The role of Western supplies during the Russian war majestically usually hushed up in Russian society. Thus, in the enchanting book Voznesensky "War Economy of the USSR during the Russian war," it was said that all Western supplies accounted for 4% of Russian production, the main ally of the anti-Hitler coalition called "Ozhirely on people's blood during the 2 — World War monopoly capitalism of the United States of America. " Other sources indicate that all military equipment, "bought the gold of the USSR" was worthless junk-of-life, followed by the U.S. and British charges of refusing to supply the most advanced models of equipment.
In general, there are polar views on the role of military supplies to the victory over fascism. Impartial assessments are not many. Invite the reader to learn the facts of the field of aviation and themselves to come to a conclusion about the importance of military supplies for programmke "Lend-Lease" during the second world war.
The most famous airplane "Lend-Lease" was the famous Bell P-39 Aircobra. During the war, the Red Army Air Force received the 5000 fighter of this type.
Eyrkobrami Guards were equipped with only IAP, because only large aircraft flight characteristics. Eyrkobry description can be found on any directed individually themed website, I will mention only a small detail — the main gauge 37 mm. Also, one of the principal advantages of the aircraft was a unique assembly — the engine is placed behind the cockpit, the pilot defending from the unsafe areas. Oil cooler and the crankshaft is an additional protection below the cockpit.
Specifically on the fighter F-39, tail number 100 finished the war Alexander Pokryshkin.
Besides the main party Bell P-39 Aircobra, Soviet Union was delivered 2400 Bell P-63 Kingcobra — even more severe machines.
Under the terms of Lend-Lease all military equipment after the end of the war was to be returned to the United States or destroyed on the spot. Russian alliance, of course, ignored this Fri contract, and the most advanced fighter Lend-Lease went to serve in the defense right before the jet Migov. Thanks to the nose landing gear, both on the MiG-15, Kingcobra be successfully used to train pilots to the end of the 50s.
A-20 attack aircraft Havos (Boston). 3125 set of machines. First A-20 appeared on the Soviet-German front in the summer of 1943, "Boston" was in our aircraft is truly a multi-purpose aircraft, which fulfilled the function of day and night bomber, scout, torpedo and mine layer, languid fighter and even transport aircraft. It is not enough just used it as a stormtrooper — at its main purpose!
South American bomber features a good maneuverability and a huge practical ceiling. He's just given the deepest turns, he freely flew on one engine. Given the rather weak training for pilots, rapidly released from the schools during the war, becoming the most important properties of aerobatic aircraft. Here "Boston" was excellent: simple and easy to manage, obedient and stable cornering. Takeoff and landing on it made much simpler than the Russian Pe-2.
Fighting value of the aircraft was so great that, even with the emergence of jet aviation Northern Fleet until 1956 had preserved a set of Boston.
In autumn 1944, at a special application in the Soviet Union began to get the P-47 Thunderbolt. One of the most heavily armed fighters since then — 8 mnogokalibernyh Brownings and 1,000 kg mounted weapons. Thunderbolts be successfully escorted Flying Fortress in the skies over Germany (range with drop tanks — 2000 km), fought with the Focke-Wolfe at extreme altitudes and chased the German tanks (there is a perception that specifically missile with Thunderbolts finished the tank Michael Wittmann).
But it turned out the paranormal: the Soviet Union refused the plane! Russian pilots have complained that the Thunderbolt is very heavy and unwieldy. Deliveries of the car ended up on the 203 already taken Thunderbolt sent to assault the shelves. After surviving the war machine was moved to defense.
Languid amphibious Consolidated PBY Catalina became the basis of maritime patrol aircraft in almost all countries of the world, including the Soviet Union. Filled radar, "Catalina" intensively used for patrolling, reconnaissance, a search-and-rescue and anti-submarine operations.
"Catalina" was well known to Russian spec. In-1's, before the war in the Soviet Union carried out a series of low-licensed version of it — flying boat GTS. In-2, the English "Catalina" from 1942 appeared frequently on the ground of the Northern Fleet, solving a variety of puzzles, including in the interests of the Russian command. So, for example, in September-October 1942, nine "Katalin" from 210 Squadron RAF operated from our northern airfields at conducting convoy PQ-18.
After the war, no car was returned to the United States. Thus, the Northern Fleet in September 1945 formed the 53rd Reconnaissance Regiment separate, fully stocked "Catalina" and on the Baltic year later — the 69th, armed and pure flying boats and amphibians. Reconnaissance Regiment Black Sea and Pacific Fleets also staffed with approximately equal proportions, planes PBN-1 and PBY-6A.
For a couple of years, South American technique became the basis of Russian amphibious. Only in 1952, first to the North and then to other fleets began to receive new Russian flying boat Be-6. But marine pilots have warm memories of comfort, reliability and the highest quality American made seaplanes. Uniformly replaced by the Be-6, "Catalina" used maritime pilots before the end of 1955
When the star of DeHavilland Mosquito, the Soviet Union has shown an acute interest in the promising bombers. The British side has provided a copy for review, Mosquito ferried to Moscow and disassembled to screw. Verdict professionals was categorical: the creation of the Mosquito in the USSR is unreal, and exploitation linked to bolshennymi technical difficulties due to the lack of high-quality consumables and trained p
rofessionals. Most vibrations caused expertly glued lining and the highest quality of engines Rolls-Royce Merlin.
Notwithstanding these conclusions, Russian Alliance ordered up to 1500 mosquitoes. The order was canceled, instead of the USSR received Spitfire — British decided that the Russian Union needed more fighter bombers.
Apple of discord
Deliveries of the P-51 Mustang on the "Lend-Lease" obviously not part of the South American plans. Outstanding plane base of his time was the U.S. Air Force fighter fleet. Of course, America did not want to share with anyone of these machines. Only exception was the Royal Air Force — the most loyal allies of America, the Anglo-Saxons by blood. All the years of mass production from 1940 to 1950 was made 8000 "Mustangs" — an amount sufficient only to meet the needs of the U.S. Air Force.
Objectively, the Soviet Union had no need for Mustangs, for this aircraft was not suitable targets for the Eastern Front. Battles were fought at low and medium altitudes, where Eyrkobry perfectly controlled. Yet the Russian mission was able to get 10 cars for information. All of the "Mustangs" headed by TsAGI for detailed study.
Also available on Lend-Lease Act included:
— 4400 Tomahawk, Kittyhawk and Hurricanes (in total)
— 1300 "Spitfire"
— 870 bombers B-25 Mitchell
— 700 C-47 «Skytrain» (frequent transport aircraft Allies)
— combat-AT-6 «Texan», transport AW41 Albemarle, bombers Handley Page HP.52 Hampden in quantities unworthy of mention
A certain number of aircraft has been received of the USSR, bypassing the contract on the Lend-Lease Act. According to the in force at the time of the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Agreement, all curled South American bombers, sadivshiesya terrain Far East, were interned. This practice is referred to all the South American aircraft, from the B-25 group of E.Yorka Doolittle, sat down on the airfield Unashi in April 1942. This method in the hands of Russian pilots then got a substantial amount of B-25 and B-24 of which were formed 128 th Composite Air Division.
Crews were placed in a special assembly camp in Central Asia. Although the camp attended by representatives of the Japanese Embassy, South American pilots occasionally staged "escape" and they declared at U.S. bases in Iran.
One of the more narrow seats Russian economy before the war was the creation of aviation gasoline. For example, in 1941 the other day of the war the need for aviation gasoline B-78 was approved by only 4%. In 1941, the Soviet Union produced 1,269 tons, in 1942 — 912, in 1943 — 1007, in 1944 — 1334 and in 1945. — 1017 tonnes
During the war, the U.S. Lend-Lease was delivered 628.4 tons of aviation gasoline and 732.3 thousand tons of light gasoline fractions. In addition, with the Abadan refinery put England in the USSR 14.7 thousand tons of aviation gasoline and 902.1 thousand tons of gasoline light fractions (these supplies were offset by Britain USA). To this we must add 573 tons of aviation fuel supplied to the USSR from refineries in England and Canada. In sum, all this gives 2850.5 thousand tons of aviation fuel small and light naphtha purchased from the Soviet Union the United States, Britain and Canada, which is equal to 2,586 thousand metric tons.
More than 97% of the imported gasoline had an octane number of 99 or higher, while in the USSR in the big disadvantage, as we have beheld was even gasoline B-78. In the Russian Union of imported aviation gasoline and light gasoline fractions were used almost exclusively for mixing with the Russian aviation fuel to increase its octane rating. Because almost put the Lend-Lease aviation gasoline was included in the creation of Russian aviation fuel and was as follows (along with light gasoline fractions), 51.5% of Russian production in 1941-1945. If you take away from the total of Russian aviation fuel for the creation of the first half of 1941, estimated it at about half of the annual production, the fraction of the Lend-Lease would rise to 57.8%.