Face it, the Caucasus!

Franz Roubaud. Taking the village Ahulgo. Panorama 1893. AKG / EAST NEWS

Never anywhere Russian empire was at war so long as the Caucasus. Although it would seem: that Russian generals, who are used to win not only the Turks and Iranians, and Napoleon, a handful of mountaineers? But the final fight remained unclear for several decades, and the name of Imam Shamil has become synonymous with severe and elusive enemy. Only gain experience of the war in the mountains, Russia could eventually win.

By the middle of August 1859 epic almost over, but it is "almost" got a great price. Russian troops surrounded the hill, at the top of which there was an aul Gunib. It was a natural impregnable fortress: from 3 sides aul defended vertical mountains, and only the fourth, east, along a narrow trail could go up to the village. Four soldiers of Islam, ensconced there with 4 guns, had many advantages. Commander of the Caucasian Army, Prince Alexander Baryatinsky knew the character of these people and their courage, but still offered to surrender — suddenly it will avoid the latter bloodshed. In addition, in the village there was a man who for 25 years represented the resistance — Imam Shamil. If he had surrendered, it could seriously affect the other leaders of the Highlanders.

Baryatinsky promised in the event of resignation "complete forgiveness of all that were present in Gunib, permission to Shamil himself and his family to go to Mecca, as a means of providing him on the journey, and on the content." But the enemy did not change his own liking, and answered thus: "Gunib — the highest mountain, I sit on it, you need me even higher — God. Russian stand along the ground, let attack. Hand ready saber removed. "

August 22 began the siege of the compact. The next day or two passed in musketry and artillery crossfire, and on the night of August 25, 130 fighter Apsheron regiment managed to climb the south wall of the mountain and there overturned the Highlanders. Here began a general assault. By mid-day or Murids (almost — the "disciples") Shamil retreated to the most aul, where their new solid ring surrounded by Russian. Royal governor tried his luck again — to take the Imam of Chechnya and Dagestan alive. And — magic! — He agreed. Apparently, the old chief was tired and lost interest in the war. He came to his own enemy, who was waiting for him on the rock a mile from the village.

The next day was posted terse order: "Shamil taken. Congratulations Caucasian army. " It was a high point in the career of Prince Bariatinskii and certainly a highlight in the life of everyone who participated in the last battle (among them were many recognizable people — for example, the chief of staff of the Russian Dmitry Milutin, then Minister of War Alexander II and creator of the famous military reform ). What's all the same for the Russian Federation, it has received a long-awaited peace in the Caucasus.

Caucasian war in dates

September 12, 1801 — attached to the RF kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti (Eastern Georgia)
1816-1827 years. — General Alexei Yermolov Georgian commander of a separate (from 1820-th — Individual Caucasian) body
22 June 1818 — was based Fortress Harsh
1829-1830 years. — Kazi-Mulla declared Imam of Dagestan and Chechnya. He declares jihad Russian
November 13, 1831 — KaziMully raid on Kizlyar
October 29, 1832 — taking the village Gimry Gen. Gregory Rosen. The death of Kazi-Mulla
November 1832 — September 1834 — Imamate Gamzat Bey
August 25, 1834 — Massacre in Hunzahe
September 24, 1834 — proclaimed imam Shamil
September — October 1837 — negotiations with Shamil its acceptance of Russian citizenship
January 1841 — Hadji Murad is adjacent to Shamil
June — July 1845 — General Dargin hike Misha Vorontsov
End of 1845 — the latest (and last) is the capital of the Imamate Vedeno
In 1853-1856. — The Crimean War
January 28, 1858 — General Nikolay Evdokimov captures the Argun Gorge
August 10, 1859 — the ambience of village Gunib
August 25, 1859 — Surrender of Shamil
10 May 1864 — in the tract Kbaada manifesto announced the end of the Caucasian War

Alexei Ermoloff (1772-1861), the first "proconsul Caucasus"

How did it start?

In general, this world was very conditional. And after the capture of the head of the enemy, for example, in the north-west of the fighting continued for another 5 years and only ended with the liquidation of the last stronghold of the Circassians (Circassians) in the tract Kbaada — there now which is popular reddish Polyana resort near Sochi. So in the end date of the encyclopedias of the Caucasian War is often referred to as 1864.

But one idea when it started, in the scientific world no. For some, this is 1801, when East Georgia — Kartli-Kakheti kingdom — joined Russia. Here then, finally gaining a foothold south of the Caucasus Mountains, the country faced with the need to control the passes — and a struggle ensued. Other rumors about the date, time, adopted in Russian — 1817, the year when the local scene appeared on the famous "royal Serdar" Alex Ermoloff. And in recent decades, Russian historians talking about the years 1829-1830, in other words, the time of formation of the Imamate — military-theocratic country. Well, for all of these concepts have reason.

When the Russians dare to take responsibility for the Kartli-Kakheti, they unwittingly signed the next duties. On the one hand, there was a good springboard for coming to Turkey and Iran. Together with the time the Russian government pledged to always protect their own Georgian nationals. Could not be allowed to repeat something similar defeat in 1795, who perpetrate the town of Tiflis Agha Mohammad Qajar Persia — now it is threatened by a complete loss of prestige. So that uninterrupted communication with Georgia through the land of troubled North Caucasus peoples become a pressing need.

It would seem that Catherine II the leaders of these nations often expressed humility, but you need to realize that this is an expression of a sense of justice of the mountaineer who is used to the will and the absence of any authority over it themselves. This is less than the stroke, cunning, calculated for instant profit, or a veiled invitation to an alliance against their neighbors. From the davneshnih time until the XIX century, the inhabitants of the majestic mountain range were quite independent and do not hesitate to normal activities: robbery, kidnapping for ransom. All this seemed to them quite naturally. Suffice it to say that at the end of XVIII century in the municipal budget laid once a year 2000 silver rubles to purchase the Christians "of highland slavery." For ordinary relied few rubles, an officer asked to not less than 100, and if the prisoner seemed a rich man or a person of principle, the figure soared to all limits. Public money was not enough and one-half of prisoners.

But the severe fighting in the early XIX century, there still has been no — Russian Federation was not until the final decision of the "Caucasian problem": in Europe was at war, Napoleon, and in Asia had to immediately make war with the Persians (1804-1813) and the Turks (1806-1812) .

Cost Ratio

Conquest of the Caucasus, Russia has been paid a lot of blood. During this long period, from 1801 to 1864, the total loss of the Russian army in the Caucasus were 804 officers and 24,143 lower rank killed, 3,154 officers and 61,971 lower ranks wounded, 92 officers and 5,915 enlisted men prisoners. In addition, we can not forget about the losses in the middle of the civilian population in the Caucasus with the Russian side that can number in the several thousand dead and the wounded. According to current estimates, during the Caucasian wars irrevocable loss of military and civilian Russian Empire, incurred in the course of military operations, as well as disease and death in captivity, are making more than 77,000. Cyclopean amount of loss is explained almost continuous contractions, very complex criteria theater and a number of severe failures of the Russian command. During the years 1840-1846 the Russian troops suffered the greatest losses of the war. Was the bloodiest in 1845, when losses totaled more than 300 officers and a soldier were killed and 5,000 wounded. Their lion fraction falls exactly on the most expensive, from the standpoint of loss, surgery — Dargin. It is significant that the loss of it for 1200 exceeded the total loss of the Russian army during the war with Persia, 1826-1828. The intensity and fierce fighting in the Caucasus and emphasizes the fact that among the dead were 13 generals and the commander of the 21.

Sunk loss in the Caucasus theater comparable in scale only by the Napoleonic wars in the early XIX century, when Russian troops have lost up to 100,000 soldiers and officers. Although it should be noted, the general loss of the Russian side in the Napoleonic Wars still higher than in the Caucasus, and range from 400 000 to 500 000.

Hadji Murad (late 1790s — 1852)

"Proconsul of the Caucasus"

In 1816, arrived in Tbilisi General Alexei Yermolov — the famous Russian war hero, the last chief of staff of Kutuzov. He was appointed commander of the Georgian separate body — the task once and for all to pacify the mountain peoples and adopt the Russian administration in the Caucasus. It was assumed that this puzzle can be done in a short time, with minimal human and financial losses by precision strikes on pockets of resistance.

But the experienced captain took a little time to come to the opposite conclusion. He abandoned the planned hikes deep into the mountain range, it is worth considering that the objectives are not achieved. So, of course, was saved countless lives. Instead of this the Russian began to move forward over the edge, firmly attached to each meter of the conquered areas. To facilitate communication with auls, were cut at the root of the forest, erected fortifications, and of them all equally evolved new defensive strip. Nepokorlivye settlements, which turned out to be behind them, were destroyed.

Just a couple of years, "proconsul Caucasus" has built a lot of forts: Grozny (today's harsh, the capital of Chechnya), Unexpected, Pregradny Stan, Stormy, Gherzel. Soon become isolated single series of forts from the Caspian Sea to the modern Nazran, and from north to south, the land furrowed glade in which permanent detachments penetrated rapidly when needed, deep into Chechnya and Dagestan. Ermoloff sought to isolate these same nepokorlivye area from the north, and then cut them into small individual sectors, where the enemy is no longer able to take advantage of the terrain. On parts of the region Ermoloff inflicted surgical strikes, if any Khan showed disobedience. In addition, the general was often taking hostages (hostages) of the highland elite.

By the beginning of 1820 under Russian control was a large part of Dagestan, Chechnya and of many societies recognized the authority of the ruler of the far unknown Petersburg. In the years 1818-1820 were evicted from the area Pyatigorje all Kabardinians, and in their place appeared villages Cossack villages — those "unruly zone" had been cut into two "fragments" — Zakubansky and Chechen-Tavlinsky.

So with constant success Ermoloff "commanded the Caucasus" right up to 1827, when Nicholas I pushed him and changed his pet, Count Ivan Paskevich. And who knows, if "proconsul" remained there and then, not whether the war had ended decades earlier? In any case, a British traveler who visited the Caucasus then, wrote of him: "Although the measures to which he occasionally resorted to appease the edge, forced to shudder, you should not ignore the progress that they result — during his reign extensively existed statement that at least some children, even with the amount of funds could go through subordinate province without incurring any danger. "

In full accordance with local customs and Islamic law Ermoloff three times concluded Kebin (temporary) marriage of Muslim girls. After parting with him his wife did not get a bad currency composition and could marry again. In addition, Ermoloff left them daughters and sons took away with him. Then they were all recognized it as legitimate the children, becoming hereditary nobles and Russian officers. Since the marriage was contracted by all the rules, the role of the mullahs, no claims to Ermolova the mountaineers were not.

Ghazi Mohammed (1833-1902), second son and heir of Shamil

However, this particular severe general remained in the memory of the Chechens and their neighbors as one of the most hated Russian military commanders, punisher. Many modern Chechen politicians equate his actions to the genocide, and say that they who have caused the war. The last — of course, a great exaggeration, but it must be admitted that in the highest degree contributed to the development of general policy Muridism — the movement that became the basis of resistance. The fact is that in the fight against Ermolov killed many members of an old nobility. There was a power vacuum, and filled imams — military and spiritual leaders of the people and the stands. The first of them was the Ghazi Mohammed (in Russia it was called Kazi-Mulla), and all that he needed to do — is to construct a clear and common political slogans universal equality, the extermination of traitors aristocrats, the association of the faithful for a holy war against the invaders. Of course, that "fit the position," he, in contrast to the classical "secular" elite, ought to be a man of religious scholars and educated. He named and was — remember the Quran by heart and could have won at least some theological dispute.

To unite their people, the imam began to vigorously implement sharia everywhere (the body of law based on the same sacred book of Muslims) instead of disparate and conflicting local adats — Mountain laws formed over centuries. From the elders of villages and communities take an oath to abandon them completely and administer the tribunal "is Islamically." Also, of course, to break all relations with the Russian. In addition, the Kazi-Mulla almost without exception destroyed the remnants of the nobility — he sent to the light a few 10 s influential lords.

All this has earned him great respect in the middle of ordinary people and swiftly allowed to gather an army of 10 000 soldiers.

Two years Kazi-Mulla fought with Russian and their allies, the Avars and won many victories, following its own strategy of gu
errilla raids. Terrible shock caused plunder secured the town of Kizlyar. Finally, in 1832 came to replace Paskevich Baron Gregory Rosen zastignul imam in the village Gimry and quickly stormed. Kazi-Mulla chose the wrong strategy — instead of going away from the village, he decided to wait for the Russian and give them a fight. When all those around him were killed, he made a last prayer, a sword plunged into opponents and died.

The place was taken by one of his closest associates — Gamzat Bey, who changed the strategy, considering that for the decisive clash was not the time. While the tribunal case yes, he continued widespread "shariatizatsiyu" and the destruction of the nobility. In the summer of 1834 in the capital of the Avars Hunzahe he, for example, cut the whole top of the ruling, including his hands had killed an old groin Hansch-bika. Immediately began Gamzat forms the universities of this country — the Imamate. Hunzah he made his own residence — was wrong: the inhabitants of the capital of Avar, the usual to the old order, did not accept the new regime. Against the invader komplot rapidly formed, headed by the avenger of blood feud-Hadji Murad, an offspring of the deceased nurse Khan. Imam was killed in the mosque, along with his entire entourage. So the Russian command himself suddenly brought back the most power over the Avar land and get hold of in the order of the 1st of the best Caucasian soldiers — Hadji Murad, then immortalized by Leo Tolstoy. And then Allah sent murids greatest of their leaders in history.

Why Highlanders won?

Life in the mountains, as you know, is always very different from life in green plain, and it has an impact on almost all areas of life Highlanders. In the narrow gorges even more difficult to feed themselves — hence the terrible struggle for existence and the need to constantly make daring raids on their neighbors, take away cattle, loot property. Logically, the men of the mountains — admittedly the best fighters in the world. Back in the Middle Ages all European sovereigns preferred to hire on active duty Scots and Swiss. And Montenegrins, for example, defended his government from a tiny vast Ottoman Empire, when the Serbs, Bulgarians, Hungarians, Greeks pokorlivo lived under her heel. In the future, Asian Nepalese withstood two fairly successful war with the masters of the whole of India — the British, and after they have been formed from the elite British army regiments.
In our history, of course, an extraordinary reputation earned warriors of the North Caucasus. Until very late time of their fighting zeal was directed against each other — massive external encroachments on their land, they just do not know until the XIX century (hiking Genghis Khan and Tamerlane, we shall not accept — they left no trace in the Caucasus). When the mountaineers had, after all, have to deal with Russian empire, they rose to the occasion — specifically through customs and abilities honed guerrilla war. In addition, a sense of self-preservation, the characteristic small free communities, it worked perfectly. Muridism gave this massive Muslim consciousness of unity against wrong. High-quality and responsive leader rebuked vendetta, ravaged Chechnya and Dagestan, replacing it … currency payments, and all willingly obeyed. At 10 times decreased dowry (redemption) for his wife — now young people can get married, not kidnapping brides. As a result, the birth rate rose again, and decreased the number of inter-clan conflicts. In the end, all the slaves were freed, and the equality of believers declared sacred principle. However, it is mixed with harsh discipline. Imam belonged to the supreme power — military, judicial, administrative and spiritual. Had no power failures, and in the media: The inhabitants of the Imamate regularly paid zakat — a tax commanded in Islam (one-tenth of total revenues), and one-fifth of the spoils of war (including the redemption purchased for prisoners), and the penalties for crimes and misdemeanors. 10 yards each village were required to put and keep the 1st one hundred percent of the armed equestrian warriors — that's for you and the hard core of the army. And at last the need to fight the militia came out of all the guys from 15 to 50 years. Shamil introduced its own troops not only insignia — according to the European standard, and the signs of shame — for timidity in clothes sewn felt. This whole totality of measures — it would seem a little creative, but clear and acting like a dagger — and mountaineers permitted to resist the Russian Federation as much as a quarter-century.

Imam Shamil (1797-1871)

Napoleon Mountains

More after the death of Kazi-Mulla Rosen considered the case in the main won and switched to the North-West Caucasus where Circassians fought wars. Under the contract of 1829 the Turkish Sultan "gave" them under the rule of the Russian Tsar. As they say, the Circassian chief, hearing of this, said the Russian general at the bird and said, "General, I give to you this bird, take it!" Yet resistance came here not as active, and the imperial forces evenly stopped fortified lines raids deep into enemy Russian countryside. But particularly at this time of Gamzatbek, then Shamil again collected Chechnya and Dagestan under the banner of greenish. The most far-sighted of the Russian commanders have foreseen how much trouble it will bring in the future. Here he writes in these years, Rear Admiral Serebryakov Lazarus: "Every year our inaction removes the goal, the Highlanders get more and more than courage, experience, unanimity. Prior to that, the tribes them forever mired in civil wars, but with the emergence of our spirit appeared in their nation, an unprecedented agreement, the concept of the overall effort, the war with us ended their strife, their alliance with every day or getting closer, and if not prevent their conquest, it is impossible vouch, that does not, in the end, among them a man with a feral genius and strong-minded, who will ignite the hearts aziattsev always smoldering passion fanatical. And, becoming in the forehead of the people to come to us for his predatory independence struggle right, stubborn and bloody. "

And so it happened. However, in 1837 the Russians defeated Shamil, and there was even a hope that he will officially be sworn Nicholas I. But the talks broke down. It turned out that the imam in his own manner of a mountain cunning — at the last moment he refused to go to Tbilisi, saying niskolechko I'm not sure that I was not caught.

Had Gen. Yevgeny Golovin, who replaced Rosen, continue to build a fortress — is from the mouth of the Kuban to most of Samegrelo. Exclusively in 1839, he ventured to attack on two fronts in the North-East Caucasus. Shamil two months, was sitting in the siege in Ahulgo, gave his own first-born Djemal-Eddin hostage for negotiations, but he never gave up. Aul was taken by storm, and the imam with only a few approximate managed to break through and get away.

It seemed muridism defeated. But General Pullen, Slave Golovin, began to rob and disarm the local population, resulting in a matter of days of Shamil returned to power itself. Russia began to suffer a defeat. In the campaign of 1842 the army has lost 1,500 soldiers and officers — hard for a lot of the Caucasian War. And the imam in the next couple of years at the stunned at the sight of his contemporaries possessed all Dagestan and Chechnya, for the most part, destroyed a lot of fortifications — the fruits of labors stubborn Russian fighter — along with their garrisons. During 1843 the Imamate has expanded more than twice. Even big-name
Hadji Murad, leaving the Russian camp was Shamileva naib (governor) of Tragedy. Meanwhile, Circassians and destroyed four sryli strengthen the Black Sea coastline. From the sea, they have helped in every possible way the Turks and the British, leading directly to this severe criticism of Russian policy on the Black Sea coast.

After the surrender of

In Russia, Shamil, to his surprise, the expected pyshnovaty welcome. After a visit to Moscow and St. Petersburg, after meeting with Alexander II and Ermolov Caucasian leader with all his family settled in Kaluga. From there he wrote a letter to the Caucasus, calling on those who have not folded tools to do so and to come to terms with Russia. In 1866, after the assassination attempt on the king, he joined the Russian citizenship, and in 1869, finally managed to make the Hajj to Mecca, and then in Medina, where he died. 5 of Shamil two sons died before him. The first-born Djemal-Eddin, taken as hostages in 1839, received a Russian education and training and returned 16 years later to the Pope, tried to influence him, so he made peace with the Russian, but to no avail. He did not live up to the surrender of the Imam. Second son of Imam Muhammad Ghazi, who Shamil considered his heir, so in the soul and not reconciled to the Russian. In 1871, he left Russia and entered the service of the Sultan of Turkey. In the Russian-Turkish War he was besieging the fortress of Bajazet, but failed. So he finished the service with the rank of marshal. General of the Turkish army and the younger son was Shamil — MuhammedKamil. But Mohammed Shefi, the fourth son of the Imam chose the Russian army and also became a general, but in Russia. In the Russian-Turkish War he was asked at the front, but did not receive permission to do so, apparently, because the other side has fought his brother, even though by that time they were at odds. He became famous in-law MuhammedaShefi — one of the most prominent revolutionaries of the Caucasus, nicknamed Mahach his name to this day is Makhachkala. Currently, the only direct descendant in the male strip Shamil — his great-grandson, and he lives in Moscow.

Dargwa tragedy and a turning point in the war

All these obvious evils could not but lead to the next change of command of Russian. Mikhail Vorontsov, appearing in theater in 1845-m, stood at the head of a special administrative unit — the Caucasus governorship. For the first time concentrated in the same hands all the power of the military and civilians in the Caucasus. Her owner has put a single ruler task: Shamil absolutely smash and grab his residence Dargo. Seasoned generals doubted the success of such an adventurous hike, but with the monarch, as you know, do not argue.

Prince Alexander Baryatinsky (1814-1879), a favorite of Shamil

This Dargwa expedition in 1845 turned to the Russian Federation naikrupneyshim failure in the Caucasus during the years of war. Vorontsov took Dargo, abandoned and burned murids (Shamil soon built a residence for himself the latest in Vedeno) … and found himself trapped there. In fact, without food, with a minimum of ammunition, burdened by a wagon train the wounded, the Russian squad could rapidly move forward or backward. Only the arrival of reinforcements helped out of the Vorontsov, and the loss amounted to three generals, 186 officers and more than 3,600 fighter killed and wounded.

Vorachivatsya had a strategy Ermolova. And soon there were results. In the second half of 1840, Shamil has failed to move on, to win for themselves a new province. Soon he had to go to the defense. In 1846, he made a last throw of his own lair: at the head of ten thousand troops Sunzha made his way through the line and invaded Kabardia. But this, in fact, gave him nothing. A ring around Chechnya and Dagestan everything ached.

In winter 1851-1852's under attack was already big Chechnya, and its inhabitants fled evenly on the Russian side. Incidentally, by this time, the power of Shamil caused in their discontent. His idea to reincarnate the Imamate in the Crown monarchy (succeeded by the son of the Imam) has not attracted Max. Hadji Murad, for example, believed that he is worthy to inherit power. And when it became clear that he had no chance, fell out with the imam and returned under the banner of a two-headed falcon.

Year 1852 th. The scene of fierce fighting was the most populated part of Chechnya — Germenchuk and Avtury, breadbasket of the Imamate. February 1853-th. Baryatinsky crashed in an open field (more precisely, to "open" the river gorge Michiko), the main forces of its own enemy — 20,000 soldiers. It seems to be all, end-to Shamil — victory! But fate had led to the goodwill of myurids — at this point a large flared Crimean War.

The British and French hoped that the imam will help them in the new front — a blow to the Russian rear, advancing on the Turks in the Caucasus. But of the hidden relations with him did not work — and in fact force the Highlanders are gone, they are tired of perpetual war and obviously did not die lusted for the interests of others. In addition, Shamil, recognizing the Sultan Abdul-Majid I his patron, preferred to stay away from him.

The Fall of the Imam

In the years 1853-1856, during the Crimean War in the Caucasus have established informal truce: Russia did not bother Highlanders, Shamil also did not attack. At that time, according to historian Vladimir Degoeva, the Caucasus, "established a strategic balance, which could last indefinitely." But the war spent a lot of money, and it was time for finishing. As a large international conflict was over, the new ruler Alexander II decided to act immediately. He proclaimed the new governor of the Caucasus, which was destined to put an end to this long confrontation. Prince Alexander Baryatinsky was a personal friend of the king, and an experienced military man, with a huge Caucasian experience.

The new commander vigorously took up the cause. In the forests of the new glade been laid, as the movement of troops grew new forts. Fewer subjects had Shamil, fewer people to believe in his lucky star. The economic life of the Imamate was close to collapse.

In 1858, thanks to the successful Russian disinformation rapid march out in the strategically crucial Argun Gorge. 15 Chechen society between the Argun and Terek immediately expressed resignation of, and Shamil was defeated at Vladikavkaz, where he tried to get out with a bold counter-attack in the rear of the enemy. Losses in the Russian army in all this was markedly less — affected the experience of the past decades, and of the area already seemed familiar.

Nikolay Evdokimov (1804-1873), associate Bariatinskii

First 1859 Murids retreated to the great fortified Vedeno, but there they took General Nikolay Evdokimov, close associate of Bariatinskii. 10,000 Highlanders under the command of Shamil's son and heir did not scare him. Preliminary work was carried out to storm the entire month of March, 1 April fortress fell. From 6:00 am to 6 pm Evdokimov broke the enemy artillery positions, then went hand to hand, and by 10 o'clock in the evening in the village there is not 1 person. And the Russian lost just killed two people.

The last remaining act — Gunib. So as not to give away Shamil this time, the royal army was advancing at once wi
th 3 sides — the north-west, north and south. At the same time, as it may sound surprising, it is almost no interference: to Baratinsky and its subordinate local residents were treated better, if their predecessors. The "new" Russia wanted nothing to offend the religious emotions Highlanders reputed generous and fair, helping villagers with food and medicines. By the prince of influential people found the approach by means-tested — means. So, gradually the Russian side took many approximate Imam, the elders and the whole tapes. Only a few remained faithful companions old one leader to the end. By the beginning of the siege Gunib almost no one, except himself, no longer resist.

After the capture of Shamil separate units Highlanders, of course, there were still here and there: Naib Baisangurov was captured and executed exclusively in 1860. According to the legend, which is relayed to the intensive modern Chechen websites, it was in conjunction with Shamil Gunib, but refused to give up and was able to break through the ring 30 Chechens. In general, it is only a legend. Over, and the resistance of the Circassians. Mohammad Amin, one of their main leaders, Shamil surrendered just behind, and then, within the movement Muhajir and under the influence of the Turkish propaganda, most of them emigrated to the Ottoman Empire.

Thus ended the Caucasian War. Surprisingly, even now, after the new 2-Chechen conflict, it is written about her so much. But in the political history of the Russian Federation, it has played a huge role. This confirms the legacy of writers and painters of the XIX century: Pushkin, Lermontov, Tolstoy, Aivazovsky, Gagarin and many others in his own work reflected the theme of Caucasus.

But the most severe trail was, of course, in the minds of people. Nowhere is perfect not remember an old controversy, as in the classical community, and Caucasian society so almost everything and left. And the central government in St. Petersburg or Moscow slabnet, the Caucasus flare of old quarrels — between ourselves and the peoples of the Great Range, and between them and Russia. So it was in plain clothes during the war. So it was in the 1990s. God grant that it was different then.

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