All somehow interested in how and under what circumstances were terrible monsters of the Mesozoic — dinosaurs. But far more intriguing question — how do they come from?
Evolutionists believe that their ancestors were bipedal, conodonts are like crocodiles and sometimes as much as six feet of growth, and that the direct ancestors of dinosaurs pseudosuchian ("false crocodiles") went on straightened hind legs, leaning on the whole foot, as do modern people.
Even the meanest posts on this topic always looked intriguing. Interest compounded by the fact that in many parts of the world showed a very ancient traces, suspiciously similar to the upright-walking human footprints.
For example, in Texas (USA), six kilometers from the town of Glen Rose along the river were found Paluksi chain fossilized traces erectus being interspersed with traces of three-toed dinosaurs. Do Mesozoic people pass a herd of monsters on the bank in the same way as rustic shepherd — a herd of goats or cows?
The trail leads to Turkmenistan
In the mountains Kugitang Tau on the so-called plateau dinosaurs also had traces of human and dinosaur — this in 1983 reported by the newspaper "Moscow News» (№ 24), with reference to the director of the Museum of Paleontology Turkmenistan. The news then was reiterated in the "Time". One of the earliest recorded a few fossilized human footprints among the multitude of dinosaur scientist Kurban Amanniyazov.
Human footprints are markedly different from those that leave the three-toed dinosaur feet. Next oblong, visible heel. Length clearly discernible fingerprint was 26 cm, which corresponds to the 43rd shoe size of modern humans. In all such traces found six. Their age is defined in the range of 150-200 million years.
In August 2000, at the invitation of the Institute of Geology of the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan visited the Plateau of Dinosaurs foreign experts led by Denis Swift of the Los Angeles Natural History Museum Dinosaur Institute (USA). They confirmed the presence of traces, but not made a final decision, who could leave them in the Jurassic period.
That is a clear conclusion on the results of the expedition, and there is no silence can be interpreted in different ways: the scientists discovered something sensational and the time prefer to keep quiet, do not want to undermine his scientific reputation in the eyes of colleagues, do not have the indisputable facts that allow to refute or confirm the version of the emergence of human traces in the Mesozoic.
According to some reports, recently discovered fossilized footprints, human-like, and Uzbekistan.
Dinosaurs may well have come from a two-legged people, knows how to have appeared on the planet at the beginning of the Triassic period (251 million — 201 million years ago). They could also occur from the mammal-like reptiles that lived at the end of the Permian period about 260 million years ago, much earlier than the first dinosaurs.
Mammal-like reptiles owes its name to the similarity with the real beasts. Judging by the hair prints, preserved in a fossil state, some skin was covered with hair, and their teeth were very similar to the teeth of modern animals — were incisors, canines and cheek teeth. Because of this mammal-like gnawing food incisors, canines tearing prey and chewed pieces of mining powerful molars, as do many of today's mammals. Perhaps theromorphs give birth to live young.
If ever in the future be established in the science of thought, that could be a mammal-like ancestors of dinosaurs and other reptiles of the Mesozoic have to admit that in the camp of the reptiles for a long time there was a large-scale degradation. Viviparous their ancestors moved to lay eggs. Future reptile skin was covered with horny scales. Reptiles division lost teeth into incisors, canines, premolars and molars, and birds and lost all his teeth, turning his jaw in the horny beak.
The teeth of a dinosaur's life began to grow; eliminated replaced by new ones. This has increased the number and size of teeth. However, should pay for everything: the dinosaurs lost the ability to chew food properly, as they have a tooth for a tooth really did not get. Gone is closing jaws (occlusion) — and the poor fellows had to swallow food without chewing.
Meanwhile, in 2000 it became known about the anatomy of early herbivorous dinosaurs — geterodontov ("raznozubyh"). Their remains were found in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas. They are known from the beginning of the Jurassic period. Scientists believe geterodontov ornithischian dinosaur ancestors.
As the name "raznozubye" with these dinosaurs, as in mammals and man, there are incisors, canines and cheek teeth, also available podzubnaya bone.
When paleontologists first discovered the fossilized remains of geterozavrov, they did not believe that they face a reptile. The tusks were like most real dog. With the help of the cheek teeth, this poluzver-polureptiliya could chew food, as do many mammals and man.
Unusual that the front feet of a dinosaur had four fingers. Pinky rudimentary as unnecessary. But the thumb was opposed to the other — like a man. That's really a miracle! Paleontologists believe that this dinosaur could have missed something with their front paws (hands) — for example, to collect plants. Geterodonty how many early bird-hipped and Saurischia dinosaurs were bipedal, so that such a scenario is not ruled out. It is not clear why he was collecting plants? Maybe Cavalier geterodont ladylove gave flowers?
It is interesting and different. Studies have shown Laura Porro University of Chicago which investigated the skull of young and old individuals have been geterodontov deciduous and permanent teeth. If a permanent tooth fell out, his position remained vacant before the end of life. It so happens in humans. Dentures geterodonty put probably did not know how, despite his finger on the palm contrasted, and had them in my old age mumble mouth.
Back in the 60s of the last century in Tajikistan Shirment the river at the foot of the mountains were discovered five-fingered dinosaur footprints — the only one of its kind. Usually one or two dinosaurs toe rudimentiruyutsya and leg resembles a bird's leg. Near the river Shirment in limestone, which eighty million years old, were found the skeletons of a whole herd of five-fingered dinosaur.
The egg was then
The fact that lived in the Mesozoic plesiosaurs were viviparous, it became known recently. On the sensations reported in the journal Nature in 2011. In the female abdomen, exhibited at the Museum of Natural History in L oc-ese Angel, was an embryo.
Long before scientists discovered that were viviparous and other aquatic dinosaurs: ichthyosaurs and mezozavry. So, we already know about 11 fossilized embryos found in the bodies of female ichthyosaur. In addition, in June 2011, was made public information that in the Chinese province of Lyaolin found perfectly preserved skeleton of a fossilized female dinosaur that lived 120 million years ago. Her body showed up at once ten well-formed fossilized embryos …
It seems that dinosaurs were ancestors of the viviparous, like people. They began to lay eggs in the simplification of the reproductive cycle.
The fact that the ancestors of all reptiles are viviparous, says embryologist ST. Savelyev, in his book "The Origin of the brain" (M.: "Behave," 2005) He makes this conclusion by comparing the structure of the ovum reptile embryo mammals. "The archaic reptiles hatched their young internally generated before the birth of individuals … Apparently, the ancient reptile quickly settled on the land due to live births, and not developing the ability to lay eggs with strong shells. "
Expert opinion can be backed up by the fact that many lizards and snakes are viviparous. For example, 20 percent of all modern viviparous lizards. Obviously, these reptiles live birth inherited from their ancestors better, including the people and could be … Evolutionists have long believed that it was the opposite: first the egg-laying, and then a live birth.
Hot Heart Willie
The ancestors of the dinosaurs were warm-blooded. At the very least, the dinosaur-testselozavr ("strange lizard"), from which the fossilized remains four-chambered heart. The researchers called this monster weighing 300 kg Willie, and it lived 66 million years ago. Discovered it in 1993 in South Dakota (USA).
Probably the ancestors of crocodiles and birds, too, were warm-blooded, have four-chambered heart, and gave birth to live young.
Great Permian Extinction
So from whom there were dinosaurs?
You can nominate a bold version, from the people who lived before them, on the border of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
In this regard, looks intriguing global extinction of animals at the end of the Paleozoic.
Then, about 240 million years ago, suddenly became extinct about 96 percent of all living species inhabiting the earth, among them the mammal-like. The landmark event was a resounding name of "The Great Permian extinction."
Perhaps its perpetrators were aliens? And a couple of million years away from their stellar siblings they have turned to the dinosaurs?
Themselves as the dinosaurs died suddenly at the end of the Mesozoic, having existed for more than 160 million years. They could kill another expansion of people-aliens appeared on the planet about 65 million years ago.
However, there are a hundred theories about the extinction of dinosaurs. The most popular: they died from the explosion of a supernova, from the collision of Earth with a large asteroid, and they were poisoned angiosperms, gymnosperms was replaced, died of thirst because of the drying up of water bodies; dinosaur egg shells thinned due to a lack of calcium and eggs with embryos eat small mammals , the cold killed the dinosaurs, volcanoes killed the dinosaurs, dinosaurs perished from hunger, and so on and so forth
However, there are a hundred first hypothesis is that for some reason no one was seriously considered. They are laid out in the book paleontologist and writer IA Ephraim "Star Ships." A popular form it can be expressed as follows: Dinosaurs wiped out reasonable people, aliens suddenly appeared on Earth during the late Cretaceous period of the Mesozoic. In the story of Ephraim two paleontologists discover a fossilized skull of an alien skeleton of a dinosaur …
And indeed: the Gobi Desert in China, in the spur of the Tien Shan Mountains in Canada and the Americas discovered giant clusters of skeletons — the so-called dinosaur graveyard, where are buried together young and adults. Often in such places noted an increased background radiation — just right to assume that destroyed the dinosaurs Cenozoic (the beginning of the era — 60-70 million years ago) the person using nuclear technology …
Alexander Belov, a paleontologist
See also: Ancient civilization of Antarctica, How is cremation in Bali.