One spring day in 1959, the American astronomer Frank Drake, who was sitting at the controls of the radio telescope, raised the alarm: — Wow! In the universe we are not alone! There is a clear message! When the clock showed that the experiment probing deep space lasts exactly 200 hours, the instruments have recorded the first signal, which reflects the kind of intelligent information. Radiation taken from the stars Epsilon Eridani and Tau Ceti. Soundings guided by the resonant radiation of interstellar hydrogen — at 21, 137 cm.
Ran commanders, operators, and simple laboratory coolly scrolled tape recorder back, including additional analyzers, joined by a large computer and looked at the scale, digital displays and recorders. They were waiting for the miracle of accomplishment …
Alas, checking showed that there "there is a computer malfunction." The sensation did not take place. The astronomer was painful breakdown. Still, he wanted first to detect signs of intelligent life in the universe.
By our time of scientific and philosophical foundations laid D. Bruno continued by M. Lomonosov and K. Tsiolkovsky, Renan E. and C. Flammarion, there were three distinct postulates. First — there are logical basis to assume that the emergence of life on Earth — is the result of natural evolution, the total for the whole cosmos. Second — what happened in the organic world of our planet, may well be on other celestial bodies, satellites of other stars. Third — the human mind is not the maximum that may arise and evolve on the celestial bodies in the cosmos.
The most recent scientific work on the structure of the universe is very optimistic and give real hope for the discovery of planets with civilized aliens on their radio signals from outer space. Exception of life on Earth from the random phenomenon is based on the fact that the formation of stars and planets around them from the cosmic dust is the same everywhere — even to the edge of the Milky Way, at least in the center.
"It is quite possible that the Milky Way is just teeming with intelligent beings. New astronomical model of the world show that every 24th Sun in our Galaxy is surrounded by the planets. Billions of celestial bodies can be water, warm atmosphere with oxygen and the phenomena of life "- so says the famous British astrophysicist David Hughes. He created a composition formulas of lead contemporaries to believe that the number of possible habitats amenable to rational beings is now the precise definition, and you can search for them on purpose. Munich astronomer Reinhard Gentsel convinced moderately heated water-rich our earth simply can not be an exception in the universe. By 2000, he was going to make a star map of the planetary systems similar to our own. According to his calculations it appears that the number of planets similar to our Earth on living conditions, close to 4 billion. With so much of them can be sought and found.
Search program, on which he worked, Frank Drake, was closed in 1982 when government spending ended. Alas, with the intercept is not able to fix any signal that can be attributed to traces of technically advanced civilization. All attempts were unsuccessful. Even the experience of two astrophysicists who worked on the giant radio telescope at Arecibo, and trying to find tritium in Space radio, did not give the expected results, which are very much like to associate with traces of extraterrestrial fusion power …
Search works mothballed. However, after it conducted long-distance conferences, debates, occasional probing the night sky. Lack of new proposals and hypotheses were not. But there was no necessary appropriations. Then Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush after he promised something, but their advisers required the development of a clear program and budget. Has been agreed and the need for global observations,
part radioteleskopicheskih stations at least a dozen countries. Indeed, in the principle of open extraterrestrial radio signals should belong not one country, but to all mankind.
That's how a new project SETY, dedicated to the 500th anniversary of the discovery of the New World. Naturally, it would be based on a pre-agreed international efforts on a new technical basis for the selection of a wider range of search frequencies. At this time, to the analysis of cosmic radiation reaching the planet for billions of channels. Until 2002, all day radio telescopes will probe the sky (Note: "Today in the News 5/12/2000 announced that during filming of Mars were obtained from satellite photos, with which one can say that life existed on Mars, as they were found deeper in which could be in the water, and these grooves, played the role of the oceans), spending on each target point a little more than one minute. To suspicious places, of course, spend more time.
And that, in fact, suggest astronomers catch a noisy intergalactic air? They can not work without a working hypothesis? This burning question has recently tried to answer employee space lab in Pasadena Michael Klein: "Imagine all the snow over Alaska. Suppose you are among the trillions of snowflakes instructed to find one — artificial, made an experiment on board a UFO. A look at the sky through a straw, you'll have a cocktail. So our task more difficult. Signal carrying the information can be expected from either side of the immense sky. It will be within the space of random noise and will, of course, weak. So we expect it? Frankly, we hope for a lucky break. But one thing is now certain — the signal must be at least repeatable, with meaning. They may be a siren space navigation beacon electromagnetic waves from space station intercoms, echoes of waves from powerful stations. We hope for radio signals from "foreign" radio telescopes. And of course, the most exciting hope — to get a signal with a message to our intelligence. "
Clearly, such answers some calm curious public and taxpayers. But now experts it is clear that rapid progress should not be expected. Search intelligence in the universe, of course, an important and interesting, but extremely difficult and problematic. But what then do we explain the optimism of the organizers? Split, as they say, the author of SETI have French journalists. In a private conversation in the summer of 1992, when the U.S. House of Representatives has once again rejected the project, and the Senate approved and found the first 100 million in budget allocations, U.S. astronomers have listed three factors of their optimism. The first — the concrete hope for additional funding from donors — different concerns, requiring a prestigious advertising. Private funds will be used for expansion and modernization program of searches before 2000. Second — hopes for strong international cooperation after 1994, when the project should be consistently radio telescopes join dozens of countries. The third — the hope that after the 1995 search methods themselves will become more diverse, in particular, due to the potential of European science. In addition, the data center must receive a set of new generation computers, including the type of neutron blocks that mimic the work of brain cells. They will be able to make trillions of calculations per second and separate logic inputs.
Information for consideration:
From time to time people have reported that during contact with the UFO and abduction them hurt or injured. Physical effects include eye irritation, sunburn, skin damage, disease. After all the witnesses may have nightmares, anxiety, and may undergo changes in the nature or in understanding the basic principles of life. Witnesses, especially kidnapping, become convinced of the reality of UFOs and other paranormal phenomena such as poltergeists or manifestation of psychic powers. One of the most famous UFO sightings with disastrous consequences for the witness described the two women, Betty Cash and Vickie Landrum, and the grandson of Mrs. Landrum, Colby. In December 1980, they were on the road in a desolate part of Texas. Ahead they saw a bright object in the form of brilliant-cut diamond, spewing flames from the bottom. Mrs. Cash stopped the car and got a better view of UFOs. The object emits intense heat melted the dashboard in her car. Undaunted, Mrs. Cash returned to the car and with the others watched as the object flies. Suddenly appeared a squadron of helicopters. They approached the object and surrounded it.
The witnesses watched the object, followed by the helicopters until they were out of sight. Back home, the three of them felt ill. A few hours later they got blisters tan on the body, nausea and diarrhea. At Betty Cash was the most severe symptoms and, in the end, it took her Food Stamp benefits. She was hospitalized as burn victims. The doctor, who conducted the survey concluded that the symptoms point to radiation sickness, that is radiation exposure. Later, the victims are suing the U.S. government, claiming that it is liable for harm. (They identified the helicopters as twin-engine helicopters Chaynuk (Chinook), used by the U.S. Army.) Lawsuit was unsuccessful, because they never were able to prove that UFOs and helicopters operated by the U.S. government.
At present, we see that all the requirements put forward by the partially implemented and now this project is developing successfully. The first experiments began by 112 foot radio telescope. In California and in the large installation in Puerto Rico. Then systematically connect radio telescopes in Australia and Spain. Ready for the general work setting in France, Argentina, and the Hawaiian Islands. Also connects the telescope of our country.
One of the leaders of the project SETI, Professor D. Billingeym, name one more reason for optimism, however, the general scientific plan. Revive the project after a 10-year hiatus, and raise the issue of new allocations would help the fact that the means of radio astronomy and astronomical spectroscopy in interstellar space, our galaxy was possible to fix the original forms of life — 90 organic molecules and the following 55 amino acids. In short, in the cosmos have any basis of organic life. It is this sensational fact allowed to put pressure on the Senate by reputable scientists in the USA, including the famous astronomer Carl Sagan, who was a stubborn defense of the idea of the habitability of other worlds have long called "modern Giordano Bruno." For it is on him in 1982, hit the main stream abuse and ridicule from the "thrifty" in authority.
U.S. scientists were very frank, demanding restoration of the program search for extraterrestrial intelligence. They wrote to the upper echelons of power, that even the failure of a new project in any way justified. First, will be significantly improved radio telescopes, and electronic tracking devices for the Cosmos, without which the XXI century is necessary. Secondly, the whole sifted detectors and computers cosmic noise in which, for example, can not be over 10 years to recognize meaningful signals, but still help to gather a lot of important information that broadens our understanding of the universe in which we are certainly not alone.
Information for consideration:
Currently, the U.S. government does not officially investigates UFO sightings, although there is some evidence to suggest that the various government agencies continue to secretly take an interest in the subject. In the past forty years, however, there were several projects and study groups that have studied the UFO evidence, at least superficially. Since UFOs are air events, the U.S. Air Force from 1947 to 1969 carried out several projects to study UFO reports. The most famous project "Blue Book" which was held from 1952 to 1969. Although over the years has received a large number of UFO reports, including numerous accounts of military and civilian pilots and other technical personnel, the Air Force announced UFO unrealistic.
The military saw UFO reports seriously, fearing that they may be used to confuse and hinder the normal operation of U.S. intelligence and communication, thus leaving America vulnerable to sudden attack of some foreign powers. Some military experts have admitted the possibility that the Soviet Union with the help of captured German scientists developed a technology far superior to the American. Therefore, the Air Force concluded that the study of UFO reports should continue until it is shown that such a possibility is unlikely. Studies of the Air Force was able to explain most of the observations of natural phenomena or wrongly identified aircraft. However, there were some hundreds of UFO reports that can not be so easily explained. In 1966, in America, a wave of stunning UFO sightings were widely covered in the press. Political leaders, especially the Congress, under great pressure from the electorate that required to explain their observations.
The congress was organized by a special committee, which has required the Air Force to give his explanations, once and for all solve the problem. In response, the Air Force signed a contract with the University of Colorado to conduct the final study of the UFO phenomenon — studies that were to finally solve the problem of the UFO phenomenon and give it a satisfying explanation of each. The project is headed by Professor Edward Condon, a physicist, expressing negative views about life on other planets and the reality of UFOs. Several participants (to be known as the "Condon Committee") is open and impartial professor accused in hypocrisy and "flirting" with the public, thus showing its bias to this whole venture. Despite the fierce fierce debate among scholars, because of which were dismissed several members of the committee, and Congress has organized its own symposium on UFOs, Condon Committee continued to work and, in the end, released the final report.
In conclusion, written by Professor condo Nome, said that more than 20 years of experience in studying the UFO did not bring new scientific knowledge and further study is not warranted. Critics have accused the Condon Commission that its report does not agree with the learned data, and that this whole thing was a sham from the beginning. Despite the heated debate on the report of the Commission Condon BBC were clearly satisfied with the report and used as an excuse to close the project "Blue Book" in December 1969. Despite this, most ufologists believe the government has a large data bank on UFOs and secret research continues. Their confidence is strengthened by the fact that U.S. intelligence agencies under public pressure, released some of the documents that show that they have accumulated information on UFOs, which is still classified as top secret.
The government does not allow public access to these documents, despite numerous attempts of researchers to see them through the "Freedom of Information Law» (Freedom of Information Act; FOIA), which allows U.S. citizens to have any government document, the disclosure of which is not a threat to national security. In response to the government's reluctance to disclose the documents, a group of UFO "Ground surveillance UFO» (Ground Saucer Watch) began legal action to declassify documents on UFO sightings at military bases in the 1970s. After the "Ground surveillance UFO" grasped the financial difficulties of the case took another organization "Citizens Against UFO secrecy surrounding (Citizens Against UFO Secrecy; CAUS).
Although the "Citizens Against UFO secrecy surrounding" argued that the disclosure of official information on UFOs can not bring damage to the national security, the U.S. secret agencies have argued that it would jeopardize their operation. Even when ufologists stressed that their only interested in information on UFOs and anything related to American security, the government flatly refused to release the information. In the end, a federal judge Gerhard Gessel at a closed meeting of the secret services shared the concerns about national security. Ufologists protested the decision, arguing that the hearing was unfair.
In particular, the group pointed out that the judge was not allowed to view the material, despite the fact that the judge had every right to do. In fact, the judge Hessel received only a general explanation of why the government can not make public documents. These lengthy explanations and served as the basis for his decision. Although the "Citizens Against UFO secrecy around" could not win the case, the organization continues to work to get the desired document on the "Freedom of Information Act."
Category: UFOs and aliens