April 8, 1942 in the skies over Murmansk was a hot air combat. Lieutenant Alex Khlobystov rushed to the twin-engined Me-110 and boldly "poked" his own wings "Kittihouka." A sharp tug on the right, a horrible crackling … Alex mechanical it straightened out and carefully looked at the wing — right plane was properly stripped away. "Messer" had disappeared. Experience a sense of joy did not give the German fighters came to the rescue — in the ensuing "carousel" Alex contrived and warped right wing "cut" tail another "Messerschmitt". At this time had more difficult — half volley shot off a plane. Only thanks to the exceptional courage and skill of the pilot, "Kittihouk" has managed to return to the airfield Murmashi. Well, besides as strong was an infection …
Suicide attacks were practiced in all the belligerent countries. Each had its own army and Gastello MATROSOVA, throw forward on the loopholes and machine guns were falling flaming meteor on the opponent's head. Someone is lucky — as, for example, Alex Khlobystov, who in his short life has made three successful air ram (but the case died in the face of the air with his wingman). Someone once in a hopeless position, desperately rushed at the enemy, gritting his teeth against the hatred — knowing that the last time he sees the sky and the earth. But despite all the vicissitudes, people loved life and did not want to breathe! Life has made the choice for them.
But only in the Land of the Rising Sun suicide attacks of recent decisions of the characters in an extreme situation, reincarnated in the nation-wide entertainment with special rituals and theater performances. Kamikaze advance "sentenced" themselves to death, life has lost all meaning for fanatics, most importantly — perfect to die in combat. Plenty admiring themselves, they, swinging blades, sat in the cockpit (as an option — a cab-controlled torpedoes "Kaiten") and raced towards the enemy.
There is a perception that suicide bombers — untrained youths to flabby fighter "Zero"-of-life. It's not quite so — for suicide attacks, residents of the country of the rising sun used everything that could fly: fighters "Zero", "Oscar", "Abdul", "Nick"; bombers "Val", "Kate", "Judy", scouts "Gekko" and "Babs", floatplane "Jake", "Gender", "Elf" … New and old, sea-and land-based combat and training, with its hanging bombs and without them. For kamikaze made even specific remedy — a jet flying bomb "Oka", a suspended beneath the fuselage carrier — bombers G4M «Betty." Fierce gun. Although it is embarrassing — a bunch of 2-planes were tasty target for American fighter planes. Well, in a desperate effort to halt the enemy fleet all the facilities were quite good (or rather — bad).
As indicated by statistics, two-thirds of kamikaze aircraft were shot down by anti-aircraft guns and automatic patrols or disappeared without any trace of the vast ocean stateliness. And of those who do the same "lucky" to break up on the deck of enemy ships, damage was not so much not enough, as the Japanese high command had pinned hopes. Especially when you consider the scale of suicide attacks — 3913 Japanese pilots were "divine wind" (without front pilots Navy, without the help of others who decided to break up on board the ship).
Kamikaze managed to sink a few 10 s of ships and vessels, the total displacement of 150 tons.
For comparison — the submarine commanded by Otto Kretschmer sank 40 ships — 208 thousand gross tons (considering the fact that trucks weighs about the same as its cargo — Kretschmer has started to bottom: 208 x 2? 400 tons) + 4 warships, one transport was captured and about 10 injured. German ace himself had survived the war and crashed the car in 1998.
Kamikaze ships sunk in the middle of no 1st big artillery or aircraft carrier ship. All of the victims — destroyers, boats, auxiliary vessels and four escort carriers. Clearly the number of killed is unclear to this day — in the public domain and registers you can find information on what even the U.S. Navy ship, the other thing is that there is no precise ordering warped, or sunken ships not be restored.
For example, the escort destroyer "Oberrender» (USS Oberrender, operational code DE-344) — damaged plane kamikaze May 9, 1945 (which date!), But made it to shore. Not restored, was sunk as a target in November 1945
Another example — the destroyer "Hutchins» (USS Hutchins, operational code DD-476). Damaged boat kamikaze at Okinawa. The losses in personnel are not available, the destroyer was able to return to Portland July 15, 1945 was not restored, was sold for scrap in 1948.
What was the premise of non-recovery "Hutchins" and "Oberrendera": very languid injury or global reduction of the fleet after the war?
If the culprit severe damage, then why, for example, has been restored destroyed from stem to stern destroyer "Laffey» (USS Laffey (DD-724), which crashed in a row in 6 kamikaze?
To prevent manipulation in the upcoming facts, I propose the following schemes — that ship is destroyed, which is after the fateful trip never was used as a ship (even if it did not sink immediately and was able to return to base). In accordance with this logic, I was able to reliably establish 64 variants of death U.S. warships and vessels from the actions of kamikaze pilots (names of ships, their operational code, photos, a short history of death, date and location coordinates of flooding). The archives probably hiding a dozen unrecorded cases — ultimately, their number can pass for seven 10-s … although it has not been enough value. Read the boats and barges at least as stupid as their price is lower than that of the aircraft.
On account of human-torpedoes "Kaiten" three trophies — Tanker "Missineva" boat landing and escort destroyer "Underhill." Using the "Kaiten" people of the country of the rising sun will eventually hurt themselves for themselves — the submarine with attached housing "Kaiten" was particularly vulnerable at the time of preparation for the launch of man-torpedoes. As a result — the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun have lost eight submarines, another 15 people were killed in the tests "wonder weapons".
7 more U.S. warships killed speedboats operated by suicide bombers — one destroyer (the one "Hutchins"), boat-hunter and 5 landing barges. And this despite the fact that the attacks on Okinawa prepared 400 boats bombers loaded with explosives!
In the end, the most magical part of the "Kamikaze" — frogmen bombers. From fixed to the back of the 9-kg ballast and 2 bottles of compressed air, these geezer had to fit on the bottom of a shallow water standing on the South American ships and undermine their 15-pound bomb attached to a longish beech pole. The official result of all efforts — warped landing craft LCI-404.
Total eventually kamikaze attacks (aircraft, man-torpedoes, speedboats) destroyed 74 American ships. Accounted for Navy ships, Coast Guard and the U.S. Army. This story looks briefly followed by:
— 4 escort carriers — "Saint-Lo", "Ommaney Bay," "Sengamon" and "Bismarck Sea". Especially hard perished "Bismarck Sea", whose crew had lost 300 men killed. On the "Saint-Law" and "Ommaney Bay" was killed less — 113 and 95 people respectively.
But especially the crazy thing happened with the escort carrier "Sengamon" in May 1945, he hit a single suicide. On the flight deck there was a big source of fire, killing three 10-ka sailors. Aircraft carrier rushed to the aid of one of the destroyer escort — but I wish he had not. The aircraft carrier turned awkward — and the edge of the flight deck destroyer blew the whole superstructure. All anything, but this time with "Sengamona" sailors in a panic began to push into the sea flaming aircraft — some of them fell right onto the deck ill-fated destroyer. Something exploded on the destroyer — in the end the two ships were merciless damage. "Sengamon" managed to reach the shore, but was excluded from the list immediately after the war — in October 1945
— 26 destroyers of various types. So a huge number of dead destroyers explained by the fact that they often do puzzles radar surveillance in the most insecure areas, and on their first brings down the wrath of Japanese pilots.
In fact, this completes the list of worthy wins. All other trophies look like a mockery of the suicide bombers. 6 special transports U.S. Navy (converted from older destroyers 20s), 20 amphibious ships, three small ships fire support, a torpedo boat, two transport of ammunition, three boats, hunter, two tankers, a hospital ship and floating dock!
By the way, not too far away, they are all fair prey to suicide — for example, a tank landing ship LST-808 was first damaged by Japanese aircraft, lost his speed, and then was finished off by suicide bombers rammed.
Another majestic victory kamikaze — Russian trawler boat-CT-152, also known as the last fishing barge "Neptune" 62 tons displacement. Was sunk by a Japanese destroyer rammed the twin-engine near the Kuril Islands August 18, 1945
26 killed destroyers — a lot of it or not enough? On the one hand, this is more than the number of destroyers in the Northern Fleet in the Russian majestically throughout the war. On the other hand, in April 1945 near the island of Okinawa, the squadron operated from 1200-1300 (according to various sources) … Allied ships could kamikaze dive with closed eyes — it was simply impossible to miss.
The destructive power of a kamikaze aircraft was apparently not enough, to sink a large warship. Because most of the victims of the Japanese suicide attacks were "only" damaged. Number of warped ships, according to various estimates within the range 200 — 300 units, the Americans themselves admit 288 ships and vessels, warped kamikaze attacks.
In assessing the extent of loss greatly helps Gauss's law — most of the victims were injured, "moderate" — fractured deck plating, incapacitated a number of devices, two or three 10-ka injured crew members.
The lowest part of the ship, immediately after completely impartial reasons, it is very hard to bear aerial suicide attacks — for example, in the Battle of the Philippines was damaged 22 aircraft carrier. On the "Franklin" in the fire burned 33 aircraft and 56 sailors. More severe injuries were "Belleau Wood" — on this aircraft carrier lost about hundreds of people! But particularly dreadful fate awaited the heavy aircraft carrier "Bunker Hill" during the Battle of Okinawa in the end it a double suicide attack that lost all the air wing (80 aircraft) and nearly 400 crew!
TARANOV been suicidal and British aircraft carriers "Indomitable", "Viktories" and "Formideybl." This lucky more suicide bombers as nuts cracked their thick flight bronepalubu without hurting inside of the ship. Get and Australians — their flagship cruiser "Australia" was 6 times attacked by madmen like annoying though it may sound, without much of success.
In the end, the rare lucky ones — the ships, whose damage for various reasons, was limited to cosmetic imperfections and peeled paint. For example — the battleship "Missouri" for which ram bomber was just a funny incident of human casualties and no damage.
Though even with high level of battleships were not immune to the unfortunate circumstances: to "New Mexico" kamikaze killed an add in the chimney, as a result, anti-aircraft ammunition standing near the machine was in the engine room, boiler broke down, killing 55 people. On the battleship "Maryland" kamikaze destroyed the forecastle, mangled 89-mm bronepalubu, explosion povyshibalo all hatches and doors in this part of the ship in fire 31 people died.
And yet, despite the enormous damage caused by the South American fleet effectiveness of the strategy was a suicide, to put it mildly, a controversial. From a purely military point of view: the settlement of the third rank 30 ships (destroyers and eskortnikov) and the application of more or less severe damage to 150 ships (half of the total number of warped) to replace the loss of about 3913 pilots and aircraft 2500-3000 (excluding downed G4M — the carrier rocket flying bombs "Oka", high-speed boats, human torpedoes "Kite" and fatalities due to their submarines) looks faded and uninteresting success against German submarines or 30 bombers Captain McCluskey, who burned three minute languishing under the Japanese aircraft carrier Midway.
In the strategic scale successes kamikaze generally taper off: the loss of four escort carriers had no effect on the combat effectiveness of the U.S. Navy — the Yankees were 130 such ships.
26 destroyers, bombers destroyed? For comparison: during the war, the U.S. Navy lost 81 destroyer, but niskolechko not upset about it — they have been in the presence of 5 hundred.
Neuzh a South American iron armada never seen a brave Japanese boys? Saw. The emergence of suicide pilots would find a company to make the configuration active service fleet: there radar patrols, changed Fleet Air Arm aircraft carriers (3/4 — fighters), work began on the creation of anti-missile ship-based Lark.
Reflection and prevention of suicide attacks (echelon air patrols, attacks on enemy airfields) otymali a lot of time and effort, kamikaze act distracted sailors from the main tasks of fire support and depressing impact on the psyche of the crew — all the same unpleasant to have an enemy who, in principle, is not afraid of death .
Epilogue. For me, still looks brighter and more tragic feat noncommissioned officer Sakyo Komatsu, perfect them June 19, 1944. His "Zero" took off from the deck of "Tycho" just at the moment when the U.S. Navy submarine "Elbakor" fanned six torpedoes launched by the Japanese aircraft carrier languid. Litsezrev deadly trail of foam in the direction of your own ship, Sakyo Komatsu in an instant made the right decision — "Zero" ran down and disappeared in a cloud of spray, relegating the failure of an aircraft carrier.
Sakyo Komatsu was not wearing a bandage on his head, "hatimaki", he did not drink before departure ritual cup of sake, and it is not accompanied in flight schoolgirl with a cherry blossom. But in an emergency situation, this man without the smallest hesitation sacrificed his life for the sake of their own country. Is not that a real feat?