:
Armament of the new ship on the plan included two highly automated artillery caliber 127 mm, placed on an elevated longitudinal pattern in the bow of the destroyer (licensed copies of American naval gun Mark 42 5 "/ 54, the rate of fire — 40 rds. / Min.). Before logging was set vosmizaryadnaya launcher for launching anti raketotorped "ASROC", allowing a high precision hitting underwater targets at a distance of 9 km. To destroy submarines in the vicinity of a particular ship provides for a 2-triple torpedo tubes 324 mm (12.75 inches ).
A truly extraordinary looked feed destroyer — rear superstructure is a great helicopter hangar, and the entire aft reincarnated into a large flight deck. On the ship, could not immediately be based anti-submarine helicopter three languorous "Sea King". Among the additional amenities were decent in store aviation fuel and ammunition for a wide range of on-board helicopters. All of the major tasks battle Services entrusted to the rotorcraft, and not on the rocket or artillery weapons, as was common in other destroyers.
Destroyers-type helicopter "Haruna" implemented the concept, similar to that adopted in the development of Russian anti-submarine cruisers of the "Moscow" (Project 1123). With the only difference being that the Japanese ships were 3 times less, the total displacement "Harun" amounted to 6300 tons — like a lot of modern frigate.
Despite the aggressive restrictions, Japanese engineers were able to achieve the applicable running properties and range of ocean travel. At full speed, boiler-turbine unit "Harun" betrayed the shaft 70 000 hp, driving a small boat up to 32 knots.
In 1986-1987, the ships were modernized, during which it was found anti-aircraft weapons — vosmimizaryadnaya SAM launcher "SiSperrou" and 2 anti-aircraft machine "Phalanx". In the end, "Haruna" turned into a really great equilibrium antisubmarine ship.
Over 30 years of military service, both destroyer-type helicopter "Haruna" proved to be reliable and efficient vehicles. First, the 80-ies in order entered 2 more ships of the same class — destroyers helicopter-like "Sirane" — an upgraded version of "Harun", similar in size and armament. At the current time, "Harun" and her sistership "Hiei" are excluded from the Navy and scrapped.
"Peaceful Russian tractor"
Experiences gained in the development of "Harun", has not gone without any traces. March 18, 2009 went into operation destroyer like "Hugo" (occasionally found "Hyuga," here would be a shame as it may sound, I'm not good at Japanese phonetics). Thug fu
ll displacement of 18,000 tons of embarrassment is called a destroyer-helicopter, although here the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun went too obvious. The size and type of "Hugo" is more appropriate light aircraft carriers, helicopter destroyer, was the first of this type in the postwar history of Japanese warship with a continuous flight deck. Many people point out that the size of the flight deck, "Hughie" allow him (or her? "Hugo" — a historic title perfektury Miyazaki) take aircraft with vertical takeoff and landing, such as the AV-8B «Harrier II» or promising F-35B. The future will show how these correspond to the truth of the statement, similar to the size of the ships, for example, a light Italian aircraft carrier "Giuseppe Garibaldi" based dozen stormtroopers "Harrier."
On the other hand, the size can not be decisive — according to the South American project DD (X) new ships with guided missiles such as "Zamvolt" complete displacement of more than 13,000 tons are ranked as class destroyers. Russian explorers since the second world very much taken aback to learn that their destroyer Project "7" by modern standards, not a destroyer and a corvette (2,500 tons displacement). Increasing the size of destroyers — the constant process throughout the twentieth century (started with a 400-ton destroyers Russian-Japanese War and graduated 10,000 "Arleigh Burke"). Therefore a linguistic exercise at the Japanese conscience and try to find yourself someone is in fact a "Hugo".
Well-cut ship full displacement of 18,000 tons (standard displacement — 14 000 tons), with a continuous flight deck and underdeck hangar, which runs between the two lifts.
What can? The main instrument of "Hughie" — his wing. Typical composition — 10 … 15 helicopters, is depending on the intended purpose. For example, in the embodiment, seven anti-SH-60J «Seahawk», 5 languid transport MH-53E «Super Stallion» and three MCH-101. All tasks for the detection and tracking of submarines and surface ships and submarines defeat the objectives assigned to the helicopters.
In addition, a helicopter carrier to equip a vertical launcher Mark-41 to 16 cells, each of which fit four anti-aircraft missile RIM-162 ESSM (effective firing range — 50 km, the flight speed missiles — 4 M) in ethanol — 64 missiles to protect from aircraft and anti-ship missiles, but usually several cells are occupied antisubmarine raketotorpedami ASROC-VL. From other systems of self-defense, "Hugo" are two anti-aircraft machine "Phalanx" and 324 mm ASW torpedo.
All weapons are controlled CICS OYQ-10 and FCS-3 radar with a phased antenna array, which are the Japanese version of the "Aegis".
"Hugo" is not "the killer of aircraft carriers" and not created for World War II with the use of nuclear weapons, but his arms fully able to reflect any provocation by North Korea or China. Residents of the country of the rising sun is positioned own "psevdoavianosets" as anti-submarine oceanic zone. The presence on board of a functional and CICS command center so the next appointment destroyer-helicopter — the flagship / Ship Management.
It is of great enthusiasm matching abilities of the future Russian amphibious helicopter carrier "Mistral" (the first ship in the Pacific Fleet — "Vladivostok" is already embedded in the shipyards of Saint-Nazaire). "Mistral" more in displacement 21,000 tons against 18,000 tons of "Japanese"), yet the French-Russian and Japanese helicopter are very similar to each other.
"Ship of power projection" Mistral "was created for delivery of personnel and equipment to a suitable point on the globe, with all this, the ship itself remains outside the war zone, a small militant resistance does not allow" Mistral "to approach close to the shore — Troopers transported to economize the landing craft and helicopters, at this time amphibious assault ship dock makes the shell functions of different types of amphibious forces Fri, infirmary and serves as a floating base for attack helicopters.
Combat helicopter Japanese resistance too low, though, it can act in a war zone more strongly, thanks to a set of self-defense weapon, and 1.5 times more than the highest rate of stroke (from "Hugo" it is 30 knots, while the ASD Column "Mistral" does not allow you to move faster 18 knots).
Of the strengths of the "Mistral" — the presence of armored deck (though it is designed for vehicles with a mass of less than 32 tonnes and can take MBT). The future Russian ship equip docking camera for the reception tank landing craft and fast delivery vehicles to economize the personnel of the Marine Corps. Something similar to "Hugo" is missing from mc only helicopters.
Big flaw "Mistral" — the lack of any harsh means of self-defense — MANPADS and machine guns to protect the ship from just a simple means of attack and sabotage. On the other hand, so far negotiations for the supply, coupled with the "Mistral" promising combat information management system "Zenit-9", produced in France, which will give Russian developers with direct access to the world's best technology in this area. New Russian missile systems "Movement", "Redoubt" SPAR "Broadsword" are ready for mass production and set them on the "Mistral" should not cause any problems, even more so, "Mistral" obviously be radical revision of the project in relation to the criteria spetsifichechkimi Russian Navy — ice-strengthened hull, the development of new lifting devices and changing according to the weight and size of lumens lifts traits Russian helicopters, due to the biaxial scheme Kamov machines should be increased height of the hangar deck. Other important configurations — the rejection of natural ventilation hangar deck (Severomorsk obviously will not be happy in the open lumen aboard the ship), which pulls the creation of a system of forced ventilation — very hard on such a scale. In short, the Russian series "Mistral" is quite different from the original.
And what about the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun? In addition to 2-destroyers are in the ranks of helicopter-like "Hugo", Japan is developing a new project "Heisei 22" — even more large aircraft carrier ship full displacement of 27,000 tons.
Directly on the destroyer "Heisei 22" disk imaging is not much, is indicated only that the ship will have a length of 248 meters, and on its decks will be able to accommodate 50 trucks and 400 paratroopers (or equivalent load). Accordingly, the rise wing.
Far not the peace-destroyer helicopter is created in response to the emergence of China has plans for a conventional nuclear aircraft carriers. There is at the Land of the Rising Sun and other harsh opponent — North Korea has repeatedly proven that he is able to move from threats to business. And, of course, our home, with which the Land of the Rising Sun is not a sure thing for the Northern Areas (Kuril Islands).
Our home is great, but there is no place to land a helicopter
Use Japanese experience to create a light aircraft carriers for the Russian Federation UNACCEPTABLE. At least 3 times the price, "Hugo" in the order of combat abilities inferior to more traditional aircraft carriers — small air group (10-15 cars), the absence of distant aircraft radar detection, moderate (in comparison with the "Nimitz") ammunition and supplies to make the idea of jet fuel "light aircraft carrier" is not pretty. Japan forced to make such weird design — this obligate its limitations prescribed in the Constitution. RF for such bans do not, because the construction of light aircraft carriers — is not an effective way of spending. And it is to de
velop the carrier fleet — this is exclusively a traditional nuclear aircraft carriers.
On the other hand, the concept of "the destroyer-helicopter" is a grain of truth. Many experts are of the outlook that the helicopters, which are used as the main striking force of "Hughie", assign the ship increased elasticity in the application's own tools that more closely meets the needs of today's conflicts. The destroyer-helicopter can be used as anti-submarine ship, firing surface and ground targets, a group of special forces parachuted into a war zone and cover them with fire, be used as a transport vehicle for the delivery of military and humanitarian supplies. "Hugo" has bolshennymi abilities in search and rescue operations, and the presence in the air wing helicopter-trawlers can use the "Hugo" as a mine-sweeping ship.
In the future, the development of new Russian warships class "destroyer" may be worth a closer look for "Hugo" and do something similar for the Russian Navy. Armament Russian destroyer can rebalance growth towards the role of missile weapons and tactical cruise missiles (in the Land of the Rising Sun with this problem — OTP banned), while retaining all of this countless wing. The presence of several destroyers such type within each of the fleets of the Russian Navy can significantly increment the power and resilience introduction warships.