It should be noted that the clerical-nationalist party was still since 1906 (until 1925 known as the Slovak People's Party). The party advocated autonomy for Slovakia in the first part of Hungary (which was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire), and then Czechoslovakia. One of its founders was Andrej Hlinka (1864 — 1938), who managed the traffic to their own destruction. The social base of the party was the clergy, intellectuals and the "middle class." By 1923, the party became naikrupneyshey in Slovakia. In the 1930s, the party has established a tight fit due to the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, Hungarian and German Sudeten separatists have become popular ideas of the Italian and Austrian fascism. Size of the organization has grown to 36 million members (in 1920 the party had about 12 thousand people). In October 1938 the party declared the autonomy of Slovakia.
The favorite of the party, after the death of Glinka, was Josef Tiso (1887 — executed on April 18, 1947). Tiso was trained in the gymnasium Zilina, at the seminary in Nitra, then as a gifted student, he focused on his studies at the Vienna Institute, from which he graduated in 1910. He served as a priest, with the outbreak of the First World War was a military chaplain in the Austro-Hungarian army. Since 1915, Tiso — Rector of the Theological Seminary in Nitra and high school teacher, doctor of theology and later secretary of the bishop. Since 1918, member of the People's Party of Slovakia. In 1924 he became dean and priest in Banovce nad Bebravou, remaining in that position until the end of the second world war. Since 1925, Member of Parliament, in 1927-1929. led by the Ministry of Health and Sports. After the proclamation of Slovak autonomy in 1938, became the head of its government.
President of Slovakia from October 26, 1939 to April 4, 1945 Josef Tiso.
In Berlin assured Tiso to declare the independence of Slovakia, that destroy Czechoslovakia. March 9, 1939 Czechoslovak troops, trying to prevent the destruction of the country, entered the area of Slovakia and Tiso was removed from his position of autonomy. March 13, 1939 Adolf Hitler took Tiso in the German capital and under the pressure of his favorite Slovak People's Party declared the independence of Slovakia, under the auspices of the Third Reich. In the unlikely event Berlin could not guarantee the territorial integrity of the Slovak Republic. And in her area claimed by Poland and Hungary, which has already captured the Slovak part of the earth. March 14, 1939 the legislature declared the independence of Slovakia, the Czech Republic was soon occupied by the German army, because it could not stop the action. Tiso again became head of the government, and October 26, 1939 — President of Slovakia. March 18, 1939 in Vienna, was signed by the German-Slovak contract in which the 3rd Reich Slovakia took under his wing and guarantee its independence. July 21 was adopted by the First Constitution of the Slovak Republic. The Slovak Republic has been recognized by 27 countries of the world, including Italy, Spain, Japan, the pro-Japanese government of China, Switzerland, the Vatican and the Russian Alliance.
Prime Minister of Slovakia from October 27, 1939 to September 5, 1944 Vojtech Tuka.
Head of Government and Minister of Foreign Affairs was appointed Vojtech Tuka (1880 — 1946) and Minister of the Interior Alexander Mach (1902 — 1980), representatives of constructive wing Slovak People's Party. Fatness studied law in the institutions of Budapest, Berlin and Paris, becoming the youngest doctor in Hungary. Pec was a doctor and the Bratislava Institute. In 1920 he organized a militant nationalist group "Rodobpana" ("Homeland Security"). For example Tuck troops were Italian fascists. Rodobrana was to defend the actions of the Slovak People's Party of probable attacks by the Communists. Tooke also guided by the National Socialist German Workers Party. In 1927, the Czechoslovak authorities were instructed to dissolve Rodobranu. Tooke in 1929, he was arrested and sentenced to 15 years in prison (he was pardoned in 1937). After the liberation of the bullpen, Tuka became general secretary of the Slovak People's Party. It is based on the model of Rodobrany and German SS troops was sformirovyvaetsya "Glinkovoy Guard" (slovatsk. Hlinkova garda — Garda Glinkova, HG). Its first commander was Karol Sidor (since 1939 Alexander Mach). Officially the "Guard" was to conduct an initial military training of young people. But soon it became a real power structure that made the police functions and conducted punitive action against the communists, Jews, Czechs and Roma. Tooke, in contrast to the more limited Tisza was more focused on collaboration with Nazi Germany.
Flag Glinkovoy Guard.
Capture Ruthenia. Slovak-Hungarian War of 23 — 31 March 1939
In 1938, the decision of the First Vienna Award of Czechoslovakia were separated and transferred to Hungary's southern Carpathian Ruthenia and southern parts of Slovakia, in the main populated by Hungarians. As a result, Hungary has been returned to the land of the lost after the collapse of Austria-Hungary. The total area of the territories transferred to Hungary, Czechoslovakia was about 12 km. m., at their home to more than 1 million people. The agreement was signed on November 2, 1938, and the judges were made by ministers of foreign Affairs of the Third Reich — Ribbentrop and Italy — G. Ciano. Slovakia has lost 21% of the territory, a fifth of industrial capacity, up to one third of agricultural land, 27% of electric power stations, 28% of the deposits of iron ore, half of the vineyards, more than a third of pigs, 930 km of railway tracks. Eastern Slovakia lost its own main city — Košice. Carpatho-Russia lost its two main campus — Uzhgorod and Mukachevo.
This solution does not satisfy both parties. But the Slovaks did not protest for fear of a worst-case scenario (complete loss of autonomy). Hungary also wanted to solve the "Slovak question" constructive. On the border between Hungary and Slovakia, November 2, 1938 and January 12, 1939 left 22 collision. After Czecho
slovakia ended its existence, Berlin, Budapest hinted that the Hungarians can occupy the remainder of the Carpathian Rus, but others can not touch the Slovak lands. March 15, 1939 in the Slovak part of Carpathian Ruthenia was declared the establishment of the republic independent Carpatho-Ukraine, but its territory was invaded by the Hungarians.
Hungary has concentrated on the border of 12 divisions in the night from 13 to 14 March the advanced units of the Hungarian army began a leisurely progress. Division "Carpathian Sich" (napolovinuvoennaya organization in Transcarpathia, which had up to 5 thousand members) was mobilized by order of the Prime Minister Augustin Voloshin. But the Czechoslovak troops on the orders of his superiors tried to disarm sechevikov. Armed clashes began, which lasted several hours. Voloshin tried to resolve the conflict by political means, but Prague did not answer. On the morning of March 14, 1939 the commander of the eastern group of Czechoslovak troops, General Leo Prhala, believing that the invasion of the Hungarians had not been authorized by Germany, gave the order for the resistance. But soon after consultation with Prague, gave the order for the withdrawal of Czechoslovak troops and civil servants from the territory of Carpathian Ukraine.
In these circumstances, Voloshin declared independence Carpathian Ukraine and asked Germany to take a new government under its own protectorate. Berlin refused to support and offered no resistance to the Hungarian army. Ruthenians were alone. In turn, the Hungarian government proposed to disarm and enter the Ruthenians in the Hungarian country peacefully. Voloshin refused, announced mobilization. In the evening on March 15 Hungarian army beginning of the total coming. "Carpathian Sich", reinforced by volunteers who tried to organize resistance, but had no chance of success. Despite the hostile army complete an advantage, few in number, poorly armed "sechevikov" in a number of places have organized an angry resistance. So, the weaving village of Goronda fighters M. Stance held the position 16 hours, fierce battles were fought over the town and Sevlyush Hust, who ran over a couple of times from hand to hand. The bloody battle took place on the outskirts of the Hoost, on the reddish field. March 16 Hungarians stormed the capital of Carpathian Ruthenia — Hust. By the evening of 17 — the morning of March 18th the whole territory of Carpathian Ukraine was occupied by the Hungarian Army. However, still some time sechevikov tried to resist the partisans. Hungarian army lost, according to various estimates, from 240 to 730 killed and wounded. Ruthenians lost about 800 men killed and wounded, and about 750 prisoners. The total loss sechevikov, according to various sources, ranged from 2 to 6.5 thousand people. This was caused by terror, after the occupation, when the Hungarians were shot prisoners and "cleaned out" area. In addition, just two months after the occupation to work in Hungary was stolen about 60 thousand inhabitants of the Carpathian Rus.
Slovak-Hungarian War. Budapest on March 17 announced that the border with Slovakia should be revised in favor of Hungary. The Hungarian government has proposed significantly move the Hungarian-Slovak border from Uzhgorod to the border with Poland. Under direct pressure from the German government Slovak leaders in Bratislava on March 18 agreed to take the decision to change the boundaries in favor of Hungary and to organize a bilateral commission to clarify the boundaries of the band. March 22 commission's work was completed, and in the German capital Ribbentrop agreement approved.
Hungarians do not expect to become the ratification of the contract by the Slovak Parliament, the NIGHT MODE March 23 launched a large invasion in eastern Slovakia, planning to move to the west so as it will. The Hungarian army was advancing on three main fronts: Lofty Bereznyi — Ulich — Old, Small Bereznyi — Ublya — Stakchin, Uzhgorod — Tibava — Sobrance. Slovak troops were not expecting an attack of the Hungarian army. In addition, after the transfer of the Hungarians south-eastern Slovakia in 1938, the only steel road that led into eastern Slovakia, the Hungarian territory was cut and finished work. Slovak troops in the east of the country could quickly get reinforcements. But they managed to make three points of resistance: about Stakchina in Michalovce and western borders. At this time in Slovakia was carried out mobilization: called 20 thousand reservists and more than 27 thousand soldiers Glinsky Guard. Arrival of reinforcements to the front line stabilized the situation.
On the morning of March 24 in Mihaylovtsy reinforcements arrived with armored vehicles. Slovak troops went to the counter and were able to overturn the leading Hungarian part, but the main attack on the enemy's positions were stopped and retreated. In the evening on March 24 more reinforcements arrived, including 35 light tanks and 30 other armored units. On March 25, the Slovaks went to the counter and the latest few pushed the Hungarians. March 26 Hungary and Slovakia, under pressure from Germany truce. On the same day of the Slovak received new reinforcements, but the organization of the counter-offensive did not make sense, because of the significant advantages of the Hungarian army in numbers.
As a result, the Slovak-Hungarian War or the "Small Wars" (slovats. Mal vojna) Slovak Republic Hungary almost lost the war, losing the benefit of the last 1697 km area with a population of about 70 thousand people. It is a narrow strip of land along the hypothetical band Stachkin — Sobrance. The strategic plan is not headed for Hungary of success, since implied a radical extension of its territory.
Redistribution of Czechoslovakia in the years 1938-1939. The territory ceded Hungary on the basis of the First Vienna Award, highlighted reddish.
Slovakia under the patronage of Germany
Prisoner 18 March 1939 the Slovak-German agreement foresaw and coordination of the armed forces of the two countries. Since September 1 1939 , the Slovak troops entered the Second World War on the side of Nazi Germany, taking part in the defeat of the Polish country. After the defeat of Poland, November 21, 1939 in accordance with the German-Slovak agreement Těšín area was cut off by the Poles in 1938 in Czechoslovakia, was transferred to the Slovak Republic.
The financial system has been subordinated to the interests of Slovakia the Third Reich. Thus, the German Imperial Bank exchange rate led to a profitable only for Germany 1 Reichsmark was worth 11.62 SKK. As a result, the Slovak economy throughout the second world war was the donor of the German Empire. In addition, as in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, the German authorities have used the labor of Slovaks. The relevant agreement was already signed December 8, 1939.
In domestic policy, Slovakia was evenly course of Nazi Germany. July 28, 1940 the German leader called in Salzburg Slovak President Jozef Tiso, the head of government and commander Adalbert Tuku Glinkovsky Guard Alexander Mach. In the so-called. "Salzburg conference," it was decided to convert the Slovak Republic in the National Socialist government. After a few months in Slovakia adopted the "racial laws", the persecution of the Jews and the "Aryanization their property." During the second world war, about three-quarters of the Jews of Slovakia was focused in concentration camps.
November 24, 1940 the republic joined the Tripartite Pact (alliance of Germany, Italy and the land of the rising sun). In the summer of 1941, the Slovak President Jozef Tiso invited Adolf Hitler to bring Slovak troops to war with the Russian Union after Germany starts with him in battle. Slovak favorite wanted to show his uncompromising stance against communism and reliability alliance Slovakia and Germany. It was to save the patronage of the German military and political control in the case of new territorial claims in Budapest. The Fuhrer did not show particular interest in this proposal, but eventually agreed to accept military aid Slovakia. June 23, 1941 Slovakia declared war on the Soviet Union, and June 26, 1941 on the Eastern Front was expelled Slovak expeditionary force. December 13, 1941 Slovakia declared war on the United States and the United Kingdom, because its on the Berlin Pact allies went to war with these powers (December 7, 1941 Japan attacked the United States on December 11, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States).
Prime Minister Vojtech Tuka during the signing of the protocol on the accession of Slovakia to the Triple Alliance. November 24, 1940
Slovak army was armed Czechoslovak tool, which remained in the arsenals of Slovakia. Slovak commanders were the successors of the military traditions of the Czechoslovak Armed Forces, because new armed forces inherited all the basic elements of the army of Czechoslovakia.
January 18, 1940 in the republic passed a law on conscription. By the beginning of the second World War, the Slovak Army had composed three infantry divisions, with some motorized reconnaissance units and artillery units on a horse-drawn traction. By the beginning of the Polish company in Slovakia formed a field army "Bernolak" (slovatsk. Slovenska Polna Armada skupina "Bernolak") under General Ferdinand Chatlosha, she came into the German Army Group "South".
The total strength of the army reached 50 thousand people, was composed of:
— 1st Infantry Division, commanded by General of the 2nd rank Anton Pulanicha (two infantry regiments, separate infantry battalion, an artillery regiment and division);
— 2nd Infantry Division, initially under the supervision of Lieutenant Colonel John Imro, then General of the 2nd rank of Alexander Chunderlika (infantry regiment, three infantry battalions, an artillery regiment, division);
— 3rd Infantry Division, commanded by Colonel Augustin Malar (two infantry regiments, two infantry battalions, an artillery regiment and division);
— The mobile group "Kalinchak" from September 5 Lieutenant Colonel Ian Imro (two separate infantry battalions, two artillery regiments, battalion "Bernolak" battalion "Topol" armored train "Bernolak").
To be continued …