On September 12, the website of the Federal Space Agency COMMERCIAL appeared at first glance, the message from the category of those that the public does not usually read. In the "News" announces the opening of tenders for the right to enter into municipal contracts. Lot number 43 on the subject of the contract with the terms of the October 2011 — December 2012 means "the elimination of solid-propellant rocket engines and charges of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) missile systems" Courier "," speed "," Topol-M "and ballistic missiles for submarines (SLBM) "Bark".
With the third and fourth names on the list like everything is clear — they are constantly on the ear, as well as "yars" and "Bulava". "Topol-M" — missile silo or mobile home. RK Resettled Tatishchev silo and mobile — Teykovskogo connection Strategic Missile Forces mission. About SLBM "Bark" expert society and journalists remembered every time prepyadstviya happened with the "Bulava" (God forbid, that they no longer exist). And that's what the missiles "Courier" and "Speed" (in the announcement of the tender last incorrectly called IDB), clearly a very limited group of professionals. And it's these "products", and created their people deserve a detailed story. Although information about these unique design rockets Metropolitan Institute of Thermal Technology (MIT) in the public domain is very hard to find.
Solid-fuel medium-range ballistic missile (IRBM) "Speed" was designed under the control of the director — head designer Alexander Nadiradze MITA since 1982. It was intended to arm the Strategic Missile Forces and the Army. Its supposed to be used to destroy enemy targets in the European theater of operations with the use of both nuclear warheads and everyday.
Creating a regular mobile "invisible" MITA ended in 1986. Flight development tests, "the executioner of Europe" began March 1, 1987 at the Kapustin Yar — made a test launch. After that, by the decision of the rulers of the Soviet Union so far in connection with the preparation of the coming of the Soviet-American Contract winding up of ballistic missiles of medium and lower range 7 March 1987, subsequent work on the "Speed" turned off.
This BRSD really could not hold all the sights of potential targets in Europe. She had the highest range four thousand kilometers. Its main know-how was the unique control system, lets say in slang missile, enter the number that you have made the capital of the Scientific Research Institute of Automation and Instrumentation, led by Nikolai Pilyugin (later — Vladimir Lapygina) and Sverdlovsk NGOs automation, headed by Nikolai Semikhatova.
IDB "Courier" in 1981 also developed at the Metropolitan Institute of Thermal Technology under the direction of Alexander Nadiradze. Armed Forces of the USSR were to pass a compact solid-mobile missile, the size of which allows you to position it in the usual reefer containers. Thousands of containers moving through a vast expanse of Russian Union. And try to determine which of them carrying frozen meat, and in which — severe "product" with great power on the monobloc nuclear warhead.
Inability to detect — that's what should have been a major asset, "Courier". Vpribavok creators of missiles able to solve virtually unfeasible task — to provide intercontinental range and a very spirited run (the latter is very fundamentally, given in the presence of the enemy's advanced missile defense system) with a starting weight of only 15 tons.
Draft project "Courier" was completed in 1984. How should one of the above-mentioned tender offer, the plan of the designers managed to bring to the metal. But waiting is not the ICBM fate it was expected MITA employees. According to Mike Peters in the book "Rocket Artillery SRF", "flight tests (" Courier ") were to begin in 1992, but they were canceled because of the circumstances of the political and economic nature."
Alignment of the competent person
And now a word for "Courier" Say a Colonel A., who served a long time in the main headquarters of the Strategic Rocket Forces.
"The strategic missile" Courier "was to become the future development direction of the unique Russian rocket that is embodied in the road-mobile missile systems (PGRK) — reminded the officer. — Its creation was carried out with the introduction of new materials for its time and technology, many of them during the "Troubles" were lost. "
Why such a complex handy? Is not it could be a candidate for mines and mobile RK "Topol-M" and "Yars'? No, said the colonel.
"With all the faith in the invincibility of these complexes is their creator — pochetaemogo, in spite of everything, Yuri Solomonov — of course, that even by the end of the 80-ies of the last century, a possible opponent (at the moment more politically correct to talk about the" partner ") had the opportunity available his technical surveillance means open position mobile launchers "Topol" on the field of combat starting positions and determine their position with high accuracy. In this case he needed it for less than a day. In order to provide the necessary secrecy, our missile troops were obliged to change field position with the highest frequency that was very hard for people and disastrous for the technology — service life of engines launchers was quite limited. "
"Heavy and large self-propelled launchers weighing more than 100 tons of it was impossible to hide from gallakticheskih means of optical and radar reconnaissance United States — says the expert. — In addition, not all the bridges and roads in Russia (how annoying it did not sound, Our homeland is not Belarus, where road infrastructure is under missile systems "Pioneer" and then under the "Topol" was created beforehand) kept these "mastodon" which limited maneuverability PGRK in position areas. " "As a result, an important advantage was lost mobility — the uncertainty for potential enemy locations propelled launchers, — he said. — Back then, 20 years ago, it became clear (unfortunately, not all), that is the direction of maintaining strategic stability with the West is at a standstill. And then it was decided to develop a compact missile system mobile home, received the title of "Courier".
"The basis of a new missile system was to be an ICBM weighing less than 15 tons, has a single warhead fairly high power. The main and important advantage of it were to be the small size and weight, — the expert defense industry. — This would disguise combat vehicles under ordinary trains and move freely on the roads of general use. This property is transformed missile set of ground in the road — there was no need to hide in the woods and move the black time of the day. "
"The emergence of" Courier "in the battle of the Strategic Missile Forces would lead to a revolution in military use it earlier — a species now — sort of the Armed Forces and significantly strengthen the security of Russia", — said spec. He noted that at the time of the last commander in chief of the Strategic Missile Forces, Army General Yuri Maximov later recalled that the end of the mining missile system "Courier" with a compact missile was given the harshest note: it was planned that in the battle of the Strategic Missile them with "poplar" will be higher than 700 pieces
"In 1991, the missile was ready for testing — recalled Colonel A. — But due to the well-known events, work was suspended, and in the upcoming closed." But to no avail. Let our expert led outlook 1st of senior generals SRF, which a couple of years back, said that "it is impossible to resume work on the" Courier "because of the loss of a number of technologies of creation of special materials, components and assemblies," rocket need such type SRF and the country as a whole, as the air. Why?
In any case, when mobile "Topol-M" and "Yarsy" combat duty on the field of combat starting positions, all of them more visible to the gallakticheskih vehicles filled with synthetic aperture radar. The latter can recognize the configuration of terrain height and 5 cm, and a hide your launcher or her height in the posted position is approximately 6 meters. This change in the height of the relief can not be hidden by any means of disguise. The issue only in the frequency of orbiting satellites with a particular locality SAR-capabilities that is still based on the number of devices of this type gallakticheskih in orbit.
Escape from these satellites could be, and could in the future are only two types of missile systems from those that were present in the "invincible and legendary" or that she was preparing to get. It's all the same "Courier" and battle railway missile complex (BZHRK) outside resembled ordinary passenger train. And it has long been out of order. Because many experts believe that the criteria frisky improved means gallakticheskoy intelligence in zabugornyh "partners" Russian Strategic Missile Forces should have something like "Courier" and (or) the presence of mandatory BZHRK in their battle of the weighty as the newest additions heaviest liquid rocket.
And in the meantime …
Grimace fate. In the period from 19 December 2006 to 22 July 2008 in accordance with the agreement signed by the German company OHB System AG with Rosoboronexport and Omsk on "Flight", Gallakticheskie Russian troops using rockets like "Cosmos-3M" brought into near-Earth space satellites German 5 type of SAR-Lupe in the interests of the Bundeswehr, which got its own so makarom first system gallakticheskoy intelligence.
These machines weighing 720 kg each equipped equipment allowing to obtain images of the Earth's surface at least some light and all weather criteria to the resolution of the least 1 meter. Satellites can detect moving vehicles, aircraft, and to identify other objects, such as firing positions and military equipment. Satellites are in orbit altitude of about 500 km in 3 different planes and fly around the Earth in 90 minutes. The greatest response times on request — 11 hours.
And now in the standard lumen after each such satellite "poplar" and "Yarsam" while in the field need to change the position that hardly realistic. But there is still the South American and French spies gallakticheskie …