Supervolcanoes — the most destructive force on the planet. Power of the eruption is ten times greater than conventional volcanoes. While they were asleep for hundreds of thousands of years, the magma trapped in huge tanks inside their vents. But once she poured on the surface of the earth with apocalyptic force, capable of destroying entire continents. Such sleeping "monsters" in the world and only a few of them — the Yellowstone caldera volcano.
The last eruption occurred in a colossal Toba in Sumatra 75,000 years ago. This eruption changed life on Earth. Thousands of cubic kilometers of ash into the atmosphere, and the sun could not penetrate its thickness. There has been a global temperature drop of 21 degrees.
Within two and a half thousand miles from the volcano ash layer thickness of 35 centimeters covered the surface of the earth. A huge amount of water vapor and toxic gases condensed in a giant volcano clouds spilled acid black rains. The world's population has decreased by ten times. At the same time reduced the number of animals, many species have become extinct.
Three quarters of the flora of the northern hemisphere were killed. What these supervolcanoes? Conventional volcanoes are known to have the shape of a cone Supervolcanoes are huge hollows or depressions in the ground called calderas. When an ordinary volcano erupts, the lava gradually climbing up to the crater of the crater at the top of the mountain and pours down.
In supervolcanoes when magma is near the Earth's surface, it reaches it, but instead begins to fill large underground tanks. The magma melts the rock and becomes denser and denser so that the volcanic gases that cause the eruption of volcanoes in the ordinary, can not pass through it. Therefore, a huge amount of molten magma below by pressing the surface of the Earth. This goes on for hundreds of thousands of years as long as there is no eruption of a monstrous force that blows the ground. There is a new caldera.
The main difference supervolcanoes — their huge size and strength of the eruption, ten thousand times more than the normal force of the eruption of volcanoes. So far in Sumatra visible caldera left from the last supervolcano eruption. While not all volcanoes are found giants that exist on Earth. One of the largest is in Yellowstone Park in the United States. At first, scientists could not detect this caldera because of its huge size, it is only visible in pictures taken from space.
The entire park is an area of 3825 square kilometers and is the caldera. Under the park is a giant reservoir of magma. The scientists set out to calculate when the next supervolcano eruption. They found that the land in Yellowstone Park has risen by 74 centimeters compared with the level in 1923. This proves the existence of an array of swelling beneath the surface of the park. At present, the underground reservoir is filled with volcanic magma at an alarming rate.
According to scientists, the period between bursts of super-volcano is about 600 thousand years. The last eruption of the monster occurred 640,000 years ago. So, apparently, we are on the threshold of the next disaster. What will happen with the Earth, and especially the region during the eruption of super-volcano? They start with the earthquake.
The land in the park will skyrocket, while the earthquake did not crack the rock layer that holds the magma inside. Enormous pressure builds up over 640,000 years, and will break through the magma is ejected into the atmosphere at a height of fifty kilometers. Within a radius of thousands of miles of virtually all life would perish under the falling ash and lava. Volcanic ash cover a thick layer of even such remote areas of the park Ielloustounskogo as Iowa and the Gulf of Mexico.
Thousands of cubic kilometers of lava will pour out of the volcano. This amount is sufficient to cover the entire surface layer of the United States in fifteen centimeters. The eruption will have the power to 2,500 times greater than the force of the last eruption of Mount Etna. The long-term effect caused by the eruption of the supervolcano will be even more significant for the entire planet.
Thousands of cubic kilometers of ash emitted into the atmosphere, will close the sunlight, causing a sharp decrease in global temperature. Comes something resembling a "nuclear winter." Just as after the explosion on Sumatra, a large number of animals and plants will die because of falling ash and drop in temperature. Almost the entire crop of grain grown on the Great Plains, will disappear in a few hours, as they will be covered with ashes.
The strongest test will occur in North America, but every corner of the globe suffer from the drop in temperature and acid rain. Everywhere in the world people will experience food shortages. If the temperature drops to 21 degrees, as in the time of the last super-volcano eruption, in both hemispheres of the ice cover large areas, which will be suitable for life. We can say that the effect of the super-volcano eruption will be largely similar to the effects of nuclear war.
Currently, U.S. scientists have conducted extensive research in Yellowstone Park. From Earth orbit satellites recording at the surface of the Earth in search not found until the caldera. Humanity faces the question of how to escape from the eruption of super-volcano or at least reduce the impact of its destructive activities.
Scientists believe that the super-volcano eruption can not be prevented. In the leaked information on a report on research in Yellowstone park, which was presented to the U.S. Congress. The content of the report is not disclosed, obviously this is done in order not to sow panic among the population. Perhaps we will soon learn about the data on the current state of super-volcano in Yellowstone, as the impending danger threatens all humanity and to resist it is only possible on an international level.
Watch Supervolcano. The truth about Yellowstone
Thanks to Yuri for the idea for this article