Ukrainian and Russian biologists from the results of this year's scientific expeditions to the Black Sea, have made a very sad conclusion — life in this unique body of water is on the verge of extinction. The Black Sea is no longer usual mackerel and turbot, and after 10 years the sea will die completely.
The final three
Specialists Sevastopol Institute of Biology of Southern Seas spent this year five special research expeditions to see the general state of the ecological system of the Black Sea. The last time these studies were conducted 25 years ago, and scientists are amazed rate of extinction of marine life in the region, from the north-western part of the Black Sea to the Strait of Kerch.
A few years ago it was thought that the sea's resources should be sufficient, at least another 150 years, but has now become obvious the true scale of the Black apocalypse.
"Earlier, the main types of fishing Black Sea fish were sturgeon, sturgeon, turbot flatfish, mackerel, bluefish, — says deputy director of the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas on science Yuri Tokarev. — Now these valuable varieties have disappeared. Moreover, in the sea there are only three, the last fish species whose population is more or less there is — sprat, anchovy and sprat. And anchovy is 90% of all living creatures, a species in the Black Sea. "
The disaster in troubled waters
Biologists call the three main causes of the present "pre-mortem" of the ecosystem, the main of which — uncontrolled bottom trawling.
"Up to 90 years of the last century in the Black Sea banned use of trawl vessels — continues to Yuri Tokarev. — Now this is no law in Ukraine and barbaric bottom trawling fishing companies generally performed in an attempt to survive or economic gain.
Vzbalamuchivaetsya and destroyed everything that is on the bottom, including the traditional spawning grounds. The clearest example — the state north-western Black Sea, where the first of the area of about 10,000 hectares of unique red algae grew phyllophora. They lived crustaceans, certain types of fish, and now it does not: algae died, populations of marine communities, too, because trawlers ruined ecosystem. "
According to biologists, Sebastopol, if this trend continues, the Black Sea, will live only about a decade. However, there are those who do not agree with the conclusions of the scientists. In particular, fishermen believe that the situation in the sea exacerbate oil and gas.
"Trawling is not the greatest evil, — said the deputy director of one of the Black Sea fishing enterprises Andrew Skoritsky. — The cause of the situation is that in this part of the Black Sea have been actively produces gas and oil have risen sharply cargo flows of water transport. At depths of 20-22 meters walk vessels of 100 tons displacement, the screws which is suspended sediments, and it is spread over a large distance. As a result of reduced water clarity, solar radiation is worse, and the fish die. "
A striking example of these arguments deputy director considers the situation in August last year, when, after many days of cruising in the north-western region of Ukrainian industrial gas production fleet was fixed mass death of fish off the coast of the Kherson region. Then this week washed ashore more than a million dead fish.
Requiem for mussels
The second leading cause of catastrophic loss ecosystem scientists at the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas called epidemic propagation "clam-immigrants."
"Every day of the trial, arriving in the Crimea, is thrown into the sea of tens of thousands of tons of so-called ballast water, — says Yuri Tokarev. — As a result of the water fall of marine organisms that naturally should not be in the Black Sea. These colonies are killed Black Sea mussels — the main sanitary cleaners ecosystem. By the way, the most aggressive "stranger" is a mollusc Rapana, which has no natural enemies here. "
All along the Crimean coast in only one place, in the Kerch Strait, found a single instance of a live mussel mud — recognized experts from the institute.
In order to prevent the movement of marine organisms in their ballast water, in 2004, a number of states under the auspices of the International Maritime Organization, signed the "Convention on Ballast Water Management." However, so far it has not entered into force, as several countries, including Ukraine, have not ratified it.
Forecast, close to the obituary
The third stone ecological block — mass building Black Sea coast of Crimea villas, hotels and spas.
"The ecosystem of the Black Sea negatively transformed, not able to cope with a huge amount of waste, — says a leading specialist of the Russian-Ukrainian independent fund biological research" Tristan "Gennady Berg. -Stock go to Bay South Coast, and other parts of these bays were almost dead. The typical picture of the Black Sea shelf in areas such area: the entire bottom is covered with gray-brown film, in which the remains of the concrete, cement dust and various chemical materials used in construction today. "
Pollution levels, according to the expert, it is very disappointing, but when you take into account the fact that the Ukrainian and Crimean authorities are going soon multiplies the tourist load of Crimea, the forecast the ecological status of the Black Sea near, rather, to the obituary.
It is very strange iron the reaction to the statements of officials of biologists. The Republican Committee of the ARC on Environmental Protection to comment in no hurry. "All the facts are necessary to understand and test — the head Reskomiteta Yevgeny Bubnov — exaggerating is not worth it. I think in the beginning of next year we will monitor and give some comments. "