The Parable of the unification of sudden and consequences of nuclear testing

Tale of unification and the unexpected consequences of nuclear testing

The nuclear tests at Bikini Atoll clearly demonstrated the value of the fleet in modern nuclear war. Tremendous fleet of 95 ships were destroyed completely with 2 explosions plutonium bombs, such munition dropped on Nagasaki. Despite the "sensational" statements reporters that many ships, especially with high level of battleships and cruisers, remained afloat and from afar kept fully representative form for the Mariners was the most horrible conclusion is obvious: the ships were lost!

A hot flash bang "Able" has caused large pockets of fire, and terrible column of water from the explosion of "Baker" tripped and smeared on the bottom of the lagoon battleship "Arkansas." Boiling tsunami drove through the anchorage and the court has thrown out all light to keep, covered them with the remains of radioactive sand. The shock wave crushed add battleships, broke inside the instruments and mechanisms. From severe shocks disrupted density buildings, and streams deadly radiation destroyed armored decks under all laboratory animals.

Tale of unification and the unexpected consequences of nuclear testing

Japanese battleship "Nagato" after a nuclear explosion capacity of 23 kt

Without communication and navigation systems, with broken sights and mutilated battle stations on the upper deck, deformed guns and dead crew, the most massive and protected battleships turned into charred floating coffins.
If so — reasoned military spices — then what is the armored deck and bronepoyasa? To decide what is so unparalleled measures to ensure security of modern warships? The fleet will inevitably die in a nuclear conflict.
Last harsh armor beheld by Russian cruisers project 68-bis (built between 1948 and 1959.), About the same time the British were built light cruiser of the "Minotaur", although their reservations were almost all icons. On American ships heavy booking was lost even earlier — in 1949 in the Navy entered last languid artillery-class cruiser "Des Moines."

An exception could be called modern percussion aircraft carriers — they are huge displacement lets you set such "luxuries" as bronepaluby and vertical armor protection. In any case, 45 mm flight deck of aircraft carrier "Kitty Hawk" did not go to any comparison with 127 mm bronepaluboy Japanese battleship "Nagato" or its main belt width of 300 mm!

According to unconfirmed reports, the local hotel is situated on some languid nuclear cruisers of Project 1144 (code "eagle") — it is the number right up to 100 mm in the reactor compartment. In any case, similar information can not be in the public domain, all of our thoughts are based only on estimates and guesses.

Russian shipbuilders assumed in the calculations not only the criterion of global nuclear war. In 1952 he received the shocking results of the tests anti-ship missile KS-1 "Comet" — two-ton ingot at transonic speeds pierced the inside cruiser "Red Caucasus", and then the subsequent explosion battle of almost broke ship half.
We will never know the precise location hit "Comet" — to this day there is debate about whether the broken main 100mm bronepoyas "Red Caucasus" or missile has been lower. There are eyewitness testimony, it was not too far away the first test — before his death of old cruiser served as a target for the "Comet" with an inert warhead. "Comets" stitched cruiser through and through, with all this on the internal bulkheads were traces of their stabilizers!

Tale of unification and the unexpected consequences of nuclear testing

COP-1 "Comet" under the wing of the Tu-16

A clear assessment of this episode prevent mass errors: cruiser "Red Caucasus" was small (9 thousand tons displacement) and worn (launched in 1916), and "Comet" was large and extremely heavy. Besides, ship was no progress, and it remains unknown in the condition after the last missile firings.
Well, nezavimo of whether there was a broken thick armor, anti-ship missiles showed their highest combat abilities — it has become a principal argument for abandoning languid reservation. But "Red Caucasus" was shot in vain — the last leader of the Black Sea Fleet, who had a 64 on account of military campaigns, had more right to stand on a never-ending joke than the prince's submarine K-21.

Universal killer

The absence of severe structural protection has spurred designers to create an effective anti-ship missile, which combines within itself a moderate size, and sufficient capacity to defeat all modern naval targets. It was understood that no reservations on ships not, and in the coming term does not appear as it should, there is no need for any over-armor-piercing warheads of missiles.

Why do we need armor-piercing warheads, high-speed separating warheads and other tricks, if the thickness of deck plating, the main transverse and longitudinal bulkheads large anti-submarine ships Project 61 was only 4 mm. In this case, it was not steel, and aluminum-magnesium alloy! Not the best way things were abroad: an unexploded missile fired from the British destroyer "Sheffield", without any interference from the enemy cracked overloaded duralumin enclosure cruiser "Ticonderoga".

Tale of unification and the unexpected consequences of nuclear testing

BOD "Sharp-witted"

In view of the above facts, the compact design of anti-ship missiles widely used lightweight materials, right up to the glass and plastic. "Polubroneboynaya" warhead was made with the lowest strength of supplies and, in some cases, equipped with a delayed fuse. French armor piercing subsonic ASM "Exocet" is estimated by various sources from 40 to 90 mm metal armor — so a wide range of explaining the lack of reliable information about its use against hardened targets.

Developers missiles has played into the hands of the development of microelectronics — reduces the weight of homing missiles, opened previously infeasible flight modes for ultra-low altitude. It is at times increased the vitality of anti-ship missiles and increment their fighting abilities, or without any significant intervention in the design of the missile and its propulsion and aerodynamics.
In contrast to the Russian monsters — supersonic anti "Mosquito", "granite" and "Basalt", the West relied on standardization, ie increase in
the number of anti-ship missiles and their carriers. "Let subsonic missiles, but they fly in packs enemy from all sides" — probably looked exactly as the creators of logic "Harpoon" and "Exocet".

The same was true distance: the most best seeker can see the target at a distance of less than 50 km, is the limit for modern technology (in this case, we do not consider the ability of on-board electronics cyclopean 7-ton anti-ship missiles "Granit", a tool completely different level, prices and abilities).
With the detection range of the enemy situation is even more exciting: the absence of any external agents targeting, everyday destroyer can not see the enemy's squadron, which goes 20 miles. Radar at such distance is useless — the enemy ships are outside the radio horizon.

Indicative of a real naval battle between the U.S. Navy cruiser "Yorktown" and the Libyan IRAs, which occurred in 1986, small missile ship approached the silent shadow "Yorktown" — would be a shame as it may sound, the Libyans gave them your radar: insightful radio equipment "Yorktown" have marked the work of the enemy radar and flew in the direction of danger "Harpoon". The battle was at a distance of only a couple of 10-s of miles.
Similar steps were repeated off the coast of Abkhazia in 2008 — Rocket battle between RTOs "Mirage" and Georgian boats also went on a small distance — about 20 km.

Compact anti-ship missiles initially calculated on the firing range of 100 km (almost everything is depending on the vehicle — if a rocket throw from a great height, it will fly at 200-300 km). All this is most severely impacted by the size of missiles and, ultimately, their price and flexibility of implementation. Rocket — Only just expendable, not expensive "toy" for years rusting on the deck in anticipation of World War II.

By building a compact RCC among which the most famous French "Exocet" South American rocket "Harpoon" and Russian complex X-35 "Uranus", designers led a successful confluence of events — first, the lack of languid book on modern ships.

That happened if "dreadnoughts" continued are sailing? I think the answer is simple: designers missile weapons in any case would find an adequate solution, obviously, this will lead to an increase in weight and size characteristics of the instrument and its carriers, ie, in the end, to the next round of the never-ending race "shell-armor."


In the middle of all compact anti-ship missiles extraordinary fame acquired South American ASM "Harpoon". In the technical properties of this system, there is nothing so could attract the attention of: *

Length: 3.8 m (without booster)
Diameter: 0.34 m,
Starting weight: 667 kg
Warhead: 227 kg armor-piercing,
Cruising speed flight: 0.85 M
Max. Range: 120-150 km,
Guidance system: midcourse — inertial, in the final — active radar (PAR seeker with, target detection range 40 km)
Cost: $ 1 million dollars.
* All data is based on modification of RGM-84C shipborne

Ordinary subsonic anti-ship missiles of air, naval and ground-based and designed for launch from submarines … stop! it already sounds especially — the system has 4 different media and can be run at least some of the provisions: from the surface to the dizzying heights and even under water.

The list of carriers for ASM "Harpoon" sounds like a funny story, first, hit them indescribable abundance and imagination of designers who wanted to hang the rocket, wherever it may be unrealistic to:

First, aviation version of "Harpoon» AGM-84. At different times of the carriers anti-ship missiles were:

— the basal planes sea Aviation P-3 "Orion" and the P-8 "Poseidon"
— tactical bombers FB-111,
— deck anti-aircraft S-3 "Viking"
— Decked attack aircraft A-6 "Intruder" and the A-7 "Corsair"
— carrier-based fighter-bomber F/A-18 "Hornet"
— and even strategic bombers B-52.

Tale of unification and the unexpected consequences of nuclear testing

Suspension "Harpoon" under the sea plane P-3 "Orion"

Tale of unification and the unexpected consequences of nuclear testing


Tale of unification and the unexpected consequences of nuclear testing

On hangers at the B-52 can immediately pomestittsya 12 "Harpoon"

More vserasprostraneny RGM-84 "Harpoon" ship-based. Over the past 40 years, carriers of "harpoon" were virtually all warships from NATO — the designers have taken into account virtually all aspects of the sailors and wishes, thus equip the "Harpoon" even older destroyers and frigates early 60's — the "firstborn" missile era.

Tale of unification and the unexpected consequences of nuclear testing

The basic launcher is Mk.141 — light duralumin rack with mounted at an angle of 35 ° transport and launch container of glass (2 or 4 TPK). Stored in TPK missiles do not require special maintenance and gogtovy to run. TPK each resource is designed for 15 runs.

Tale of unification and the unexpected consequences of nuclear testing

The second option was to extend launcher Mk.13 — «Harpoons" were stored in the drum below deck charging "one-armed bandit", together with anti-aircraft missiles.

Tale of unification and the unexpected consequences of nuclear testing

Third option — launcher Mk.11 «Tartar", developed in the 50's. Engineers were able to agree on the work of 2-different systems, and "Harpoon" stood in a rusted battery drums on all of the old destroyers.

Tale of unification and the unexpected consequences of nuclear testing

Fourth option — the sailors had a desire to equip the "Harpoon" anti-submarine frigates of old such as "Knox". The decision not to force myself to expect long — a couple of anti-ship missiles hidden in the cell launcher ASW system ASROC.

Tale of unification and the unexpected consequences of nuclear testing

5th option — not quite sea. 4 transport and launch container with the "Harpoon" installed on the four-axle chassis. Came coastal anti-ship missile system.

Tale of unification and the unexpected consequences of nuclear testing

Out of the water

More fascinating is the underwater version of the UGM-84 Sub-Harpoon. The system is designed for start-up of the torpedo submarines, going to a depth of 60 meters for the introduction of exotic so the developers had to make a new gasket transport and launch container of aluminum and glass, filled with additional stabilizers for stabilization of the rocket on the underwater site.

What conclusion follows from this mentoring stories? 40 years ago specialists from the United States managed to make a unified and effective system of marine instruments. Americans enjoyed a successful confluence of events that eventually appeared lightweight, compact missile, with all the advantages (and disadvantages). Could this be the experience of a pure form suitable for the Navy? Hardly. In Russian Union was a completely different doctrine introduction of the fleet. But probably as much a fascinating experience unification may be useful in developing future models guns.

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