After learning the introduction of martial technique, whether wheeled or tracked, the current level of protection of the automobile, is in great demand. Namely, the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have shown that critical situations can often be resolved only with the introduction of languid combat vehicles.
Because the terrorist threat may come with at least some areas, cars are required to have strong radial protection.
The following are examples that reflect in general terms how the modern concept of the protection of combat vehicles were sold in carrying out military operations in urban terrain.
Passive protection with red lining is a basic structure in at least some protection concept car. Because of the contrast of threats, demands protection from repeated exposure, procurement costs, the ability to mix with other types, a low degree of secondary effects as the ability to increase the level of protection in the use of this type will be the main choice for the concept. The developer should be allowed to protect their own contribution to make to the concept of the vehicle, since the start of the process of developing an armored vehicle in order to meet the weight and internal volume while ensuring low prices and comfortable for the users of the system of logistics (refueling, reloading, maintenance service and repairs Field of criteria).
A good example is the IVECO LMV (Light multi-purpose vehicle), of which more than 2,500 units were produced in only two years, mass production, and which is currently being exploited in 9 countries around the world as a commander's all-wheel drive and a multi-purpose machine. As a developer of protection, the company IBD Deisenroth Engineering has been involved in the design of LMV from the start. As a result, in addition to weight reduction of machine elements clay composite protection, integrated into the tubular frame, the overall impact on the hardness of the structure. The possibility of ballistic protection to withstand the repeated defeat, especially in the joints and feeble technical areas has been tested with different types of threats. In conjunction with the adaptable mine protected in accordance with STANAG 4569, built-in armor also substantiate its effectiveness against the big giant anti-tank mines, detonating under wheels, also under the bottom, with no rollover. Due to the comprehensive modular concept of passive protection, which also provides a significant reduction in the signature, armored machine visually the same as unprotected tf.
Armored vehicles Renault VAB, of which more than 2,200 have been delivered, and that, of course, have already proven themselves during the implementation of the French armed forces, is another example of modern flexible system of protection for wheel tf. In this context, we can also mention the FUCHS (6×6) and BOXER (8×8) German armed forces, as the U.S. Army M1117 GUARDIAN that you can meet in the places of all military operations, and which are listed among the non-hazardous tf.
The armor solution that can be packed into shipping containers transported by helicopter, and provides protection against ballistic threats and mines have been created for cabin transport and engineering machines. As required, the segments can be measured armor soldiers without special tools, no extraneous verbovaniya contractors. Ability to dismantle additional armor items from the cab reduces operating costs and transportation, as required ensuring the highest mobility.
After the first upset of the deployment of light vehicles in crisis areas, the view that languid tanks are needed at all steps of the operations has prevailed in almost all of the Armed Forces. This is based on their highest level of protection, weapons and abilities to use as a battering ram.
After languishing losses in Afghanistan, the Canadian Armed Forces in 2002 at first reminded of the few remaining in their tanks LEOPARD 1 C2, developed by IBD in 1995/96 and until now never been used due to its own weight. It soon turned out that it was the only protection, effective against RPG-7 against improvised explosive devices. In kutsee, these tanks were deployed in Afghanistan. Their deployment was successful.
Based on such concept, IBD has been designed to increase the range of ballistic protection tank LEOPARD 2 A4, which is effective against the RPG-27 and RPG-30 and minutes from the languid, as attacks against the upper hemisphere all known this day means used at the current time in urban operations, including cumulative garnet (GSC-3).
Tank EVOLUTION, which weighs 62 tons less swiftly found a customer. An impressive silhouette, the highest mobility, relatively light weight for such high level of protection and the concept of logistic advantages of this model are compared with other known solutions, which show significantly more highest fighting weight.
At the current time homogeneous passive armor will be as before the only solution universal with respect to all types of threats. In the middle of these threats, namely, belts with explosives and mines hidden in vehicles, so called car-bomb. Another protective measure can now be made only by costly armor. So Makar, a compromise between mobility and weight as before will remain on the agenda of the day or when considering the development of the concept of protection.
Grate or plate armor should also be mentioned in the context of passi
ve protection. In the U.S., it has been specially designed and adapted to protect against RPL for wheeled and tracked vehicles, deployed in Afghanistan and Iraq. The effectiveness of these shielding parts, which also reduce the mobility of the machine can be found only statistically, because it is almost all depending on the point of impact of the projectile in the armor. Further, depending on the type of armor strips, security level is increased by 50 — 75%. For example, the radial plate armor installed on the American war machine STRYKER 8×8. This type of armor can only be considered as a temporary solution for passive protection and more than that, only against the families of the RPG-7.
Additional protection SidePRO-RPG, produced by Swiss company RUAG Land System, is designed to protect machinery maintenance, and infantry fighting vehicles from the RPG-7. Protection modules can be installed specifically for the car or on top of existing costly armor. Easy to install modules, light weight and profiled design are the main features that provide overcharge protection without harming mobility tf. The aim of this development was to provide a superior level of protection, while maintaining ease of use without increasing weight ton. As SidePRO-LASSO, a passive system, it neutralizes the effect of cumulative charges for various types of RPG-7. SidePRO-RPG is working properly followed. Cumulative charge hit first 3-protection layers, and then neutralized by the second layer on which the projectile via non-long circuit combusted without explosion. Last distributes the protective layer in contact with the pressure and lowers the stress effects on the armor. SidePRO-LASSO (Light Armour System against Shaped Ordnance — Easy booking system against HEAT attack) company RUAG Land System is adaptive and highly efficient protection against a wide range of anti-tank grenade RPG-7 and their derivatives. Thanks to the usual and reasonable design SidePRO-LASSO is easy and reliable. It has been tested and tested in the dynamic fire testing. In September 2008, the Danish Army awarded a contract for the installation of RUAG protection on their M-113 armored personnel carriers stationed in Afghanistan, the defense SidePRO-LASSO.
The Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) were enhanced with light and languid fighting vehicles reactive armor in the middle of the 1980s in connection with the languid losses of tanks in the war Judgment day or. Boxes dynamic armor mounted on the machine, ensuring the highest level of protection against single cumulative warheads. The cumulative projectile, exploding the element with a multilayer structure made of steel and explosive sheets will affect him, creating a huge kolichesvto fragments. Prior to the substitution element triggered the protected window is still open to them to defeat. Because of the huge damaging impact on the box near the infantry, and the lungs present either near the peaceful inhabitants of the Western armed forces for a long time did not use reactive armor, although the Russian Army started to equip their tanks with reactive armor in 1983. With all of this in NATO was not an effective system to combat Russian missiles. Only the highest level of losses of American and British armies in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have led to the partial modernization of combat vehicles with the installation of costly reactive armor.
Even if the German technology CLARA reactive armor can reduce damage from debris during operation, then the problem with the inability to protect the remains of several hits. Another drawback of such type of protection is the ability to trigger the adjacent cells, which can lead to full protection operation and failure of the equipment. In the absence of the ability of repeated tripping, CLARA also can not counter such threats as the RPG-30, which causes the reactive armor with the bait of small caliber, and then hit passive armor main warhead. So Makar, reactive armor at the present time can not be regarded as a modern development of protection.
Research in the field of sensors active protection systems in the West was initiated at substantially the same time as in Russian Union. The active protection system — also only as an additional protection — triggered before danger begins specifically affect machine. This eliminates shock, noise, mechanical impact on ekpazh and sensitive equipment. This not only increases the durability, and stability.
Active protection systems, which work for a few seconds, such as a system of soft-kill MUSS, does not apply to military criteria, as they are currently being evaluated NATO and the EU. Systems that are activated for a suitable period of milliseconds threat traveling at speeds up to 350 m / s. Only systems that can work in microseconds, capable of hitting projectiles moving at a speed of 1,800 m / s.
At that time, as the Russian system, such as THRUSH 2 and ARENA were integrated into the Russian tanks many years ago, batch creation of the Israeli system, developed by Rafael, TROPHY for languid combat vehicles, is just beginning. All other active protection system will be able to be ready for mass production within one to three years. As long as they pass the tests of an experimental step reference.
The speed of operation of more than 20 recognized in the current time systems are at a level of 200-400ms. As shown, the distances at which the shells are affected, depending on their degree of approximation, lie within the scope of 30 to 200 meters radius. These active protection systems are ineffective when used in urban criteria against RPG-7 (launched from distances of less than 30 m), because they did not have enough time to react. The possibility that the detectors are found enemy intelligence systems, very high because of the built-in active radar systems. Once the threat is found, it is opposed to the mechanical direction explosion or fragmentation grenades, intercepting a 10-30m. Average collateral damage from the explosion of grenades and heavy damage from fragmentation grenades must also be taken into account. In addition, the operation can significantly affect the tactical mobility due to damage caused by wheels or caterpillar. A decrease in the mobility of the machine makes an easy target, in other words, reduces the level of security.
In Germany, the LEOPARD 2 A4 was used as a chassis for system tests AWiSS; sistemyTROPHY in Israel and Iron Fist were tested on a tank MERKAVA. Israel has also been experimenting with installation of Iron Fist on a wheeled armored vehicle WILDCAT.
At the current time, there is only one active protection system that works in the microsecond range and which is suspended armor can withstand all known thre
ats now. The Active Protection AMAP-ADS, developed IBD Deisenroth Engineering, can be integrated as the lungs, and the languid armored vehicles because of its relatively small weight (for light vehicles — 150 kg for languid — 500 kg). Several saturated tests at home and abroad, and the results gained so far, give hope that the system will be ready for mass production in late 2010.
AMAP-ADS consists of a two-tier system of sensors in which sensor scans own warning about the availability of a particular sector of approaching objects right up to about 10 m and in the event of transfers the data to the second sensor. The sensor system, which is responsible for countering the danger stalking, identifies and defines the type of projectile. All data is transmitted to a central computer by means of a highly noise immune system bus data. The central computer system activates the counter, which emits directional charge with the highest density in the direction of the area covered by the interaction point. The required electron energy is so small that it does not overload the power circuits of the machine. It absolutely destroys the form of shaped charges and partially destroys the other dangers, such as the kinetic armor-piercing shells, shells with EFP, also rejects the pieces. Other reasons affecting absorbed basic armor. AMAP-ADS asks 560 microseconds (in other words, only 0.56 ms) for the protection of the whole procedure, from the identification and the complete elimination of risk. The configuration of countermeasures depends on the machine, which must be protected, as the requirements of the user or buyer, and can be extended directly to the protection of the entire hemisphere. Separate operating sensors and power modules used in a combat vehicle, often overlapping each other, providing a huge capacity for repeated operation and, as follows, to increase safety. In the absence of the fragments produced by the system AMAP-ADS during the struggle with danger, collateral damage will occur only on the ruined shell, whose energy, but is focused on the car and cause only minor damage from the rebound.
At present, the signals of the attacks on the machine immediately broadcast on the radio, with all this, nor the type of risks or sectors, of which the threat has been run, you can not immediately find. In the case of an active protection system generates and records bortovik protocol which can be analyzed. Further the system can transmit time, type of ammunition, the sector is starting and the location of the car (when equipped with GPS). Information can be transmitted without delay to other machines, means of destruction or operations center via a web interface. This allows you to immediately hit the area which is dangerous and start a pursuit.
Similar systems have been tested for compatibility, functionality and configurability also to different types of threats on the machines IVECO LMV (in Germany called CARACAL), BMP MARDER (both statically and dynamically), BTR FUCHS 6×6 APC, tanks LEOPARD 1 and 2, BTR M -113, French VAB, and others.
In the long term, passive armor, as a basic type of protection against all types of threats, will be an indispensable as ever. Her weight you are working with will be reduced through the use of advanced materials and a reasonable location and rassredotachivaniya. With all this power of substitution or armored units armored units, installation of additional protection must be provided at the time of the development of the machine design.
Shahid belts, mines and explosive charges are hard to find and effectively cope in urban operations.
The emphasis should be made on reducing the signatures of machines, because the quality of reconnaissance opponent will be constantly improved.
Reactive and active protection system and will continue to be forthcoming with additional funds. Dynamic protection system as before with limited potential because they are effective only against certain threats. Active protection system in the future will develop rapidly, as they possess great potential. Development and operation of the new security measures at the moment is only in the initial stage. Because the distance in urban operations are located within the boundaries of 5-50m, only systems with the lowest response time and with special abilities are able to protect the car in such criteria.
Collateral damage occurs during counter the danger must be eliminated, not to endanger friendly forces or not to give the enemy propaganda for the death of peaceful inhabitants.
The radius of protection should be pretty huge, because neither type of danger, nor its direction can not be assessed and determined in the case of simultaneous surprise attack from different sides. So makarom sensors and executive bodies should be placed around the perimeter of the combat vehicle, must also be able to work autonomously and with an overlap.
Protection systems that are not able to withstand the repeated attacks are ineffective in urban criteria because they do not provide protection against the most modern weapons systems such as the RPG-30. If the armor is ineffective, a fighter will lose confidence in it after the first attack and become demoralized. This lowers resistance. It must be opposite — the aggressor has to be surprised and demoralized performance against his attack.
The effectiveness of remedies could increase if still in the early stages will be set trustful cooperation between the general contractor and developer, usually to small or medium sized business.
In spite of all the ingenuity and joint efforts will never be perfect protection, because the shell and armor constantly improved during the confrontation. Cancel learning can make a significant contribution to the merits of a good defense.