The age-old tradition
But the role of women in the military formations of different countries, as evidenced by historical documents, has a long-standing tradition and is a phenomenon of the XXI century. Ladies were part of the military organization, not only in the Middle Ages, and in the era of the traditional antiquity. Already in the IV century BC Athens and Sparta ladies were present in the armed formations of Greek troops. First information about women warriors, as reflected in the historical literature to be associated with the Amazons. Mention of them is already in the works of the ancient Greek historian Herodotus (c. 490-425 years. BCE).
Geographical spread of the "ladies of the military settlements" is quite broad: from South America to Libya, from Persia to the latest Guinea. On the territory of the Russian Federation today, according to the Greek geographer and historian Strabo (63-23 years. BCE), the Amazons lived in the Rostov Region, Pyatigorsk and the foothills of the Caucasus by the river Terek. With regard to the European armies during the initial role of women in military campaigns can be attributed to the time of the Peloponnesian (431-404. BCE) and Corinth (395-387 years. BCE) wars. In written sources of the old civilizations of Greece, Rome, India and mentioned that the Celts, Germans, Sarmatians, and other Indo-European peoples ladies specifically involved in the fighting, providing meaningful moral and psychological impact on the male warriors. Some of them even led military forces.
In the "Iliad" of Homer, dedicated to the Trojan War, one of the heroes of the famous Achilles' heroism in the 3rd beat Amazon muzheobraznyh. "
As pointed conducted a historical analysis of the role of women in the military formations were justified their socio-economic status and level of development of military affairs in a particular society. In the same "Iliad" Homer reflected the public opinion on the issue of the role of women in the military operations that existed in ancient times: "Procession razlyubeznaya in the house to attend to their own affairs: fabric, yarn of the loan, but the war to attend to their husbands."
The ancient Greek philosopher Plato pointed out that belonging to a male-female sex — not the only aspect that defines man's place in the public benefit. "Is not another woman has no way .. k military affairs?" — Plato asked the enemies of the feminization of the army, not only allowing, and considering it necessary to joint military activities of men and women, so that "they stood together on the protection of the country, since they are capable of it." Plato rightly considered that it "might be helpful."
As the representative of the European armies beautiful sex for the first time get the status of full-time military personnel during the period of 1560-1650 years. On admission to the military service with the ladies already is a contract setting out what is true of multi-functional responsibilities in accordance with the military profession and the content was determined by the size of the currency. For example, according to British law in each company was required to have at least 6 women. Similar regulations were introduced in the French and other European armies.
Feminized army is home to Britain. It was here in 1653 came the first lady's military hospitals, consisting of the wives of a fighter, and intended for the wounded 350. They had their own state 29 ladies. And in the years 1917-1919. as part of the British Armed Forces were formed Women royal air force, Royal Auxiliary Corps and Navy Legion Ladies' Section of vehicles in the amount of 100 thousand people.
For the first time in the world of ladies on a par with men, without limitation professor stood in formation as a full-fledged military personnel with an appropriate status in Canada in 1895, It was at this time they began to take on military service in times of peace, not only in providing the service, and in combat units as full-fledged soldiers. It is no coincidence that the tradition feminized Army in Canada are supported: 33 officers from the Special ladies are presented in 29.
Second global war caused a rise in number of women in military formations. In the British Army, there were up to 225 million women in the U.S. — 450-500 thousand in Germany — about 500 million, more than 800 million women — in the Russian Army, 80 thousand of them officers. 16 American women who served in the Women's Army service, was awarded the highest medal of the United States, "Purple Heart" for wounds acquired in the course of the war, and 27 women were awarded the "Bronze Star" for a particular role in the fighting.
Historically, the Company has sought to keep the lady from the threats and challenges of military service, taking into account the importance of her reproductive function and role in the upbringing of children. But the harsh configuration Prof. employment ladies at the turn of the XX century and the active development of the feminist movement in the United States, Canada and France have become one of the main reasons for the active role of women in the military profession as a form of actual and social self-realization.
In 1989, after a series of tests to study the ability of the role of women in combat units of NATO, Canada, Denmark, the Netherlands and Norway have absolutely removed all restrictions on the military activities of the ladies. United States 99% of women admitted to military aircraft and warships, not counting submarines.
There are ladies in Russian selenium
In Russia, the image of the female warrior has a long-standing historical tradition. Nikolai Karamzin, in "Tradition and ever" notes that in 626 AD ancient Byzantine chroniclers testified during the siege of Constantinople between found dead Rusichi ladies in armor. Vasily Nemirovich-Danchenko in the book "The Russian women," writes that "primitive Slav suddenly frighten opponents in battle, furiously, with swords in their hands bursting between battling." Princess Olga of Kiev was in his squad, and successfully produced military campaigns against nepokorlivyh neighbors. Member of the Institute of Military History, Julia Ivanova in the traditions of the princes of Rostov unable to find references to women, who fought valiantly along with the men of Kulikovo: Princess Theodora Puzhbolskoy and Daria Rostov, daughter of Prince Andrew Fedorovich.
First paper on the ladies in the service of military units, recorded in Russia in the Petrine era. It was at this time in the Charter of the military in 1716 was enshrined the right to give military service in military hospitals.
But until the middle of the XIX century ladies of in the main did not take an active role in the fighting army units and were not guns. The exceptions were the specious form of the ladies, reflecting the vagaries of Russian empresses. In 1787, for the visit of Catherine II in brand Balaclava-Greek battalion of 100 "generous wives and daughters of the officers" at the command of His Serene Highness Prince Grigory Potemkin was formed "Amazon company", commanded by Elena Ivanovna Sarandova. But it was of the formation of exotic faster than military temper
Due to the fact that in combat units were not allowed to serve the ladies, many of them for patriotic judgment "broke" into the army under the man's first and last names. So, at the end of XVIII century under the name of the murdered brother Alexander commanded a company of lancers Sasha Tikhomirov, who served 15 years in the cavalry. First Russian female officer, the daughter of Captain Hope Hussar Durov, in 1807, she entered a cadet in the equestrian Polish Lancers regiment under the name Falcons.
Russian ladies who were awarded during the First World War, the Order of St. ZHoru permitted to do so only because it posed as boys. So, Lena Tsebrzhinskaya at delivery was considered under the name Tsetnerskogo in office paramedic Aslanduzskogo 186 th Infantry Regiment, Olga Shidlovskaya — as the 4th Hussars Regiment Mariupol Oleg Shidlovskiy; Antonina Palshin — Cavalier 2-George Cross — waged war in the 9th Sotk Kuban Cavalry Division and the 7th Infantry Regiment Sevastopol under the name of Anton.
In Russian, the question of the need of military service for the ladies intensely open a discussion. Podvoisky Nicholas and Alexandra Kollontai believed military labor ladies means of ensuring its actual social equality. "The call to give the troops completely fixed idea of her as an equal and equal members of the country", — stressed Kollontay, which during the war was the chief mufti of the political department of the Crimean army. Many ladies are intensely involved in the fighting on the fronts of the war civilian clothes. For example, Rosalia Zemlyachka was the chief of the political department of the 8th and 13th armies. Occupying the same position in the 15th Division Sivashskaya Alexander Yanysheva, awarded the Order of the Red Banner, together with an advance party of 270 people attacked the Crimean bastions of Whites in the Crimea. Assistant chief of the political department of the 6th and 9th armies waged war Valentina Suzdaltseva. Larisa Reisner, served as Commissioner for the layout of 'life-catastrophe "was the Commissioner of the Head of the Naval Staff.
In the interwar period, many women studied at military academies. Before the Russian war majestically over 250 women have graduated from the Academy of chemical protection, mechanization and motorization, military-political, military, marine, air force, electrical engineering, artillery, etc. During the fighting during the war, they successfully applied in practice the acquired knowledge, abilities and skills.
Unprecedented event in the history of the world wars is a combat activity during the Russian war immediately majestically 3 ladies aviation units — 586th Fighter Regiment (commander — Colonel Tatiana Kazarinova), 587 th Regiment of dive bombers (until his death in 1943 commanded a regiment Major Marina Raskova) and 588 th Night Bomber Regiment (commanded by Major — Evdokia Bershanskaya). 28 pilots and navigators of these regiments were awarded the highest achievements of the motherland — the title of Russian Union of Heroes, gunner and dive bomber Pe-2 99-th separate Guards Cavalry Regiment of the 15th Air Army of Hope Zhurkina which committed 87 combat missions and participated in 30 air battles, became a full knight of the Order of Glory. Olga trolleys after the war became the world's first lady, mastered jet fighter.
During the war, exemplary fulfillment of its own obligations, courage and heroism of the 86 women were awarded the title of Hero of the Russian Union 150 thousand ladies were awarded with orders and medals, more than 200 were holders of the Order of Glory 2nd and 3rd degrees. Four defender of the Fatherland became full holders of the Order of Glory: Sniper 284 th Infantry Regiment Sergeant Nina Petrova, who died May 2, 1945 in the battle of Berlin; gunner 99th Guards separate reconnaissance aircraft Regiment Guard Petty Officer Hope Zhurkina; pulemetchitsa 167 th Infantry Regiment, 16th Infantry Division of the Lithuanian Klaipeda sergeant Danuta Staniliene (Markauskene) medical instructor of the 100th Guards Rifle Regiment of the 35th Guards Rifle Division of the Guard Petty Officer Matrona Necheporukova (Nozdracheva).
Marshal Zhukov, Russian Union of Jora responded with great appreciation about the participating majestically Russian war, "the unforgettable heroism and fortitude of our ladies — nurses, nurses, doctors. They carried from the battlefield soldiers and officers, nursed them. Fearlessness and bravery different snipers, telephone operators, telegraph . many of them then it was 18-20 years. Disregarding the danger, they fought bravely against the hated enemy. "
Were there any other ladies in the world, like our heroines of women's aviation regiments? We must admit that quite low. In Hitler's Germany there was only one such lady. Her name was Hannah Reitsch. She has won two highest achievements Third Reich — Metal Cross — in person from the hands of Hitler. In the 40-ies. Reitsch under famed designer von Braun's rocket in the air as a pilot test conducted FAA-shells. Hitler instructed her in person. Apart from the steel cross 1st degree, Reitsch was a captain in the Luftwaffe. She successfully conducted tests and became the only woman — a fighter pilot in the middle of the Nazi aces on the Eastern Front, which received Metal Cross 2nd class. April 26, 1945 it was she broke into a dogfight in the already surrounded by Russian troops in Berlin and brought to Hitler's headquarters of the new Commander of the Air Forces Wehrmacht Field Marshal von Grime after the betrayal of Hermann Goering.
To serve or not to serve?
Modern armed forces of the majority of States have already unimaginable without the representatives of the beautiful sex. In society there is a revision of patriarchal stereotypes associated with social activity ladies. Past chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, General John Vessey characterize the feminization of the army as a unique trend: "For our Armed Forces, — he stressed — this is a principle of its own significant event than the invention of nuclear weapons." The feminization of the American army were further intensified after the Congress in March 1972, amendments to the constitution, "On Equal Rights", which prohibits all discrimination on grounds of sex in all areas of human activity prof USA. At the beginning of 2000 the number of women in the Armed Forces of the United States was 18% and rising.
In 1976, at the 38th U.S. President Gerald Ford decided to allow ladies to enter the military academy. After the release of the first ladies at West Point in 1980 to the beginning of 2000 and more than 2 million women officers have graduated from an elite military academy. As a result, now in the U.S. Army for 10 generals, women, and Lieutenant General Carol Mutter is the chief of staff of the Marine Corps. In 1972, for the ladies was filmed most of the restrictions on fighting majors, and April 28, 1993 U.S. Department of Defense has decided to admit women to the role of aviation in combat missions and service on most warships. "We can no longer put off to war without the ladies" — was required to establish a South American Gen. Colin Powell in 1991 to "Operation Desert Storm". In 1986, the strategic nuclear forces of the United States took an unprecedented breakthrough in the world: after a lot of checks ladies were admitted to the inner sanctum of national defense — in the combat crews launch intercontinental missiles "Minutemen" and MX. Numerous of their performance in extreme situations have shown that representatives of the beautiful sex are controlled with their obligations not worse, and in some cases even better than boys. Because most of the Yankees took a tribute mission commander gallakticheskogo "Shatlla" lovely Elin Collins, Colonel.
For most advanced countries with a strong army, the issue of discrimination against women in the military career in the
main shot. Since 1997, the Norwegian Navy submarine torpedo "Cowboy — C-318," commanded by Captain Third Rank Solveig Krey. In the Royal Navy of England two ladies command warships. Brigadier General Scream adat is headed ladies housing the Israeli armed forces ("Our Hale"), numbering over 36 thousand people. Immediately she is an assistant secretary of defense for military service women. Of the 46 years of his life 27 years Adat regularly serves in the armed forces.
The feminization of foreign armies lasts. In those countries where the ladies usually forbade serve in the army in recent years to lift the ban: for example, in 1997 it produced in Italy. Moreover, in January 2000, the country's Defense Ministry announced that just three military academies — Air Force, Navy and Army — will now take the ladies in their ranks. Representatives of weak little sex can make up to a third of these students academies. For them all restrictions in a military career: at the end of Academy graduates will have the opportunity later promoted to commander of the warship and an air squadron, but if you want — and the Chief of the General Staff.
It must be admitted that the point of view of social scientists and researchers about gender verbovaniya give to military service is often the very opposite. Some say that the ladies in the army is not a place, arguing that they disrupt collated way of military service, is decomposed discipline provoke Activity sexy guys. Others, however, say that the women are worse, and according to some characteristics of the better guys are doing their duties, and may even contribute to the strengthening of discipline and ethics of intersexual communication.
Submissions about finding ladies in a war zone is also diverse. Thus, even Plato noted that the presence of women on the battlefield is a means of psychological support for the soldiers: in the eyes of lovers in, Plato argued, the fighter will be unable to move, to show cowardice, and even more so to desert. Recognizable Russian Nikolay Popov psychiatrist in the last century claimed turnaround "Army without women — always heroic. Ladies in the Army allowed only when there is no need for the display of heroism. "In support of this thesis spoke Russian psychologist Lena Senyavskaya. Unnatural She believes the concept of" female soldier "." Ladies give life — wrote Senyavskaya — a combination that seems unnaturally "the lady carrying the death." Adherents of this position are many and abroad. So, in the beginning of the Israeli army fighting the military command displays the ladies of these areas, considering that their captivity may affect the way demoralizing the troops. If the set of military task, female soldiers are temporarily removed from its membership.
In 1982, the U.S. conducted a survey of the ability of the role of women in the areas of combat. An overwhelming number of respondents approved of the idea: 94% were in favor of the role of women as nurses, 73% — as pilots jet transport aircraft, 62% — the pilots of fighter planes, 57% — crews of warships, 35% — the participating units with probable using melee combat.
Czech researcher heat Papic, analyzing acts ladies in a war zone in the criteria of the Balkan crisis in 1999, concluded that "in extreme situations and criteria for active combat operations ladies should be aimed at supporting the efforts of heroic men." World, experience indicates that the role of women in combat is regulated by the specificity they perform combat missions, and there can be no specific advice.
At the current time there is the feminization of the Armed Forces. If until 1985 the number of troops of women in our country did not exceed 5%, over the next 10 years, it has increased by 10 times and in 1996 was 350 thousand. Given the tendency for the Armed Forces at the beginning of 2000 the Ministry of Defence had served 115 thousand women (9.5% of the total number of military personnel). As a colonel now serving 14 women, 75 — to the rank of lieutenant colonel, 300 — Majors, others — junior officers. In the Russian Federal Border Service troops of women over 12 thousand of them 625 officers (5.2%) and 5480 warrant officers (45.7% of the total). But unlike zabugornyh Army in the Armed Forces as before no ladies in general's uniform. However, some Russians still rose to the rank of general, but two of them for a couple of years in retirement (the first lady-cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova-Nikolaeva and Galina Smirnova — last head of the 12th Division of the KGB), two are in the Interior Ministry (Tatiana Moskalkova — Head of Legal Department of the Interior Ministry and Svetlana Perov — Deputy Head of the Moscow police) and one in the FSB (Natalia Klimova — 1st Deputy Chief of Military Medical Directorate of the FSB of the Russian Federation). The Ministry of Defence General's office ladies as ever "free." Neuzh is not worthy?
On the other hand, the feminization of the army makes for representatives of the beautiful sex, and certain sexual problems. The U.S. Army breach of statutory relations in the armed forces of women is expressed in various forms of mental and physical (including sexy) violence. In 1991, after the end of the benefit of annual conference of the U.S. Navy, drunken soldiers, men made conditions when their female counterparts were required to go through virtually "through the system" of about 200 men, squeezed them, and tried to disrupt elements of clothes. During the hearings, victims of violence themselves recognized the sexy 26 military women, half of which — the officers.
After nedavneshnego row over sexy sergeants harassment to women subordinate to the ground in the town of Aberdeen (Maryland) Army command a lot of determination to prevent such a future. Two sergeants, instructors and training company commander accused of raping a 2-girls-students. All three have different terms of imprisonment.
As shown by studies of American psychologists, conducted in 1994, 73.3% of women serving in the army CSHA, were subjected to various forms of abuse. And almost always (54.5%) — from their own specific bosses or equal positions. With all of this 5% of respondents said they had been raped or its attempt, 16% said that they are the object of constant mental pressure by gender; 58.3% recognized that must endure obscene jokes by the military-men. In an official report Minicterstva Defense in 1997 "on the situation of female soldiers" noted that "the sex appeal of violence is converted into one of the more severe problems for the armed forces."
Together with those targeted work to eliminate discrimination in the U.S. Army ladies led to certain results of the egalitarian policies of equal rights and abilities of men and women. Among the most significant achievements in the field of combating discrimination ladies in the U.S. Armed Forces may be referred to the next: the right of women to occupy key positions in the mixed (consisting of men and women) units and parts, the right to enter higher military educational institutions, the right to receive flight training in the Air Force , permission to marry while in service; permission to continue service to pregnant ladies and ladies with young babies, the introduction of an equal with men Monetary allowances for officers; leveling norms Monetary and clothing allowances for men and women soldiers who are married, expanding the ability to obtain professions and occupations positions previously closed to women, in alignment when applying for military service (excluding the Marines).
Analysis of the gender problems in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation is dedicated to an open order of the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation # 235 of 15 May 1998 "On the facts of violation of the rights of soldiers lady sex." It drew attention to the need for the creation of the military-women
social, professor, medical and housing criteria defined by the relevant Russian laws and international conventions. In 1998, according to the Chief Military Prosecutor's Office, the rights of women soldiers violated more than 2 million times. Taking into account the existing experience of Prof. military women, the age limit for their presence in the military increased in accordance with Article 5. 9 of "Regulations on the procedure for military service" up to 45 years.
According to the Head Military Prosecutor Yuri Demin, sexy facts of violence against military women were recorded in 1997 in the Urals and Leningrad military area, the Pacific Fleet. Thus he Demin admits that it is only those facts which were known to the consent of the victim. In fact their is much larger in the main violence spreads to give enlisted men. Thus, according to an anonymous survey of female soldiers by the Commission of the General Staff of the Navy in 1997 with the Northern Fleet, the facts of the different forms of sexy claims from co-workers confirmed the 21% of women.
Nowadays, no one doubts the need verbovaniya give the military service as full subjects of military activity. Ladies can fully serve and can make konkurentnst many peasants in specialties such as a doctor, a psychologist, a lawyer, an officer of educational authorities, the operator of ACS, etc. Because a "breakthrough" to give military specialties caused some alarm among their colleagues at work. It seems that the purpose of these specialty should not be based on gender, but on the general aspects of Prof. selection.
Let's set for himself the question: "How much do we do to give support Professor in the criteria for military service?" I would like to quote in this connection the majestic words of the Russian writer Dmitry Pisarev, "Let us look at ourselves: we'll see what we — men of action and men of thought — have given and are giving our ladies?'ll See — and pokrasneem shame! Show off in front of a lady elegance emotion fascinate her beautiful rush of good courage — this is our business, we are masters at it. And then, when you have this same lady to support, protect, encourage — we back down court. " So let's support women in uniform! We will help them find fulfilling lives in the criteria for military service. Especially since many of them have proved right on it's own long years of honest work in the army and Prof. opportunities.