New aircraft development are usually on the cutting edge of technological progress. Specifically, they are evidence of scientific and industrial potential of any country. Suspend progress impossible. Who designed and implemented aviation innovation, who are tomorrow's commonplace and ordinary.
Our special correspondent spoke with someone who puts the fighter fifth generation on the wing — Deputy Head of Flight Operations Flight Test and development base (LS Lee, and DB) of JSC "Sukhoi", honored test pilot of the Russian Federation Hero of the Russian Federation Sergey Bogdan.
— Sergey Leonidovich, for every pilot flying — it's a magical moment that hunt to repeat again and again. Tell of those moments when the hunt to say, "Stop a moment, you're great!"
— Got a sophomore, when performing complex maneuvers. Already had a little experience of flying. By performing various aerobatic figures began to realize that I feel quite relaxed and get tremendous pleasure from performing flight mission. Puts more emphasis on the wrong thing to do to withstand the flight mode, and the sequence of the figures. Everything else seemed to happen by itself. Do motorists as well, everything happens. At first, the focus is on the correct speed change their keeping performance and perform other operations. When scored driving experience, then you go, you look around, decided to turn — and for that all necessary actions are doing, not focusing on their attention, and speed, as if by itself, that which is necessary.
Brightest sensual memories of the first flights: Export — on training aircraft, independent, then a marching regiment for combat use of a pair of complex types of maneuver. Adrenaline from their was just tremendous.
In memory of the development of different aircraft also left a lot of feelings. They are related to the characteristics of their flying. More brightest and visual memories.
Spring, the only land covered with greenery. Preparations for the demonstration aerobatics at low altitudes. In the area of aerobatic flight to execute the "Spark" (training and combat aircraft). Above us on the flight to the cloud sky, it starts from a heavy snowfall. Vertical swooping. Speed reduction of aircraft larger than falling snowflakes. Came an extraordinary picture, approaching the earth in green attire, and towards the snow flies.
Another example: execute autumn Force flight training for refueling NIGHT MODE in adverse weather conditions. On the ground, there is a rain. We are flying below the clouds at a height of snow instead of rain sprinkles. We approach the tanker, and the illumination cone filling hose included lights. Memories, as if you go on night road during a snow blizzard. Refueling boom need to get into a cone. A meter docking due to the accumulation of static electricity between the rod and the cone is an electronic discharge in the form of the three brightest blue lightning. A couple of times execute training contact, and whenever there is a discharge. The picture is unreal beautiful.
— Told of his way to test pilots.
— When I came to aviation, and I thought there was to be a test pilot. The first person that made think about such work, was my first instructor Mike I. Duvanov. Our group was flying his first, he taught the first steps in for 2-courses.
In his second year with the rank of lieutenant M. Duvanov wrote in the withdrawal of my summer nature: "It is expedient to use in flight test work." Until now, for me, is inexplicable how such a conclusion could come young pilot instructor. After he became a test pilot, met with Mikhail Ivanovich and asked him about it, and in response, with a grin: "I do not know, so considered. You became a test pilot! Means not wrong. "
I'm flattered feature, but thought there had to take its findings seriously. After a couple of years in the marching regiment chief of the air-firing and tactical training Colonel A. Neznanov after observing the performance of my flight missions at the site expressed his outlook. It came down to the fact that the lieutenant to test himself in the flight test work. On it I had only a general idea on the books of Chkalov, Galland and films.
On advice met with Nikolai Fedorovich Sadovnikov. After the interview, he wrote me a letter, and then there was a four-year pause, associated with the service. Only after the relocation of the regiment from Mongolia to the Crimea unit commander Colonel Kukushkin Mikhail Fedorovich granted leave to go for a preliminary interview at the Test Pilot School (WALKED).
Upon arrival at the Ministry of Aviation Industry WALKED (MAP) at the Flight Research Institute. MM Gromov learned that the situation with a set of vague. There is no guarantee that it will. Passed an interview with Head of Flight Operations Department of the aviation industry Vadim Ivanovich Petrov. It is advised to go to Ahtubinsk and try his luck in the training center, the test pilots at the municipal flight test center to them. VP Chkalov. At that point it became clear that it set to be executed. Vadim Ivanovich said that in the case of positive examinations in Akhtubinsk and the declaration set in WALKED MAP adopted will no exams.
The road from Volgograd to Ahtubinska seemed strshnoy — in the street heat, gnats, solid bumps, dust flies. He arrived on Saturday afternoon. I go out at the station. Around any one person's — "dead season". Sun decided to rapidly deal with inquiries and home. Far from it. About any interview question can not be, day or two exams begin in TSPLI. Offered vorachivatsya home instead of fooling yourself and for the people, "You are too late, and at the moment there do not need it."
From now said to myself, "Wait, it's not necessary? I need it, and will have to stay. " Called the regiment commander Misha Fedorovich. He said to stay on the exams, how much will need to keep it up to date, and it will extend the holiday.
In the examination committee were of strongest spices, perfectly understand the theory and practice. Theory, of course, constantly repeated, studied, but especially for exams has not yet had time to get ready. They lasted a month, and the format of the date became the worst in life. From the heat and strain has lost 10 kg.
I return to the part, and I was waiting for an invitation to sit for examinations in WALKED MAP. I decided that I would learn in Akhtubinsk where was selected, enlisted and where I have the highest confidence, to weed out the more worthy pilots.
Education, service and performance ispytatelskoy work Akhtubinsk lasted from 1991 to 2000. Later received an invitation to work in the Sukhoi Design Bureau.
— You have mastered 57 types and modifications of aircraft. What are their differences are fundamentally pilot technique and other aspects of aviation?
— As a test, I have the opportunity to look at the aircraft seemed to be from the outside. This contributed to the training and work TSPLI a test pilot.
The Su-17 has developed and exploited in the shelves. I have a plaque on this type of over 1,000 hours. It was for me actually native. It was held as a military pilot, specialization "fighter-bomber."
When flew the MiG-29, it seemed like a magnificent fighter with a good thrust. The most pleasant memories.
Su-25 took as a very good car. It is very common in management, obedient, reliable.
Su-27 left the impression that it does not exist any transfer link between the pilot and the aircraft. He does because he wants to pilot. Fighter struck his abilities.
Development of modifications of the MiG-21, MiG-23 has allowed the machine to compare the different generations. Machines of past generations, including the Su-24, are required to test pilot, as a trainer for the athlete. In their need to fly and hunt to fly. They give the awareness is best, why, and which requires the ability of the pilot to prof. He should know and be able to control and strictly maintain the flight mode when performing different maneuvers. Flying on such aircraft, even once a month, you learn to be demanding of myself. That's why the test pilots with no small reverence to the aircraft are third generation and tend to fly them as often as possible.
Sport aircraft Su-29 aircraft flipped my view of the world. Unlimited number of pleasant feelings left from the development of sports cars. Their ability to pilot unique. You can fly sideways, "knife-edge", one way, to shift the pedal, the car will unfold here in a different direction. High maneuverability.
Planes 4th generation with thrust vector control and management system with the latest Russian thanks to advanced aerodynamics of the very far in matters of stability and maneuverability of the aircraft. From the perspective of the difference of the control surfaces and control seems to be violated those principles that had once given to the exercise of the aerodynamics cadets in flight schools.
At the moment, all the organs of the cross, lateral and longitudinal control aviation complex work together in a completely unthinkable earlier compositions to set the appropriate method of the aircraft. This intelligent control system organically connected thrust vector control, which the pilot did not have to keep in mind and which has a special control. Thrust vector cut one when it considers it necessary to make the control system. The aircraft flies because you asked the control knob (joystick). Thrust vector control — a great security tool. At low speeds any critical phenomena are virtually absent. Earlier minimally safe speed was in the range of 400-550 km / h, now may be the flight and 50-100 km / h
All this is done on the Su-35 and T-50 (PAK FA). Their abilities will certainly amaze and like pilots in combat regiments when they get new cars and will master them.
— What step test passes the T-50?
— The aircraft is on the stage of development when he, like a child, still fragile bones. Static tests go according to plan. So taken in aviation. First on board is checked, it tolerates those aircraft or other loads. Sustained, then revealed certain spectrum for operations. For this reason, in this step, do research and check with congestion less than 5 units. Aerobatics performed smoothly.
Worked certain modes at supersonic speeds. At the moment, check the properties of durability and maneuverability in the spectrum, which has permission from the standpoint of loads on the aircraft. Ahead of the evaluation superagility.
Not far off the end of the static tests of the T-50. Obtain approval and then become to fly across the spectrum of speed and maneuvering bolshennymi congestion.
— Why is the T-50 for the first time took to the skies from the airfield of Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association. YA Gagarin?
— Preparation of aircraft for the first flight — a great work of professionals. At the moment, aviation systems have become so complex, knowledge-intensive, it is not always advisable to create a one hundred percent experienced airplane pilot enterprises in the capital. KnAPO at the current time, it became a powerful production and launching pad not only for production, and for the most experienced aircraft.
When considered debit and credit, then concluded: Lock and layout on KnAPO, its dismantling, transportation to Lee and DB in Zhukovsky, assembly, preparation for the first flight — in our time is very precious pleasure. In addition, there are strict deadlines for the project and for the transportation of cars from 1st place to another and preparing her for the flight will take a long time.
This happened, for example, the Su-35. He was brought in Zhukovsky in the summer of 2007, and raised in the air in February 2008. The preparation took more than half a year!
Calculated everything and decided to raise the T-50 from the airport to the KnAPO. Discern any unsafe reasons. The narrower point — aborted takeoff. On modern aircraft dominated management system, which has a number of modes. She goes into the technical features of the airplane mode on the run after the separation of the front rack. Specifically, those few seconds are very important from the standpoint of aerodynamics. They are certain aspects are more important than the first flight with them begins the birth of modern aircraft.
Calculations have shown that the performance of non-hazardous and runs off realizable. Held a training session on the shield, which with a jeweler's precision passes all the properties and allows most accurately simulate different situations. Worked for various regular and irregular situation was made more than 200 modes. When they came to the realization that not dangerous, and then a final decision.
Performing runs passed normally. Only then was followed by the first flight.
— In the near future in some media with reference to the different professionals are put under the swing set deadlines for creating PAK FA. In your estimation, everything is going as planned?
— It creates the machine of the latest generation, works are mostly in uncharted areas. No one thinks of, at which step we are faced with one or another technical hitches. It may seem at any moment, and it is unclear how the complex. Run remake assembly of the unit, make the wrong configuration or that system is technically always achievable, but you need to understand the dilemma, find the road ahead, to perform the necessary calculations. It is here that spent most of the time, and big.
At present I do not see any obvious problems that hinder the implementation of the project. Together with the fact remembering the practical experience of aircraft, I see that the timing, as usual, very tight, with virtually no reserve. There is a reality of life, and they, as indicated by experience, usually push back the end date of the project at a later date for whatever reasons.
Huge problems does not appear, the project will be implemented, and minor Sdvizhkou maturity of the individual steps occur. They are connected with the supply of various devices made by other agreements.
For example, the need to bring the item. Her delivery is scheduled aircraft, and there is no weather. As a result, the term of the move. The plan must meet the flight, but in life, for example, a ban on him because of the expected arrival of foreign aircraft to MAX. Again slight shift in the schedule. In addition to the T-50 project, there is work to supply aircraft to the Russian Air Force combat units, performance of duties to the foreign customer. Non-compliance — punitive monetary sanctions. A lot!
— What is the situation with the Su-35?
— Functional fighter passed a respective step and MAX-2011 — the first air show, which showed his ability to super-maneuverability.
— From Aircraft fifth generation what to expect combatant pilots? What are its advantages over the predecessors?
— From the perspective of standing pilot, the benefits are many. Locators are unique, with their range of detection times more, and against the land, and against the background of the sky. We actually get these results.
From the perspective of the visibility of the plane, of course, different. All weapon in the inner compartments, and this decrease drag and range of detection radars opponent. Aerodynamic build a more perfect, and this increase in flight range, combat radius of action.
Stronger engines, and the total drag is less. It gives the background to the fact that the plane will fly at supersonic speed on besforsazhny mode.
Manoeuvring properties at least 20-30% higher. The area is more aerodynamic control surfaces, ie better maneuverability. From the standpoint of maneuverability is currently seen: the plane is very light, very well run, pleasant in piloting.
Of course, the T-50 by definition much more can and can not because of the limitations and prohibitions, but seen a lot of potential.
— In the U.S., with the aircraft fifth generation took to the so-called limit excess disk imaging, is when the pilot is flying disk imaging volume, which is at the physical level can not be recycled. As we have this state of affairs?
— There is, and it's a very serious discrepancy, the works take place. We pay this an unlimited number of working hours. In our environment, joking: "Fly — is to take time off from work."
Assignment of test pilots specifically in the fact, that the proposed test system individually and in combination. We need it up, so that at the front pilots had received an overabundance of disk imaging. It must be readable, intuitive and to the extent desired at this point, to a certain situation. All these are working on boards issue the notes and proposals. Single plane, and the tasks performed on it gets bigger.
Achieve so called mental support, and that method of working with information-control field was more common, and information — vsedostupnosti.
Optimize the work with the controls. Test pilots aviation industry on this issue seems to be located on the first line of defense, protecting the interests of front-line pilots. We urge designers and developers need to make configurations if litsezreem any unacceptable solution. In the 2nd level (more, and according to some even more fundamental positions) will be used by test pilots Ministry of Defense. They will also protect the interests of front-line pilots and bring even more stringent requirements. The main thing — to make a plane for the average pilot.
In Russia, not so long ago did not even have the concept itself — a functional fighter. There was a clear gradation: interceptor, fighter, attack, bomber. Now all their tasks are assigned to a single machine. Earlier, on a basic purpose fighter pilot or pilot-attack peaked higher skill in the best case, the 4-6th year of service. They have mastered the plane, but worked only at air targets or ground. Modern pilot will have to learn how to do three times the number of tasks. Naturally, the load is huge. Earlier method of action pilot was simple to enter air combat to perform a few operations. Now the situation has changed dramatically.
Be aware and keep in mind that for the pilot to increment the number of controls can not. Not put him two sets of controls, one — to work on the ground, the other — on air targets. In humans, as in the past two hands. Because increasing the functionality of the switches. Includes one position — can work on the ground to another — for air.
If you go the other way and, for example, do not manage to handle seven governing bodies, and eighteen, the pilot of the flight to the touch will not be able to identify, and in the battle to distract attention from the main tasks is unacceptable.
It turns out that when put to task by creating a functional fighter, that such problems are inevitable. At the moment, the ability of the aircraft grow significantly expanded range of tools, principles, pointing guns, too, are others, and ultimately the need for mental capacity is growing.
Because do not go all the usual, but we try to work to the maximum pilot simplified. By working with the engineers to do the accent and say that is complex, why. As we have already read, we approach the aircraft from the perspective of the average combatant pilot. These "battles" go for a long time, even when planes were piston. The process is considered normal, everyday, because the designer can not predict all taken into account. He can not know all the aspects of the specificity of flight operations. We own a hand explain that test pilots Defense Ministry is not to miss and still have to redo it. Justify its employees of the military establishment, the black — it's pure white, none of us have no desire to smallest. We will just shameful to look them in the eye. Designers to try to treat our demands with the knowledge.
— Specifically in the air show more often there is a mystery, when some boys hopelessly ill-air, and is born and grows stronger their dream of becoming a pilot. How to achieve its implementation?
— From my own experience I can say that for a man, nothing is impossible. No matter what the goal is achievable. The most difficult question in the aviation industry — health. There are specific prerequisites that are beyond our control, and it is not all easy. Familiar to me as a child doctor said that I could not go to the military pilot school for health reasons. In aviation doctors found another world.
I am a broker that was the goal, not swerved off track. At one time was a puny, was itself set up and gradually mastered the horizontal bar. Like — not like the hunt — no hunting, some other temptations, and once a day running around in the woods on the charge, despite the weather.
We, flight crews, the motivation to work as the highest that virtually no one smokes. We live in Russia, with a strong tradition of certain negative features in terms of alcohol consumption. Again, as with the highest motivation in our team even "put down" by though what a happy occasion — a tremendous challenge. You need to find some special champagne or wine or brandy, so that took a sip of his comrades. All thinking and fussing about his flying longevity, play sports. Everyone chooses what is more to their liking: running, swimming, hockey, volleyball.
With training in schools at this point, it became a little bit easier. According to at least some school discipline to get more information, pull up to the highest level of knowledge. Absolutely not consider myself particularly smart, gifted. Such as lazy sometimes, like everyone, all the time is not enough, but if you want to "turn on", I know that at least some amount of knowledge is processed and can move mountains. Because at first I wish ill aviation purpose.
Do not count myself lucky and fortunate. In my life anything can happen: the trouble and destruction. Necessary though malehankih steps, but go to the task. The most important thing — to move forward. Braked — means to crawl back on the mound current moving away from the task at hand.
In the end with a day of MAKS-2011 in step takeoff from the right engine T-50 broke the flame. The audience did not understand the fact of what happened, and Sergei Bogdan have made the right decision and implemented it. Rise discontinued engines power is reduced to the desired value, released the brake parachute. For every action he had bit of a second. He did everything just right, masterful. Plane braked, not rolled out beyond the runway.
He remembered one more note Sergey Leonidovich, which he expressed in the course of the conversation:
— Speaking of the T-50, no need to build a pyramid and put me on top of her. The implementation of the project — work of many people. Everyone is doing their job. In creating PAK FA contribution of designers and other professionals, including my fellow test pilots, more valuable than mine. We each have their own area of work, the main thing — to make it perfectly.
For reference. Referring to media reports about a failed flight of the PAK FA to end with a day of MAKS-2011, SEC chief designer them. A. Cradles (Capital branch "Saturn") followed by Yevhen Marchuk said: "The above spices analysis revealed differences in the automation engine, which led to the surge. Inspections have shown that the engine is not damaged and the aircraft in one day will be ready to continue the flight test. "