In the second half of the twentieth century on the world map appeared 180 independent states, but the contrast of this benighted nations and peoples, a powerful ocean-going fleet was only available in 2-superpowers — the Russian Union and the United States. For example, no one, except us and the Yankees, not massively built missile cruisers. Another four European countries, in order to maintain its former status of "maritime nations" made efforts to build its own missile cruisers, but their trial ended with the construction of a single ship with more South American weapons and systems. "Ships of prestige", less so.
Pioneers in the creation of missile cruisers were Americans — by the end of the 40-ies of the military industry has made the first combat-capable air defense system, applicable for installation on the vehicle. In the coming fate of the U.S. Navy missile cruisers were determined only by escort services in the carrier battle groups; South American cruisers never calculated the harsh sea battle with surface ships.
But in particular respected missile cruiser in our country during the existence of the Soviet Union on the world's oceans appeared 10s variety of designs: languid and light, surface and submarine, with an ordinary or a nuclear power plant, there were even anti-submarine cruisers and aircraft carriers, cruisers! It is not accidental missile cruiser turned into the main striking force of the Soviet Navy.
In a general sense, the term "Soviet missile cruiser" implies a large multipurpose surface vessel with a massive antiship missile system.
The story of the 7 best missile cruisers — all just a concise insight into the maritime history associated with the development of this unique class of warships. The creator does not consider itself entitled to set any specific assessment and create a ranking of the "best of the best." No, this is just only the story of the most famous designs of the Cool War era, with their recognizable advantages, drawbacks, and fascinating facts related to the death of these machines. In general, the nature of the material will help the reader without the help of others to find out who this "magnificent seven" all-is worthy of higher pedestal.
Missile cruiser of the "Albany"
1944/1962 years. Total displacement of 17,500 tons. The crew of 1,200.
Full stroke — 32 knots. Range — 9,000 miles (at 15 knots.).
— SAM-range Talos (2 launchers, ammunition 104 missiles);
— Short-range air defense system Tartar (2 launchers, ammunition 84 anti-aircraft missiles);
— anti-missile system ASROC (24 raketotorpedy ammunition);
— 8 intercontinental ballistic missiles, "Polaris" (have not been established);
— two universal gun with a caliber 127 mm.
Three American bogeyman, rebuilt from the languid cruisers 2nd World War. After the first successful experiments with missile weapon of the U.S. Navy have ventured into the global modernization of artillery cruisers "Baltimore" — with all the ships dismantled weapons, cut the superstructure and smashed them inside. And now, 4 years later, on the seas came indescribable, "thug" with high superstructures and masts, chimneys, dotted with hidden electronic equipment. The fact that this ship was once languid artillery cruiser type "Baltimore", reminiscent of only the form of the nasal tip.
Notwithstanding own ugly view, "Albany series' cruiser is a tough battle ships, capable of providing near-field benign air defense aircraft carrier connections (by the standards of those years) — Talos SAM range of fire was more than 100 km, and two hundred square meters of missiles on board allowed a long time to fend off enemy aircraft.
— 15-inch armor belt, inherited a legacy of languid cruiser "Baltimore"
— 8 fire control radar,
— high altitude installation of radars,
— the absence of shock weapons
— superstructure of duralumin alloy
— archaic, in general, the design.
Missile cruiser of the "Belknap"
1964 Total displacement of 8000 tons. The crew of 380 people.
Full stroke — 32 knots. Range — 7,000 miles (at 20 knots.).
— universal launcher Mk.10 (80 anti-aircraft and anti-submarine missiles);
— automatic gun Mk.42 caliber 127 mm;
— 3 unmanned anti-submarine helicopter DASH (later changed to the ordinary helicopter SH-2 "Sea Sprite");
— Two auxiliary guns caliber 76 mm (later changed to automatic anti-aircraft "Phalanx");
— 8 anti-ship missiles, "Harpoon" (added after the first upgrade of the 1980s).
A series of 9 light escort cruisers, which were pinned great hopes — at birth class cruiser "Belknap" received universal set of marine instruments, including unusual computerized CICS, unmanned helicopters and the latest sonar podkilevuyu AN/SQS-26, as if capable of hear the screws Russian boats for 10's of miles from the spacecraft.
What is the ship itself, or justified, or what not, for example, bold design DASH unmanned helicopter was unsuitable for real implementation on the high seas — were very imperfect system of governance. It was necessary to expand the hangar and helipad for the basing of the antisubmarine helicopter.
Noteworthy that after a brief disappearance, the ship returned again guns caliber 127 mm — absolutely renounce Artillery South American sailors did not dare.
In the 60's … 70's cruisers of this type are often patrolled off the coast of Vietnam, firing anti-aircraft missiles North Vietnamese MiGs, inadvertently flown into the affected area cruisers. But the famous "Belknap" does not feats of arms — in 1975, the lead ship of this type was crushed by the aircraft carrier in the Mediterranean Sea, "John F. Kennedy".
uiser has cost him dearly navigational error — the flight deck of aircraft carrier virtually "cut off" all add-ins, and on top of the mangled remains of the ship collapsed kerosene downpour from ruptured fuel lines carrier. Then followed an eight-hundred percent fire destroyed the cruiser. Restoration of the "Belknap" was purely a political decision, on the other ship so foolish death could undermine the prestige of the United States Navy.
— computerized battle management information system NTDS;
— the presence on board of the helicopter;
— small size and price.
— the only launcher, the failure of which left the ship essentially naked;
— flammable duralumin superstructure;
— the absence of shock weapons (which, in general, is dictated by the purpose cruiser).
Missile cruisers of project 58 (code "Terrible")
1962 Total displacement of 5500 tons. The crew of 340 people.
Full stroke — 34 knots. Range — 3,500 miles (at 18 knots.).
— anti-ship P-35 (2 launchers, ammunition SIC 16);
— Short-range SAM system M-1 "Wave" (16 anti-aircraft missiles);
— two automatic twin 76 mm caliber guns;
— 6 torpedo tubes 533 mm;
— 2 x 12 rocket launchers RBU-6000;
Beloved ship Nikita Khrushchev. Small Russian cruiser with a colossal dimensions for your own punching power. First warship in the world, filled anti-ship missiles.
Even noticeable to the naked eye as a kid was loaded weapon — according to the plans of those years, "the Terrible" had virtually single-handedly carry the watch in distant latitudes of the world's oceans. Is not it enough what tasks can appear before the Russian cruiser — "Terrible" has to be ready for anything!
As a result, on board the ship appeared a universal set of tools that can fight with what ever air, surface and underwater targets. Very highest speed — 34 knots (60 km / h), the universal artillery, helicopter equipment for the reception …
But especially impressed antiship the P-35 — eight four-ton ingots capable at any moment off the rails and dash off to the horizon at supersonic speed (firing range — up to 250 km).
Despite the doubts about the abilities of the distant target designation for the P-35, a massive electronic countermeasures and anti-aircraft fire from the American AUG, cruiser represented a mortal danger for at least some squadron of enemy — one of the four missiles each launcher was a megaton "surprise."
— Only the highest saturation of firepower;
— beautiful design.
Most of the gaps "Terrible" was one way or another connected with the desire of designers placed a maximum of tools and systems in a limited body destroyer.
— short range navigation;
— weak defense;
— nonideal systems management tool;
— fire risk structure: duralumin superstructure and synthetic interior decoration.
Missile cruiser "Long Beach"
1961 Total displacement of 17,000 tons. The crew of 1,160.
Full stroke — 30 knots. Range — 360,000 miles.
— Medium-range air defense system Terrier (2 launchers, ammunition 102 missiles)
— SAM-range Talos (1 PU, 52 rocket ammo)
— anti-missile system ASROS (24 ammunition raketotorpedy)
— two universal gun with a caliber 127 mm;
— two anti-aircraft machine "Phalanx", 8 RCC "Harpoon", 8 KR "Tomahawk" (upgrade first 1980).
The first nuclear-powered cruiser in the world, certainly worthy of a mention in the list of the best ships of the twentieth century. Concurrently, "Long Beach" became the world's first guided missile cruiser special construction — all previous designs (missile cruiser of the "Boston," etc.) were all just improvisation based artillery cruisers 2nd World War.
The ship came out gorgeous. Three missile systems for different purposes. An unusual "box-like" shape of the main superstructure, dictated by the phased array radar installation SCANFAR, too unique radio systems own time. After all, the nuclear cruiser heart that allowed everywhere accompany the nuclear aircraft carrier "Enterprise" to interact with you and create the magic.
But over all it was an indescribable price paid — 330 million dollars (about 5 billion. At today's exchange rate!), In addition, the imperfection of nuclear technology is not allowed in the 50s to make small-sized Yasu desired power — cruiser quickly "grew" in size, reaching in the end, 17 thousand tons. A lot of support for the ship!
Vpribavok found that "Long Beach" does not have the ability to translate his advantage in practice. In 1-x, the autonomy of the ship is limited not only supplies of fuel. In-2, in the retinue of an aircraft carrier is a huge number of ships with ordinary power plants, making it difficult to move frisky nuclear cruiser.
"Long Beach" served faithfully for 33 years. During this time, he left behind a million nautical miles astern, having with all this to war in Vietnam and Iraq. Because of his own exceptional difficulty and price, so he remained alone "white elephant" of the fleet, but has had a great impact on the development of world shipbuilding (including subsequent to the birth of our "hero").
Goodies "Long Beach":
— unlimited autonomy for the supplies of fuel;
— phased-array radar;
— a terrible price;
— the smallest vitality in comparison with ordinary cruisers.
The heavy nuclear-powered missile cruiser, etc. 1144.2 (code "eagle")
1998 Total displacement of 26,000 tons. The crew of 635 people.
Full stroke — 32 knots. Cruising range — unlimited supplies of fuel.
— antiship complex "Granite" (20 CP, 20 ammunition missiles);
— Long-range air defense missile systems S-300F "Fort" (6 launchers, ammunition 48 missiles);
— Long-range air defense missile systems S-300FM "Fort-M" (6 launchers, ammunition 46 missiles);
— Short-range air defense system "Dagger" (12 CP, 128 ammunition missiles);
— anti-complex "Waterfall" (20 raketotorped ammunition);
— one twin automatic gun caliber 130 mm;
— 6 anti-aircraft missile and artillery systems "Dirk";
— three rocket mortars;
— three helicopters.
For comparison, was elected TAVKR "Peter the Great" — the last and most perfect of languid nuclear-powered missile cruisers of the "eagle." Real Imperial cruiser with a cool set of tools — on board assembled the entire range of systems were in service with the Russian Navy.
At the theoretical level, in single combat, "Orlan" no equal among all the ships of the world — a big ocean killer would be able to deal with what ever the enemy. In practice, the situation looks even more fascinating — the one enemy against which created "eagles", not one by one walks. What will happen with "eagle" in a real fight with the aircraft carrier and its escort of five missile cruisers? Glorious Gangut, Scesma or Tsushima terrible pogrom? No one knows the answer to this question.
The emergence of the first "Eagle" in 1980, many shook the whole world — except the gigantic and heroic the way, Russian heavy cruiser of the world's first combat ship below the deck with vertical launch systems. Many fears aroused anti-aircraft S-300F — nothing like that in the time just was not in any country of the world.
In fact, the first ship with a set of established experimental S-300F was the BOD "Azov". In addition, the guide C-300F is not completely installed vertically and at an angle of 5 ° to the normal to avoid the missile fell on the deck of failure starting the engine.
As in the case of the South American "Long Beach", with the discussion of the "Eagle" often sounds outlook on the adequacy of the creation of such a miracle. In 1-x, for the destruction of the AUG look prettier nuclear missile submarines 949A Ave. Secrecy and security of the submarine more than an order of magnitude less than the price, with all this salvo 949A — 24 missiles "Granit".
In-2, 26 thousand tons displacement — a direct consequence of the presence of nuclear reactors, which do not provide any real benefit, only taking up space needlessly complicating and worsening service ship survivability in combat. One can imagine that without Yasu displacement "Eagle" would be reduced by half.
By the way, paradoxical coincidence, the bald eagle — the state emblem of the United States!
Missile cruiser of the "Ticonderoga"
1986 Total displacement of 10,000 tons. The crew of 390 people.
Full stroke — 32 knots. Range — 6000 (to 20 kt.).
— 122 vertical launchers Mk.41 (start virtually all types of missiles facing the U.S. Navy, other than submarine-launched ballistic missiles);
— 8 anti-ship missiles, "Harpoon";
— two lightweight universal caliber artillery systems Mk.45 127 mm;
— 6 anti-submarine torpedoes caliber 324 mm;
— two anti-aircraft machine "Phalanx";
— two automatic guns "Bushmaster" caliber of 25 mm.
«Stand by admiral Gorshkov:" Aegis "- at sea!» — «Beware of the Admiral Gorshkov: Aegis — in the sea" — specifically with the following message out to sea first "Ticonderoga" — a nondescript outside the vehicle, with modern electric interior.
For comparison, was elected cruiser CG-52 "Bunker Hill" — the head ship Second series "Ticonderoga" filled with the OHR Mk.41.
Obmyslenny to detail with unique modern ship fire control systems. Cruiser as ever is aimed at providing anti-aircraft and anti-submarine aircraft carrier compounds, but can be applied without the help of others massed along the shore with cruise missiles "Tomahawk", the number of which an aircraft may reach hundreds of units.
The highlight of the cruiser — combat information management system "Aegis". Together with the motionless phased bunting AN/SPY-1 radar and fire control radars 4, computers are able to ship directly track 1000 air, surface and underwater targets, with all this spending their automatic selection and, if necessary, to storm 18 more unsafe objects . With all this energy AN/SPY-1 abilities are such that the cruiser is capable of detecting and fast-moving storm even pinpoint targets in low-Earth orbit.
— unheard of before this flexibility at low cost;
— tremendous punching power;
— possibility of solving the problems of missile defense and destruction of satellites in low orbits;
— limited in size and, as a consequence, the terrible congestion of the ship;
— extensive use of aluminum in the construction of the cruiser.
Guided Missile Cruiser, etc. 1164 (code "Atlas")
1983 Total displacement of 11,500 tons. The crew of 510 people.
Full stroke — 32 knots. Range — 6000 (at 18 knots.).
— antiship missile system S-1000 "Volcano" (8 twin launchers, ammunition 16 missiles);
— anti-aircraft missile system S-300F "Fort" (8 drum PU, ammunition 64 missiles);
— two anti-aircraft missile complex short-range &quo
t;Osa-MA" (2 beam launchers, ammunition 40 missiles);
— anti-complex "Waterfall" (10 raketotorped ammunition);
— one twin automatic gun caliber 130 mm;
— three batteries of anti-aircraft guns automatic AK-630 (6 guns + 3 fire control radar);
— two rocket mortars;
— ASW helicopter and hangar for its long-term storage.
At 2.25 times the smallest displacement than large atomic "Orlan" cruiser "Atlas" retains 80% of its striking power and up to 65% of its anti-aircraft weapons. In other words, instead of building the 1st superkreysera "Orlan", you can build two "Atlanta"!
Two missile cruiser "Atlas", it incidentally, 32 supersonic anti-ship missiles "Volcano" and 128 anti-aircraft missiles S-300F. And 2 helipads, 2 gun mounts AK-130, two radars "Frigate" and two sonar. And it all instead of 1st 'heads'! That is, imposed a trivial conclusion — missile cruiser in 1164 and so on have the "golden mean" between the size, price, and ship's combat abilities.
Even in spite of the general moral and physical obsolescence of these cruisers inherent in their potential is so high that allows you to "Atlanta" so far to act on a par with the most modern zabugornom missile cruisers and destroyers with guided missiles.
For example, unparalleled set of S-300F — even modern anti-aircraft missiles the U.S. Navy, in view of the limited size of the standard cells OHR Mk.41, inferior to the energy features of the missile complex "Fort" (in other words — they are half the weight and twice slower).
Well, we wish that the famous "grin socialism" as often as possible to upgrade and how to stay longer in the military service.
— the equilibrium structure;
— good seaworthiness;
— missile system S-300F and S-1000.
— the only radar fire control system S-300F;
— lack of modern air defense system of self-defense;
— extremely difficult design GTU.