Was all the Phaeton? Soon, in an unprecedented global catastrophe will start to work with the special envoy of the Earth.
Planet Phaeton — one of the most puzzling mysteries of the universe. It is called the ancestor of asteroids ikomet. Phaethon's orbit, according to the most popular hypothesis, is located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
Then, for unclear reasons planet supposedly broke up or exploded and formed the asteroid belt. And now her pieces are traveling between the orbits of two large celestial bodies. But was there really a planet? And, if so, what happened to her? Closer to the secrets of this ancient otgadku scientists were able only today when space telescopes were able to look into the most remote corners of the universe.
In general, the Phaeton was originally calculated at the tip of the pen. The author of the discovery was a German physicist and mathematician Johann Daniel Titius (1729-1796). In 1766 he found a numerical pattern in the distances of the planets from the Sun. By Titius left, that if you write a series of numbers 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, and add to each of these numbers (starting from the second component geometric progression with ratio 2) and 4, we get a new series of four numbers , 7, 10, 16, 28, 52, 100, which is close enough to express the successive distances of the planets from the Sun.
"Pay attention to the distance between neighboring planets, and you will find that almost all of them are increasing proportional to the radius of the orbits themselves — wrote Titius in the works. — Take the distance from the Sun to Saturn for 100 units, while Mercury will be removed from the Sun on 4 such units; Venus — 4 +3 = 7 the same units, the Earth — 4 +6 = 10, Mars — 4 +12 = 16. But look, between Mars and Jupiter is the deviation from this so exact progression. After Mars has to go a distance of 4 +24 = 28 units, which now we do not see any large planet or a satellite … "
Johann Daniel TitsiusTitsius firmly believed that something should be, but suggested that "this distance, no doubt, belongs to yet undiscovered satellites of Mars … After that, unknown to us the distance is obtained orbit Jupiter at a distance of 4 +48 = 52 units, and then the distance of the Saturn 4 96 = 100 such units. What is amazing value! "
However, this sequence was one "unallocated" space — there was no planet, which was located between Mars and Jupiter, at a distance of about 2.8 a. AU from the Sun.
Police detachment heavenly
Titius formula, meanwhile, is working, proving the correctness of the calculations. Thus, already in 1781, Uranus was discovered, among other things, in the distance, almost exactly predicted by the rule of Titius. After that began the search for the missing planet. For this group was formed of two dozen astronomers, who gained notoriety in the press as the "heavenly Police Squad." In 1801 — a new discovery. Director of the observatory in Palermo (Sicily) Giuseppe Piazza discovered the desired orbit dwarf planet that was named in honor of the goddess Ceres — patron saint of Sicily. And over the next decade, was found three objects: in 1802 — Pallas, in 1804 m — Juno in 1807 — Vesta.
All these planets were moving at about the same distance from the Sun as the Ceres — 2.8 astronomical units (about 420 million kilometers). It is this fact allowed the German astronomer and physician Heinrich Olbers in 1804 to advance the hypothesis that the small planets (also called asteroids, "star-like") occurred as a result of the explosion of the planet, the orbital radius of which was at a distance of 2.8 astronomical units. Titius was right!
Later discovered a asteroid belt, which is located just at the point where she was to be the hypothetical planet. According to one hypothesis, it collapsed under the influence of the powerful gravity of Jupiter. That is, the planet has been "broken" by the gravitational fields of Mars and Jupiter.
Johann, you are wrong!
Giuseppe Pyatstsi.No there were also skeptics. Their view was that: calculations made in order to determine how to move the asteroids in the past have shown that they have never been part of one planet. The argument is a small total mass of the asteroid and the practical impossibility of forming a large object such as a planet in our solar system experiencing strong gravitational perturbations from Jupiter. Thus, skeptics have concluded: the main asteroid belt is not the destruction of the planet, and the planet that has not been able to form due to the gravitational influence of Jupiter and, to a lesser extent, other planetgigantov.
Criticized itself Titius. It still has not received the theoretical justification, because, as some cosmogonists does not contain any physical meaning.
There were enthusiasts who even tried to reconstruct the distant history. Thus, Moscow astronomer Alexander Chibisov using methods of celestial mechanics, theoretically tried to "collect" asteroids together and determine the approximate orbit of its parent planet. But the conclusion is the astronomer was clear: on the basis of current data on the asteroid, it is impossible to identify any area where the exploded planet or orbit at which it was moving before the explosion. But Azerbaijani scientist GF Sultanov calculated as should be distributed in space debris at break of the planet, then the data compared with the existing distribution of asteroids. Again, the result is not in favor of the Phaeton. Differences in the distribution are so great, what about the explosion of a celestial body is no reason, concluded the researcher.
But we can also assume that the action of planetary perturbations in a time comparable with the age of the solar system, asteroids are confused enough to restore the initial conditions are simply impossible?
Loaded word Themis
And in October 2009, there was little evidence of skeptics, but the crack. Astronomers at the University of Central Florida announced that they have found water on the asteroid 24 Themis (24 Themis). Like, her presence on the surface of a block of 200 km diameter can be seen in the spectral patterns obtained with an infrared telescope NASA, set in Hawaii.
Thus, scientists have confirmed the discovery last year of his colleagues at Johns Hopkins University, who worked on the program search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). It turns out that the water on the asteroid really is, just talk about it, two independent teams of researchers. Furthermore, both teams still say that on the surface of Themis traces of organic molecules.
A few years earlier with the space telescope "Hubble" was found in the water where the larger cosmic body — on the giant asteroid Ceres with a diameter of 950 kilometers. And on the asteroid Vesta (600 km) … They, incidentally, is also located between Jupiter and Mars. Ceres, it is estimated that a quarter of all of the water. And other asteroids discovered tails. Like comets. One explanation for this phenomenon — they are also likely to have water. And tails — traces its evaporation.
On the question of the origin of ice on asteroids intelligible answers yet. Hence, there still Phaeton? And the water is in the ocean before the Phaeton, and organic molecules left by its inhabitants?
Maybe — meet serious scientists. But at the same time, without explaining the nature of the asteroid water, consider: falling in his time on Earth with their "carriers", she could fill the oceans of our planet. As well as comets, which previously considered the only plausible "water carrier".
Have to wait for "Dawn"
Map asteroid Vesta.Drevnyaya mystery of the universe of the planet Phaeton will still be solved by space mission. To the asteroid belt is sent a space probe Dawn («Dawn"). Flying for two years. The goal — to get to the two largest objects in the asteroid belt. The first of them — the West, the convergence is planned for October 2011. On the ship, have electric ion engines, which are powered by solar panels.
— This expedition scientific community expected from the moment it became possible to interplanetary space travel — said flight director Christopher Russell of the University of California at Los Angeles.
Examining objects in the asteroid belt, the scientists hope to get a unique data that will answer the question, how did the solar system. And what role it has played a mysterious Phaeton.
And then there is a Marduk …
In the 1960s, the legendary Soviet astronomer and UFO researcher Felix Siegel calculated that the diameter of the Phaeton could be 6880 miles — slightly larger than the diameter of Mars. Then astronomers keen idea, figured out that the destruction of the planet occurred about 16 million years ago.
Date of accident is considered highly controversial. As well as the causes of the disaster.
In many works of fiction played up the idea that the planet would be blown up locals during a nuclear war. This version is based on the novels by Alexander Kazantsev "Faetians" and Michael Chernolusskogo "Phaeton", stories Olesya Berdnik "Catastrophe", "Strіla Hour" (Russian "Time's Arrow") and Constantine Brendyuchkova "The Last Angel", the story of George Shah "Death Phaeton. "
But, perhaps, the planet was destroyed under the influence of gravitational fields of more massive cosmic bodies. Such a hypothesis put forward in the novels of George Martynov "Zvezdoplavateli" and "Guest of the abyss." Phaeton be in the way of a super-dense bodies falling on the sun. Phaethon's orbit early choppy stretch toward Jupiter, and it was over a global catastrophe. But the unfortunate inhabitants of the planet had to go away on their spaceships, and then settled in the Vega system.
The story of Alexander Levin "The Fall of Phaeton" The hypothesis of formation of the solar system. In the nearest to the sun giant — Phaeton — split complex and unstable system of satellites. They are the inner planets. A kernel itself damaged by gravity Phaeton turned into the planet Uranus — the only one of which rotates "lying on its side," that is their own axis of rotation passes through the plane of Uranus orbit the planet.
Asteroid Ida satellite Dactyl — a fragment of the Phaeton According Sumerian mythology in our universe was a planet with an elongated orbit of Marduk, who accidentally fell into the solar system. The fact that the trajectory of its movement initially ran past Neptune, Uranus, and then suggests that the planet was moving in a clockwise direction, in the direction opposite to the movement of other planets around the sun. The overall effect of attraction of all the other planets led Marduk at the center of the solar system, in the end, he collided with the planet Tiamat (Phaeton). Scholars who hold traditional views do not tend to mix in a cataclysm of aliens and unidentified "Marduk". Perhaps what some say, the Phaeton was killed in a volcanic eruption. Others believe the cause of the centrifugal force that tore the planet because of fast its daily rotation. Some admit that he just stumbled upon your own satellite.
Well, according to Academician Otto Schmidt (1891-1956), was to blame Jupiter, and only him. And it happened at the beginning of birth of the planets, about 4 billion years ago. While the young sun was surrounded by a cloud of gas and dust, and the dust layer was concentrated in the equatorial region in the plane in which the planets revolve now. The velocities of dust particles in the layer were relatively small, so dust quickly coalesced relatively short period of time have formed the body (planetesimals), comparable in size with modern asteroids. The fastest way through the specific conditions in the protoplanetary nebula planetesimals birth process was in the orbit of Jupiter today. Large planetesimals took precedence in the growth — it intensively Join their neighbors body, becoming the nucleus of the future Jupiter. When the mass of the nucleus has reached several Earth masses, it has become effective "rock" of the orbit closest to it planetesimals and throw them out of the zone diet.
Force was so great that the planetesimals "sweep" the interior of the nascent solar system, up to the modern orbit of Mercury. It is believed that most went to the area, is now the asteroid belt. In collisions protoasteroidy could not unite, the process of fragmentation began to prevail over the growth process. Thus, growing Jupiter nearest to halt the growth of the planet itself. It is possible that the mass of Mars remained small because of these processes.
It turns out that at a certain stage of development, the original proto-Jupiter worked like a sling, scattering in all directions neighboring planetesimals. Mass of the material handed down from the solar system by Jupiter and other giant planets, could reach several hundred Earth masses. Part of planetesimals ever left the solar system, the other part from time to time back to us in the form of comets.
Something quickly they multiply …
By 1860, there were already 62 known asteroid by 1870-th — 109 th in 1880 — 211, in 1923-th — 1000 … According to the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy, by March 1998 in astronomical catalogs is already to 8443 an asteroid's orbit is well designed, named. As astronomers have suggested Robin Evans and Karl Stapelfeldt after studying pictures "Hubble", only in the asteroid belt is about 300 000 Tel diameter of 1-3 km and a lot of other stuff.
Not all asteroids are located in a belt between Mars and Jupiter. Some of them have very different orbits, and may even dangerously close to Earth. Recently, the newspapers and TV channels was reported that on Thursday, October 26, 2028 the asteroid 1997 XF11 could crash into the Earth. But then it all figured out seems to be more accurate, and it turned out that Armageddon is canceled: asteroid will pass at a distance of 960,000 kilometers from Earth. But we said, of course, much less.
Where in the universe to live well?
Here it is necessary to know, in case any of the coming apocalypse. Where to go, where to go?
Using the available data, an astrophysicist Abel Mendez of the University of Puerto Rico made a rating of habitable places the solar system. Assigned to each relevant index developed by him according to the so-called standard of habitability — Standard Primary Habitability (SPH), which is measured in fractions of the unit.
The highest rating is, of course, the Earth — to the current value of the SPH is 0.7. Mendes says that in the history of our planet were better times — with Standard 0.9.
Earth does not follow Mars. Ahead of him satellites of giant planets. For example, Saturn's moon Enceladus, which is under the ice is likely to have heated water. And Jupiter's moon Europa, which, by assumption, the water is also available. In it, it is believed, contains much more oxygen than used to be considered up to now. According to Mendez, the signs of habitability and some have
Category: The prophecies and predictions, visions and hypotheses