In the popular consciousness was confirmed the view that the Russian state, the Old Rus' only thirteen and a half centuries. And the first ruler in the Russian lands, who brought their residents state, considered to be the Varangian Rurik. The fact that it does not correspond to the truth, and Russia was for a long time before the famous prince, stubbornly hushed up.
Ignored even worldview Misha Lomonosov, the creator is not much known to most of our contemporaries work "Ancient Russian history from the beginning of the Russian people to death majestic Prince Yaroslav the First or before 1054." The stately Russian scientist wrote in her "about ancient times slavenskogo people." Here is a quote from the 6th volume of his complete works (Moscow, Leningrad, 1952).
"At the beginning of the sixth century to the very name of Christ slavenskoe glorified, and the power of the people of not only in Thrace, Macedonia, Istria and Dalmatia was creepy, and the destruction of the Roman Empire contributed a great deal. Wendy and Antes, connecting with yourself is akin to the Slavs, the set of their strength. Edinoplemenstvo of these people of not only today's similarity in language indicates, and for a thousand two hundred years Iornand assured, leaving the news that "from the beginning of the Vistula River to the north at an exorbitant Vendian crowded place inhabited by people, whose names though for different generations and places the essence abolished, but overall the Slavs and Antes are called. " Plus not more, that extend from the Vistula to the Danube to the Black Sea.
Before that Iornanda Ptolemy in the 2nd century after Christ said wends around all Wend on them are named Gulf, in other words about the Finnish and Kurlandskogo. Moreover, the creator of this left in the memory, which won Sarmacja utter Vendian nations. And Pliny also shows that in his time lived near the Vistula Wendy and Sarmatians … Thus, people slavenopolsky rightly calls itself the Sarmatian, and I'm not conclude Kromer according Obinna that the Slavs and Wendy general essence of the ancient Sarmatians.
Name slavenskoe later headed for the outer ear and the writers just before the kingdom of Justinian stateliness, but as he people and extend the language in antiquity. The peoples of the names do not start, but the names of the people are. More from themselves and from their neighbors one called. Others are understood under the title of the other, to the people or even unusual and unknown. Most new proimenovaniem old darkened or old, home pereshed limits beyond honored at the new alien. Why the name slavenskoe in probability davneshnee themselves have a lot of people eat, if in Greece or Rome have gained and it became the custom. But before that, we prove the antiquity and later look for it in the name.
In 1-x, the antiquity of the satisfied and almost explicit assurance we have in the majesty and power of slavenskogo tribe, which is more than one and a half thousand years is almost the same extent, and to conceive unreal, that signified the first century after Christ suddenly bred only to the majestic crowd, that the natural course of human life and the return of the majestic examples of people sick. Sema reasoning consistent evidence of many stately old writers, of which the first offer of the old habitation of slavyanvendov in Asia, edinoplemennyh with European, their occurred. "
Those interested in history can be read without the aid of other historical work of Lomonosov, publicly available on the Web (http://www.rus-sky.com/history/library/lomonosv.htm # _Toc488564228). From the data collected by several generations of Russian scientists information, you can come to the conclusion that the age of the Russian state is not the lowest, than in the old Rome and ancient Greece.
One of our contemporaries, did research on the subject was Dr. Valery Nikititch Demin, who died suddenly in 2006. He did not once appeared in our newspaper on the old stories. Academic historians have not complained about his work, treating them as "pseudo-scientific" in the genre of "folk-History." Without entering into controversy with them, we note only that the award Demin that they had gathered extensive factual material, including in the process of archaeological research, meticulously analyzed ancient Russian chronicles, the validity of some of them had arisen doubts. The point of view of Valery Demin on the dilemma of determining the age of the Russian state, we now present.
Software painting by Ilya Glazunov "Eternal Russia" (pictured), and to see that once flocked to the crowd of Muscovites and visitors who initially was called "One Hundred and ever." Period is counted from the intended final with old Aryan own Motherland, which was the beginning of the collapse of the primary ethno-linguistic community and the emergence of independent nations and languages (previously language was common). The emblem of the former Motherland — polar world mountain, placed in the upper left corner — and revealed visuals on the composition of Glazunov.
But really, 100 centuries? Or 10 years tyschami not exhausted long way and complicated history-Russian Slavic tribes and other peoples of the earth? After all, even Mikhail Lomonosov called a completely different date, far beyond the limits of the most daring fantasies. Four hundred thousand years (more precisely, 399.000) — a total of acquired Russian genius. And it was based on calculations of the Babylonian astrologers and testimony Egyptians, recorded by ancient historians.
That's when there was one of the hardest on the consequences of planetary catastrophes, in the opinion of Governors, has shifted the Earth's axis, the poles have changed residence and eventually as described by Plato in the dialogue "Politician", The Sun, earlier rises in the west (!), Was on the rise east. According to Herodotus, this happened twice.
The renovated modern scholars Chronicle, presumably belonging to a monk of the Kiev-Pechersk monastery monk Nestor, the first real date listed 852 years BC. e. (Either in accordance with Old chronology — Summer 6360 "from the Creation of the World"). In that year, appeared in the walls of Constantinople, the most powerful Russian fleet, which was recorded in the Byzantine chronicles, and from there got into Russian history.
Follow truly symbolic date — 862 — linked to the vocation to the reign of Rurik and his brothers. Specifically, since that time, and was taken a long time to count in Russian history: in 1862, it was noted, even the so-called 1000 years of, on the occasion of which majestically in Novgorod established an impressive monument, designed by architect Misha Mikeshina, which became almost an emblem of Russian statehood and monarchism .
But there is in Russian chronicles another date, not recognized by mainstream science. We are talking about the Old treatise, known under the title "The Legend of Slovenia and the town of Rousse and Slovenské" included in many of the Russian edition chronographs, starting from the XVII century, it is clear around 100 lists of literary monument. Here is told about the leaders of the Russian (and the entire Slavic) people, who after long wandering around the world appeared on the banks of the Volkhov and Lake Il'men middle of the third millennium before modern times (!), Founding the town of Slovenian and an old Russ, from which began t
he campaigns' on Egyptian and other barbarous countries "(as stated in the original source), which have imposed"stately fear. "
In the Legend is named and a clear date of foundation Slovenska Lofty — 2409 to modern times (or 3099 year Creation of the world). After three thousand years, after two of desolation, on the site of the first capital of the word-Russian country was built gradopreemnik — Novgorod, which went from its predecessor as well Console — Lofty.
Historians do not behold the snobs in the famous tales of Rousse and Slovenia no optimal grain, considering them an invention of the first water, and comparable nedavneshnego time. Nikolai Karamzin, for example, in a footnote to the 1st volume of "History of the State Russian" refers to such stories, "tales, introduced in the annals of the ignorant." No doubt: of course, obscure historians XVII century and added something of himself, especially on the part of sympathies and preferences. Well, who are not doing? Karamzin, or what? To inflame the passions and personal bias "History of the Russian countries' 100 points will handicap though what chronograph and chronicler.
Yet from time to time they say: write legends of Slovenia and Ruse recent origin, that if they were recorded somewhere before the Mongol invasion, then an entirely different matter. What do objection here? In 1-x, no one knows, or were not recorded at the dawn of the ancient legends of ancient literature: thousand and thousands of invaluable monuments were lost in the fire of fires after the invasion of nomads, their own internal strife and struggle with idolatry. In-2, if read by bolshennomu account of the later recordings, the "Lay" really come down to us only in Catherine's list of XVIII century but in the first editions in 1800, is a unique manuscript (also, incidentally, a fairly recent origin) were destroyed by the fire of the capital in 1812, and her "live" not many who beheld.
And the immortal "Kalevala"? Karelian-Finnish runes, absorbed the information about the archaic times, were recorded and became the property of the readers of old and new worlds only half a century back. Still later, in the North of the main body has been recorded Russian epics. Some people say: this is — folklore. What's the difference? Clan and tribal historical traditions passed down from generation to generation by the same mnemonic laws as folklore.
That's why "argument" about the late entry "Tales of Slovenia and Ruse" does not hold water. In addition, almost two hundred years before the facts are in it with the words of oral informants were recorded after the "Great Caesar" Sigismund Herberstein in his famous "Notes on Muscovy." And for half a millennium earlier reported about their Byzantine and Arab creators.
Documentary evidence that the "Legend of Slovenia and Ruse" initially had long circulated orally, contained in a letter to the St. Petersburg Academy of the 1st of Russian historiography of early Peter Krekshino, came from Novgorod nobility. Drawing the attention of scholars to the need to integrate and use in historical research works chronicle "Tales of Slovenia and Ruse", he pointed out that the Novgorod "from time immemorial each other about the hold they say," in other words orally historical tradition from generation to generation. So with the famous history of Russia the situation was not as it seemed Karamzin and the next historians.
In contrast, the Lomonosov saw in the old legends of the Russian people and the echoes of the historical reality of the subsequent practically wrote: Even if the "names of the Word and the Roos and the other brothers were fictional, but there is the case of the Northern Slavs in it [the Novgorod Chronicle] described, for the truth is not nasty."
In oral traditions completely different life, if in writing. As Academician BD Greeks: "… in the legends of the grain may be the real truth." Because a prerequisite analytical and semantic study of historical stories is to separate "the wheat from the chaff." Legends about the origin of at least some of the people were always kept as a great spiritual value and carefully passed from mouth to mouth through the centuries and in 1000 lety.
At some point arose a zealot, who recorded the "ancient legends" or inclusion in a revised form in chronicle. So Makar, Homer (fictionalized chronicle of the Trojan War) were recorded in ancient times, the Russian and Polish traditions — first millennium of our era II, the Rig Veda and Avesta — in the XVIII century, the Russian epics and Karelian-Finnish runes — in the XIX century and t . etc.
Russian chronicles always relied on the verbal, often folk tradition, in what could not be saved echoes of times past. This and the original Russian Chronicle — The Tale of Bygone Years, dedicated to the events that occurred before the birth of Nestor the Chronicler, priemuschestvenno based on oral tradition. At the very Nestor of words and names Roos do not meet. There were some presupposition.
Most of the extant ancient records (and, in any case, all those that have been built to the rank of officialdom) are Kiev orientation, in other words were written, edited and corrected in favor of the ruling Princes of Kiev — Rurik and in the coming — for the sake of their successors — the capital stately princes and kings.
Novgorod annals as having a very different political orientation and revealing the true historical roots of both the Russian people and ruled in Russia for a long time before Rurik princes often silenced or simply destroyed. The fact that there was before, can be seen in the annals of the first Bishop of Novgorod Joachim, which reached only in the retelling included in the "History of the Russian" VN Tatishcheva.
The original Novgorod chronicles fundamentally contrary to the interests and attitudes of the Kievan princes, which belonged to the ideologues and the monks of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, including Nestor. Recognize that the ancient Kievan princes of Novgorod, the Russian princely dynasty was for a long time before Rurik, including during Nestor impermissible political sedition. It undermines the right of the Kievan princes on primal power, and therefore inhuman eradicated. Hence it is not clear why in the "Tale of Bygone Years" is not a word about Slovenia and Ruse, who laid the foundation of the Russian state is not on the Kiev bank of the Dnieper, and on the banks of the Volkhov.
Similarly, Nestor and ignores the last prince of the dynasty doryurikovoy — Gostomysla, face completely historical and referred to other original sources, not to mention the oral folk tradition. Right behind Nestor of this "bad disease" contracted, and the following historians who have learned to rapidly build up in the annals only that fit their personal views.
Why is it happening, do not have to wonder. Already in the twentieth century on the eyes, so to speak, the specific participants of the events several times redrawn and rewritten history such epochal action as the October Revolution in Russia. From books, reference books and textbooks and dozens of hundred square meters crossed out the names of those that revolution was preparing and producing. Many of the major figures in October were generally destroyed on a physical level as well-known and quite indisputable facts were distorted in favor of the new time-servers beyond recognition. But after a while advancing a further revaluation of all values, and have drastically distorted view nedavneshnih of favorites. This, in our time! What did then read the works of days long since past?
In general, the indirect reference to the last measure of Slovenia in the annals Nestorova still preserved despite the tough political setup and cle
anup later Kiev censors. Let's say there is a "Tale of Bygone Years" one for the first look of weird phrase: Lofty inhabitants of Novgorod, they say, "first bo besha Slovenia." Translated and interpreted this passage in the sense that it had to Novgorod Slavs. Absurd, of course, you can imagine: it is so — were "Slavs"? Now, who are they?
An explanation of everything, but is painfully simple: Novgorod was built on the site of an old city Slovenska, named after prince of words — the founder of the capital city. That's why Novgorod called "new town", which was erected on the site of his "old" and the nickname of former Novgorod — "Slovenia", in other words, "Slovenska residents." Lomonosov explained it this way: "Before the election and the arrival Rurikova lived within the boundaries of Russian slavenskie nations. In 1-x, Novgorod Slavs were called to cancel, and the city has long had a reputation for Slovene. "
Certainly, the fact that the "Slavs" were residents and citizens of the old Slovenian, Slovenia-based Duke, was well known and Nestor and his contemporaries. But read about the creator of "Tale of Bygone Years" did not — or is not afraid to dare. So I had to adjust the story to the interests of the customer. So it was at all times right up to the present day. After all, "The Tale of Bygone Years" — not a dispassionate narrative work, and sharply polemical and accusatory, which manifests itself in particular where an Orthodox monk condemns idolatry or argues with people of other religions — Muslims, Jews, Catholics. But not only!
All Original chronicle has clearly expressed biased orientation. Its creator had to first prove the birthright of the Kievan princes and the legitimacy of the Rurik dynasty. Take a look at this connection again at a certain entry (intonation) to the "Tale of Bygone Years", "Behold the story vremyannyh years, from there went to the Russian land, who is in Kiev to start the first knyazhiti, and where there was the Russian land."
The majority of modern readers is seen in the words of Nestorova set of three interrogative, almost elegiac, poetic sentences with repeats. In reality, there are not any issues, and Dixit (almost political slogans, understandable contemporaries Nestor). Here there is a purely rhetorical devices due polemical needs. Nestor by all means necessary to prove that the Kievan princes Rurik "first" in Russia who would however. The "first" in the sense of "before" — here it is important, keyword Nestorova intonation, and of the entire record as a whole.
As the seemingly neutral question: "Who in Kiev knyazhiti start the first" — has an important (albeit hidden) ideological meaning and suggests ending: "Who in Kiev began to reign earlier than any there Novgorod, in other words, the former Slovenské the Great. " Therefore is repeated again almost word for word the initial statement, which read and hunt: for the moment I will explain to you, "where there was the Russian land" — "Hence, in Kiev it was there, and nowhere more!"
By the way, Kiev commemorated solely in the Laurentian list Nestorova "Tale." In chronicles intonation inscribed without any mention of Kiev.
The amazing metamorphosis taking place in the annals and Novgorod. How willingly and unbending treated Nestorova following text editors and copyists, can be seen on a single, but fundamentally principled phrase. It concerns rassredotachivaniya Russian lands after calling princes. All of the modern translations of the "Tale of Bygone Years", in anthologies, compilations of scientific books and says that after the arrival to Russia, Rurik began to reign in Novgorod, Sineus — on Byelozero and Truvor — in Izborsk.
In reality, in the older and distinguished annals of Rurik said about something else entirely. In Hypatian and Radzivilovsky chronicles say that by coming to the land of Novgorod, fellow Vikings first "cut down" town of Ladoga — there is something "sat down" and became the ruler of Rurik. As can be seen, the first capital of Ladoga is the latest ruling Rurik dynasty. About the fact that Novgorod stately Rurik was elected as the capital city, in this piece chronicles says nothing. In the Laurentian list at this place at all shines a space.
It is this lacuna is filled Karamzin and Novgorod. Its the same creator of the "History of the Russian Countries" borrowed from an obscure and inaccessible now in advance of late Trinity Chronicle, which was burned along with other invaluable artifacts of Russian culture during the famous Metropolitan Fire of 1812.
Karamzin had time to make a list of the lost vast discharge. But, interestingly, in the text of the Trinity Chronicle as well as in the Laurentian list, the site of the first mention of the capital Rurik was listed space. But on the field late in the reader by the hand of some sort was made postscript — "Novgorod" (in those days of old books to decorate their field observations were registered in the order of things). It is this that another postscript XVIII century Karamzin void sumnyashesya and elected as a template for your own version of the episode with the "vocation of Princes", which became the canon for most of these interpretations.
Mention Novgorod Karamzin in the abstract, without having any work to Nestor the Chronicler, was immediately canonized, absolutized and declared the truth in the last instance. So, as if from a well-meaning is plain forgery and falsification of history. Karamzin hitherto passes for Nestor and inexperienced reader and it never occurs to them that all this snow-white thread sewn.
Is striking and also the intelligibility of weird to choose idols: Extracts from Karamzin lost Trinity Chronicle deemed more reliable than the rest of Nestor the Chronicler, but the same sketchy retelling Tatischev Ioakimovskaya lost record, which does not coincide with the official and semi-official point of view, is not clear and almost fake.
From the above it is clear also that at first glance a strange event, why the "Legend of Slovenia and Ruse" massive flow of handwriting came into use in Russian life, starting only from the XVII century. Why did it happen — think of, in general, too easy. In 1613, at the Zemsky Sobor in Moscow the king was elected Mikhail Romanov — a representative of the modern dynasty that ruled Russia until 1917. Rhode Rurik went out, and could no longer be afraid of persecution and repression of seditious propaganda works refuting the official (in the past) point of view.
Not so long ago for a similar free-thinking you could get on the block or on the rack and in the best case, to lose the language (not to hang out) and eyes (not to read). Well dealt with dissent and free-thinking at the time of the Novgorod republic, with chilling details outlined in the documentary accounts of the campaign Sudar All Russia Ivan III in Novgorod stately summer 1471.
After Shelonskoy battle on the ashes of an old Russa (not magic or — in the town, which is based forefather Roos) himself majestically Prince Metropolitan was inflicted exponential execution of the followers and supporters of the separatist Novgorod Governor's Wife Martha, advocated the annexation of Novgorod to the Commonwealth. To begin with, the ordinary prisoners cut their noses, lips and ears, and as such allowed to go home for a nice demonstration that the future is waiting for all the troublemakers who do not agree with the position of the supreme authority of the capital. Captured as governor brought to the old Russian space and before the cut off their heads, each of the previously cut tongue and left to be devoured by hungry dogs (in order to continue to teach it to others talk, what not to).
;The Legend of Slovenia and Ruse" should be one of the most famous works of Russian literature — as long as it is only known that a narrow circle of clear skeptical professionals and understand a wide range of readers.