Gleb Lozino-Lozinski. Spiral

In this article you will learn about this unique man as: General Gleb Lozino-Lozinski, and those whom he is known for his space "child", "Buran" will be interesting to learn about another project, work on which this genius has not stopped all his life. At the time of this outstanding designer is no longer alive, but his air-reusable orbital plane "Arrow" is still relevant to this day.
This material presents the same film 3.
Many thanks to Yuri for the idea for this article

Under the five-year plan Theme Air Force orbital and hypersonic aircraft practical work on a cruise astronautics in our country in 1965 were committed Mikoyan OKB-155, where they led the 55-year-old Chief Designer Gleb Lozino-Lozinski. Subject to create a two-stage air-space plane (in modern terminology — Aerospace Systems — AKS) received index "Spiral". The Soviet Union is seriously preparing for a large-scale war in space and from space …

When you get acquainted with the materials for the project "Spiral", inadvertently catch yourself thinking that if you do not pay attention to the yellowed typewritten pages and a few antiquated terminology, the documents in front of you is not forty years ago, and the top-secret design documentation today, and designed to meet at least ten prospects for aerospace systems! Creative daring designers simply delights!
So what is this unique top-secret Soviet project space weapons Lozino-Lozinski?

In accordance with trebovaniyamizakazchika designers set about developing a reusable two-stage BOC, which consists of a hypersonic booster aircraft (GSR) and military space plane (OS) from the rocket booster. Start system provides for horizontal, with the use of booster carts, separation occurred at speeds of 380-400 km / h After dialing using the GSR engine needed speed and altitude separates the OS and further dispersal occurred through a two-stage booster rocket engines running on hydrogen-fluorine (F2 + H2) fuel.

Battle manned reusable single operating system (see Fig. Below) provided for use in the embodiment daily fotorazvedchika, radar reconnaissance, interceptor space targets or attack aircraft with a rocket class "space-to-Earth" and could be used for the inspection of space objects. Weight of the aircraft in all cases was 8800 kg, including 500 kg of payload into the interceptor and reconnaissance versions and 2,000 kg in attack aircraft. The range of reference orbit was 130 … 150 km altitude and 450 … 1350 to the inclination in the north and south at the start from the territory of the USSR, with the objective of the mission was to be carried out for 2-3 turns (the third round of planting). Maneuvering capabilities of the OS using onboard rocket propulsion system running on a high-energy fuel components — amidol fluorine F2 + (50% N2H4 + 50% BH3N2H4), had to provide the orbital plane change for scout and interceptor 170 for an attack aircraft with a missile on board (and reduced fuel supply) — 70 … 80. The interceptor was also able to perform a combined maneuver — a simultaneous change in the inclination of the orbit 120 with a lift to a height of 1000 km.
After performing an orbital flight and the inclusion of brake motors operating system must be part of the atmosphere with a large angle of attack, control during descent envisaged change roll at a constant angle of attack. On the trajectory of gliding descent in the atmosphere wondered ability to commit aerodynamic maneuvers in range 4000 … 6000 km with a lateral deviation of plus / minus 1100 … 1500 km.

In the landing area OS was displayed with a choice of the velocity vector along the axis of the runway, which was achieved by choosing the program changes in the heel. Aircraft maneuverability of reaching the landing at night and adverse weather conditions on one of the alternate airports within the Soviet Union from any of the 3 turns. Planting was accomplished with the use of a turbojet engine ("36-35" designed by OKB-36), on a dirt airfield II class with a maximum speed of 250 km / h
According to the approved GELozino-Lozinskii June 29, 1966 Preliminary design "Spiral", BOC, with an estimated mass of 115 tons was a stacked together the wide-winged reusable sets of horizontal take-off and landing — a 52-ton hypersonic booster aircraft (received index "50 — 50 "), and located on it manned OS (code" 50 ") with two-stage rocket booster — block excretion.

The basic version installed on the GSR four air-breathing jet engine (WFD), working on liquid hydrogen. GSR was used to disperse the BOC to hypersonic speeds, corresponding to M = 6 (about 1800 m / sec), then at the height of 28 … 30 km a division of stages, after which the GSR back to the airfield, and the OS using the expander unit clearance went into operational orbit .
To speed up the flight testing of aircraft carrier installation of four of the WFD (R-39-300) running on kerosene and having approximately the same air flow.
BOC allowed to withdraw into a polar orbit at an altitude of 130-150 km at a kick-off parallax to 750 km a payload of up to 10.3 m when using the GSR on the power plant of liquid hydrogen and load 5.0 t with the power plant PDS kerosene.
Because of the undeveloped as an oxidizer liquid fluorine to accelerate work on the BOC as a whole, as an intermediate step of the proposed alternative development-stage rocket booster on the oxygen-hydrogen fuel and the phased development of the fluorine fuel on the environment — first use of a high nitrogen fuel tetrakside and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine ( AT + UDMH), then fluoro-ammonia fuel (F2 + NH3), and only after the accumulation of experience to be replaced with ammonia to amidol.

Thus, the OKB-155 Mikoyan began in the summer of 1966 for the development of air-space plane, which is due to the peculiarities inherent design solutions and selected the scheme allowed the aircraft start to realize a fundamentally new properties for launch vehicles military loads into space:
— placing into orbit a payload constituting 9% by weight or more of a take-off weight of the system;
— reducing the cost of the orbiting one kilogram payload 3-3.5 times as compared to missile systems on the same propellants;
— the spacecraft in a wide range of areas and the possibility of rapid retargeting start with the change of the parallax required by the aircraft's range;
— independent relocation booster aircraft;
— minimizing the necessary number of airfields;
— rapid withdrawal of military space plane at any point of the globe;
— effective orbital maneuvering the aircraft not only in space, but also during descent and landing;
— Airplane landing at night and in adverse weather conditions on a specified or selected crew airfield with any of the three turns.
At the same time, the designers at the stage of preliminary design seen ways to further improve the system. The first significant efficiency BOC planned to achieve the development of a reusable booster with a supersonic combustion ramjet, which allowed in the future to create a fully reusable package.

The designers hoped that these features will provide its BOC economic feasibility, operational decision military objectives and the efficient use of near-Earth space for military purposes.
For the full-scale design processing and core systems, which are then to be applied to combat aircraft in the preliminary design has been worked out in detail the experimental single manned orbital plane of reusable application that aims to speed up the work, without waiting for the development of the GSR was displayed on the orbit by the rocket "Soyuz" (product development 11A511U Korolev OKB-1), and an analogue of the orbital plane, launched from the aircraft carrier Tu-95, similar to the X-20 rocket.

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