Only two armies to the top of the second world war had finished mass standard semi-automatic rifles: in the Red Army had a rifle Tokarev (SVT), the American — M1 Garand. SVT in our armory, and historical memoirs earned a very mixed record. On the one hand, it is generally considered unreliable and massive, with another — a number of professionals and users left positive comments about it.
By the end of the 30s to create a self-loading (automatic) rifles designers in different countries worked for nearly four decades. This period was marked by significant changes in the design, manufacture and application of automatic small gun. Gone a long way in machine guns, replaced by the latest generation least one light machine guns, appeared and took his seat in the aircraft weapons, armor, mnogokalibernye machine guns, sub-machine guns. Meanwhile, work on the rifles have not yet led to the emergence of mass reference.
The standards are brought into service, produced in small quantities and used very limited. On the premise is so moderate success already in the 30s indicated such large weapons experts as VG Fedorov and Blagonravov. This contradiction between the presence of automation and weight limit, and the extra power and weight of rifle ammunition, and the demotion of fire rifles at medium and large distances in the development of machine guns. But the idea of an automatic rifle as the main weapon of mass and more continued to occupy the minds of the military, though and changed as the overall development of weapons.
Advantages of automatic or semi-automatic rifle in front of a rifle were shopping are obvious — increase rate of fire and small probability of hitting moving targets that appear on kutsee time, saving power shooter from firing on the move and made a few shots in a row of at least some provisions (for example lying down, when operate with the handle shutter awkwardly). A zeal to keep firing range and safely before moving on to a new round of massive forced to hold comparable rifle cartridges.
History of Creation
In Russia, work on automatic rifle began in 1907. Among the most active participants in the development was a Cossack officer Fedor Tokarev (1871-1968). His rifle with automation on the basis of return, with a small hole course in 1914 was selected for military trials, together with the references VG Fedorov and John M. Browning.
The first global war interrupted this work, but does not close the topic. In the USSR, they have officially resumed in the middle 20's. In the Report of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR in December 1929 stated: "The system adopted provides for the Red Army infantry weapons in the near future, the introduction of automatic weapons on semi-automatic rifle."
In 1930, the management of artillery caused the rifle barrel must be motionless, and designers are focusing on systems with a gas engine, automatic. In the same year, the note was modernized shopping rifle mod. 1891/30, and once again extended his military career 7.62 mm rifle cartridge. Already in 1931, to the military trials was prepared rifle VA Degtyarev, but even though it was designated the "rifle mod. 1930, "to bring it to a series of failed as an automatic rifle Simonov arr. 1931
In 1932, work on their own innovative system began FV Tokarev. Small series was released on his self-loading rifle mod. 1935, but was officially adopted Simonov automatic rifle mod. 1936 (FAA). However, the main thing for ABC was listed fire single shots — operating experience has proved that in the trunk of a light, a small mass of guns and a massive chuck accuracy of automatic firing rendered unimportant, trunk rapidly overheat and ballistic properties of the rifle went down.
May 22, 1938 by order of the minister of defense and defense industry announced a new competition for the automatic rifle. Were presented to the standards of SG Simonov, NV Rukavishnikova and FV Tokarev, but the main contenders were Simonov and Tokarev. Tokarev assistants to work on a rifle made by the design engineer NF Vasiliev, Senior Master AV Kalinin, a technician and designer MV Churochkina also mechanics NV Kostromin and AD Tikhonov, fitter MM trades.
Tests have ended in September 1938. At the conclusion of the commission of any one model did not meet the required specification. Repeated tests have already held 20 November 1938. The issue was considered one of the most important. VN Novikov (Russian majestically other day — the chief engineer and director of the Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant, during the war — Deputy People's Commissar of arms), wrote in his own memoirs: "Stalin personally watched the progress of the design and production of prototypes. Occasionally happens that at a meeting on defense it was not part of the semi-automatic rifle. "
February 26, 1939 by the Red Army adopted the 7.62-mm automatic rifle Tokarev arr. 1938 (MCA-38).
Creation and improvement
But the issue has not been resolved at all. A special commission of the Head of People's Commissariat of arms and artillery department, conducting a comparison to finish rifle Tokarev and Simonov, gave preference to the latter — by weight, simplicity of the device, time and cost of production of metal. Simonov rifle and defended the People's Commissar of arms BL Vannikov. But the decision of the Defense Committee of the SNK of the USSR of 17 July 1939 ended the forthcoming discussion. It was necessary to focus on mass production.
The Tula arms factory (TOZ) from July 25, 1939 began assembling rifles in small batches, and from October 1 — gross output. The assembly is arranged on the conveyor with positive rhythm — it was part of the introduction of a gun making technologies of mass production, although the ready rifle parts as earlier sought a lot of machining.
Combat experience is not forced himself to expect — SVT went to the front even during the Soviet-Finnish War. Naturally, the new instrument required a number of improvements. Revealed the highest sensitivity to dirt, dust and grease lubrication due to comparable clear, tight tolerance parts fit.
Even before the end of the Finnish campaign, by order of Stalin created a commission under the chairmanship of Secretary of GM Malenkov to address the issue of improving the CBT in order to "bring to the Tokarev automatic rifle semi-automatic rifle Simonov" — at imminent risk of a major war began to change in the production of one another rifle it would be risky.
The upgraded rifle di
ffered reduced by 0.3 kg weight, the new iron shell hand guard, the appearance of the iron casing forearm. Ramrod suffered under the barrel shortened bayonet (according to Vannykova, Stalin, getting feedback from the Finnish front, personally ordered the "hatchet take the smallest, such as the Austrian").
In general, the scheme remained the same: the automation on the basis of powder combustion gases through the cross hole in the barrel above the chamber equipped with gas regulator, with a small stroke gas piston, muzzle brake, locking the barrel warp gate in the vertical plane, the trigger mechanism of a hammer type capable of maintaining only a single lamp flag is non-automatic safety, the descent — with a "warning", solid wood bed with a pistol shoulder neck. Double-row detachable box magazine could equip oneself out of the cage in the groove of the receiver. Sector sight notched up to 1500 m, in other words, went to the formal reduction sighting range in comparison with the rifle mod. 1891/30
April 13, 1940 decision of the Defence Committee adopted into service 7.62mm Tokarev self-loading rifle mod. 1940 (MCA-40).
SVT sniper version has a more meticulous finishing of the bore tide and receiver mounting bracket with PU scope 3.5-fold increase. Fixing the sight was made so that it does not lupila on cartridge cases, departing from the window of the receiver. Weight with SVT PU scope — 4.5 kg.
The lead producer of SVT was TOZ (plant number 314). According to a report from the People's Commissar for weapons October 22, 1940 to the Committee of Defence for serial production of MCA-40 launched from July 1, 1940. Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant (plant number 74) began production SVT-40, using the power released after the phasing out of the ABC-36.
The development of a new product is always asking for time and money: we need new tools, tool maintenance restructuring and retraining. As a result, the CPC approved the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) orders for armaments plan for 1941 year includes 1.8 million rifles (as planned back in 1939), from their self-loading were 1.1 million, the other — the shop "trehlineyki."
WAR brought ADJUSTMENTS
Almost worse disaster initial period of the war greatly aggravating so mundane reasons for such a situation, as a sharp increase in jobs creation tools, violation of industrial relations, lowering the average qualification of workers, the accelerated depreciation of equipment. Was lost arms, placed in front of the German angrily at the warehouses of the western military districts. On June 22, 1941 in the army there were 7.72 million rifles and carbines of all systems. In June — December, the loss amounted to 5,547,500, and it was done only 1,567,141.
Increasing the production of complicated and evacuation TOZ. By January 1, 1942, Reddish Army had about 3.76 million rifles and carbines. The losses of the Red Army personnel for the first six months of Lofty Russian debate to this day. But in any case it was not already on the replenishment, and almost for the urgent formation of modern weaponry and military. And if we talk about the shortcomings of CBT, the principal at that time, it should be recognized not fighting properties, and manufacturing and maintenance.
The available power reserves and mobilization supplies had to rely on more copies at the lowest flow rate of metal and machine-hours, reducing the requirements for finishing. "Trehlineyka" was in production by 2.5 times cheaper and much easier. Rejection of expansion of production in favor of CBT has long mastered magazine rifle, and is comparable to conventional production and development of the submachine guns actually helped the situation.
With all this creation of CBT is not finished, but abandoned its role as the main armament. In 1941, out of a planned 1176000 "normal" and 37,500 sniper SVT-40 was 1,031,861, respectively, and 34 782.
Creation of Tula SVT were evacuated to the Urals, Mednogorsk, where for the first month managed to collect from the exported touched 7,000 rifles (the assembly of finished parts were already in the process of evacuation — in the echelons in specially equipped cars), so that a break from the cessation of production Tula prior to Mednogorsk was only 38 days.
In January 1942 issue of CBT actually returned to their previous "Tula" level. But as long as Mednogorsk fought for bringing the production of rifles Tokarev 50 thousand per month, Izhevsk plant has already been instructed — to give the army of 12 thousand magazine rifles per day. The plan for 1942 already foresaw the supply of 309,000 troops only "normal" and 13,000 sniper SVT, and was issued 264,148 and 14,210. For comparison: the magazine rifles and carbines for 1941 made 1,292,475, and for 1942, the second — 3714191. Create SVT rapidly went down.
Often standards tools give the troops a variety of informal nicknames. CBT, for example, dubbed "Light" — of course, not only because of the harmonies. She is ranked as naughty ladies' temper. Prirekaniya that were coming from the troops, were limited in the main to the difficulties of the system and in training, and in the appeal, and to care for. As complaints went on a huge number of small parts, which are due to the loss of building a yield of about 31% of rifles, while at the magazine rifle mod. 1891/30, this figure was much lower — only 0.6%. First, data is severely restricted by mass forced to do many of the details of CBT on the tensile strength and vitality. Apparently, this caused a tendency to deform the receiver and therefore often referred to insufficient strength of the interlocking device.
Some moments with SVT indeed proved difficult for weapons of mass — say, a permutation of the gas regulator was not possible without a key. When an appeal with SVT and more than required painstaking care, and understanding the basic workings of a frisky eliminate delays. In other words, a fighter in need of some technical training.
Come to the shooting of replenishment could exploit this tool. God forbid blame the Red Army. It's just that those who were familiar with the technique before the service, were selected in the machine gunners, armored and mechanized forces, artillery, etc., in the same infantry recruited in the main rural men.
Typically, in order to the People's Commissariat of Defense signed by the Deputy Commissioner of Army Commissar 1st rank EA Shchadenko on October 3, 1942 stated: "The generated check … showed that training and spare parts from his own goal in the main coped and become better prepared to give the front Marching completion … "But once stated:" firearms training, especially replacement companies, it is missing. The soldiers know their weak arms. "
Part of the army had too little time for training replenishment. So again, "trehlineyka" provided better. But with all this "fidelity" in CBT during the war kept marines and naval infantry brigades — the fleet is usually taken on a more technical level, literate young men. Fully firmly CBT worked for experienced shooters. Well-trained group of special purpose NKVD and
GRU prefer to take in the enemy rear SVT.
His replacement — AUTO
The first production took off with a sniper SVT — 1 Octo-General in 1942. Self-loading rifle indeed inferior shopping hit by a sniper and shooting accuracy. But in the same year, several suddenly appeared automatic version of the rifle Tokarev.
It would seem that more recently the war were well known, and bad shooting accuracy bursts of rifle barrel with a light, and lacking strength of the receiver SVT. But once again the urgent need to intervene. First, in 1942 there was the force majeure situation with machine gun armament. March 18, 1942 the first head of GAU ND Yakovlev reported in Treasuries: "The situation with hand and machine gun poses a risk of disruption of the formation of new military units as reimbursement of retired machine guns."
About how urgent was the need for the armed forces in a light automatic weapons, suggests such an episode. The same Yakovlev recalled certain skilled craftsmen on the Western Front, who in the autumn of 1941 revised the SVT into an automatic rifle. Stalin then ordered "'s reward for not a bad suggestion, but for the unauthorized alteration tools to punish a few days of arrest." But the People's Commissariat of weapons already had documentation AVT developed even before the war (the front-line craftsmen of this, of course, did not know). And the 20 May 1942 decision came the launch of the Soviet Union T-bills in the creation of AVT-40 — July they went to the army.
AVT was a temporary measure designed to Minutka decisive battle to increase the density of fire at ranges of 200-500 meters but to change themselves machine guns rifles, of course, could not, and in the production of AVT remained long. On the accuracy of fire at a range of 200 m, it gave way, say, a submachine gun PPSh. This is logical — if the PCA ratio muzzle energy of the bullet to the gun weight was about 172 J / kg, then the AWT and SWT — 787 J / kg. Clearly, where the payoff is more than an influence on accuracy.
The problem of the increase in density of small fire in the war had to be solved by the first sub-machine guns. Compare: Russian majestically over the years in the USSR issued 12,139,300 magazine rifles and carbines and 6,173,900 submachine guns, and the "normal" SVT-40 and AVT (in the years 1940-1944) — more than 1.7 million, sniper — above 60 000. Absolutely issue of "ordinary" CBT was discontinued by January 3, 1945. By the beginning of 1945, supplies tools have been sufficient.
With the adoption of the 7.62mm cartridge crotch arr. 1943 issue of weapons of mass automatic rifle chambered for power was virtually unchecked. The main instrument of infantry became automatic under the crotch cartridge. Already in April 1944, have been tested machines VA Degtyarev, FV Tokarev, AI Sudaev, S. Korovin. Note that in the construction of the most experienced machine Tokarev evident features AVT-40, but he was eliminated from the competition one of the first. There was still the issue of semi-automatic sniper rifle, but it was able to solve more than a decade and a half, and by the new database.
Curious attitude to SVT by the enemy. German gunsmiths attempt to bring to the series of self-loading rifles G.41 (W) «Walter" and G.41 (M) "Mauser" failed. And the German army used quite extensively occupied first war SVT, giving them the designation Sl Gew 259 (r) (for sniper — Sl Gew Zf 260 (r).
In general, there is not anything special: experiencing shortage of automatic weapons, the Germans captured widely used standards. But counterinsurgency yagdkomandam recommendation, for example, will certainly have a "Russian automatic rifle with a telescopic sight" sounds pretty soft-spoken. SVT Trophy German soldiers and officers willingly continued to use (when, of course, had the opportunity to stock up on ammo for them), and after the onset of the war in the middle of his 7.92-mm semi-automatic rifles G.43 (released, albeit in small amounts — 349300 " linear "and 53,435 sniper). By the way, although the G.43 was an independent system, it is possible to behold the impact of Russian SVT — Build gas operated unit, a small stroke, detachable magazine.
So, the premise of phasing out the SVT and a sharp drop in its role in the system of arms served as the design flaws rather than how much of the problem to increase production of languid military criteria and the complexity of the operation of a hastily prepared fighters. Whether recently adopted Russian majestically another pattern, for example rifle Simonov, it probably would have understood the same fate. The experience of war led force work on a new cartridge and a new type of weapon (gun), to change the approach to the design and production technology tools.
After majestically in the Russian Soviet SVT remained in service of a noble Kremlin guard regiment (interestingly, what's it later changed his carbine Simonov SKS), were sent to hunters who adopted her, by the way, is quite positive.
BASIC RIFLE Properties OBR. 1940 (MCA-40) Cartridge 7,62 x54R (arr. 1908)
Weight of gun with a bayonet, unloaded, 4.3 kg
Weight of gun and ammunition without a bayonet, 3.85 kg
Length of gun with a bayonet, mm 1465
Length without bayonet guns, mm 1226
Barrel length 630 mm
The initial velocity, m / s 840
Accurate firing range, m 1500
Combat rate of fire, rds / min 25
Magazine capacity, rounds 10